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Integtared nutrient supply & management

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  • 1. INTEGRATED NUTRIENT SUPPLY AND MANAGEMENT
  • 2. Integrated Nutrient supply and Management
    • Integrated Nutrient Management advocates balanced and integrated use of fertilizers.
    • INM envisage following components :
    • Efficient & judicious supply, use or management of all the major components of plant nutrient sources.
    • Chemical fertilizers in conjunction with animal manures, compost, green manures.
    • Legumes in cropping system,
    • Biofertilizers and
    • Crop residues, recyclable waste and other locally available nutrient sources for sustaining soil fertility, health and productivity.
  • 3. Importance of integrated nutrient supply and management
    • The integrated nutrient supply and use of plant nutrients from chemical fertilizers and organic manures has been shown to produce higher crop yields than when each is applied alone.
    • The increase in soil productivity results from their combined effect, the synergistic effect, that helps:
    • Improve chemical, physical and biological properties of soil,
    • Improve the soil organic matter and nutritional status,
    • Balanced nutrient supply to crops of cropping systems and
    • With no or minimal deleterious effect on environment, if any.
  • 4. Why integration?
    • Multiple nutrient deficiencies
    • Higher productivity and cropping intensity in irrigated areas
    • Organic sources insufficient for nutritional needs of HYVs
    • Organic sources with mineral fertilizers became necessary
    • Organic sources- no of animals a farmer posses
    • 50 per cent of dung used as fuel
    • Alternative source of energy for farmers
    • Green manuring- loose one crop
    • Lack of soil moisture for its decomposition
    • A need of integrating organic sources with mineral sources
    • FYM, green manure, crop residues, N-fixing bacteria, BGA
    • Organic sources supplement plant nutrients need
  • 5. Integrated nutrient supply for desired yield
    • Balanced Fertilization
    • Reverse the ill Effect of Soil Mining of Nutrients
    • Promoting Tenets of Sustainable Agriculture
    • Response of Fertilizers Declining due to
    • Sub-optimal and Imbalance in Fertilizer Use
    • Inappropriate Methods and Time of Application
    • Lesser Use of Organic Manure
    • INM Must for the Desired Results
  • 6. The key objectives of Integrated nutrient supply
    • To maintain or enhance soil productivity through balanced use of mineral fertilizers combined with organic and biological sources of plant nutrients.
    • To improve the stock of plant nutrients in the soil.
    • To improve the efficiency of plant nutrients, thus limiting losses to the environment.
    • To improve physical condition of soils.
  • 7. Major Sources of Nutrients Component Desirable effect Other effect Fertilizers Concentrated source Concentrated source Concentrated source Less nutrients but Improves soil physical properties Immediate crop need not met Green manure Sources of N from the atmosphere Crop competition Crop residues Source of K. Mulching has (+)ve effect on soil properties Immobilization of nutrients More fertilizer needed. Crop rotation (other crop - legume ) N fixed by legumes Improves soil permeability little N fixed available to the rotation crop Rhizobium, Azospirillum. and BGA Mycorrhiza and P solubilizers N fixers P solubilizers Small amounts of N fixation Small P solubilized
  • 8. Some key points regarding integrated nutrient supply
    • Fertilizers and manures contribute about 50-60% increase in productivity of food grains irrespective of soil and agro-ecological zone.
    • For the land short countries like India, use of fertilizers provide the best strategy for land saving.
    • In soils of low pH, nitrogen fertilizer application alone further increase the soil acidity.
  • 9. Soil fertility status of Indian soils Nutrient Soil fertility status Nitrogen Low in 228 districts, medium in 118, high in 18 districts Phosphorus Low in 170 districts, medium in 184, high in 17 districts Potassium Low in 47 districts, medium in 192, high in122 districts Sulphur Deficiencies scattered in 100-120 districts Magnesium Kerala, other southern states, very acid soils Zinc 50% of 150,000 soils analyzed found deficient Iron On upland calcareous soils rice, groundnut, sugarcane Boron Parts of Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal
  • 10. Chemical fertilizers
    • These are the means for land saving
    • Poor productivity is due to low consumption of chemical fertilizers
    • The gap of nutrients added annually and lost from soil is about 10 million tonnes
    • Under intensive cropping, chemical fertilizers contribute nearly 50% to the increase in crop yield
    • According to NAAS, by 2025, India may have to increase its plant nutrient supply to 45 mt form current level of 16.79 mt in 03-04through NPK & organic manures
    • Out of these 35 mt should come from chemical fertilizers and rest 10 mt from organic sources
    • For highly sustainable productivity integrated nutrient supply and use assumes highest priority
  • 11. Organic Sources
    • Animal Dung Human Excreta, Recycling of Plant Resources and City Wastes
    • Organic Sources Neither Nutrient Specific nor Concentrated Sources
    • For Nutritional Benefits, Organic Sources to be Decomposed
    • Microorganisms Engineer Their Break Down
    • Temperature and Moisture Conditions Influence the Decomposition
    • C: N ratio Decides the Time Lag for Nutrients to Become Plant Usable
    • Nutrient Supply from Organic Sources Remains low, Variable and Uncertain
    • Second Largest Population ( About 110 crores)
    • Higher Number of Livestock (492 Millions)
    • Seventh Largest Geographical Area (329 Million ha)
    • A Vast Pool of Organic Manure for Nutrient Availability
    • Organic Manure Potential = 16.9 Million Tonnes of NPK
    • 85 per cent Arises from Animal Dung, Crop Residues and Human Excreta
    • About 5.65 mt NPK Available for Agricultural Use
  • 12. Consumption of major fertilizers (in lakh tonnes) Fertilizer 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 urea 184.93 197.67 206.65 222.97 DAP 54.73 56.24 62.56 67.64 MOP 19.12 18.41 24.06 27.31 N 104.74 110.77 117.13 127.23 P 40.19 41.24 46.24 52.04 K 16.01 15.98 20.61 24.13 N+P+K 160.94 167.99 183.98 203.40
  • 13. Balance sheet of Nutrients Nutrient removal by crop 32 mt Nutrient addition through fertilizers 16.8 mt Nutrient addition through FYM 3.8 mt Nutrient addition through Biofertilizers 1.0 mt Nutrient addition through agricultural wastes 2.0 mt Nutrient addition through other sources 1.0 mt Total Addition 24.6 mt Mining of soils 7.4 mt per yr
  • 14. Projected food grain production in relation to nutrient (N-P2O5-K2O) consumption, removal and gap
  • 15. Integrated use of manures
    • Organic matter helps improving soil health/ quality and environment security and also increase in productivity, sustainability of agriculture.
    • Incentives and infrastructure need to be developed to efficiently tap the locally available natural resources from both rural and urban areas.
    • These resources not only provide nutrients but also partially save the chemical fertilizers.
  • 16. FYM and compost
    • Traditionally important sources of N and organic matter, besides being sources of P, K, S and micronutrients.
    • Potential of rural and urban compost is about 600 and 16 mt, respectively.
    • Only 2 t/ha/year is available for use in agriculture.
    • Less than 50% of the manurial potential of livestock population is utilized in crop production.
    • Residual effect on succeeding crop is also very impressive.
    • Integrated when with inorganic sources they also reclaim the alkali/sodic and acidic soils.
    • These materials also improve the soil physical properties like bulk density, aggregate stability, water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity and also microbial population specially of Azotobacter.
  • 17. Photographs
  • 18. Photographs
  • 19. Green manuring
    • Green manuring and cultivation of legume in a cropping system is effective in augmenting N supply.
    • Integrated use of green manure and chemical fertilizers saves 50-70% fertilizer N in rice cultivation.
    • In rice growing areas, on an average 30-40 kg fertilizer N equivalent can be considered as optimum.
    • Important green manuring crops like sesbenia, sunnhemp and cowpeas have narrow C:N ratio contribute sizable amount of plant nutrients particularly N.
    • Favorable effect of green manure is availability of nutrients through oxidation-reduction regime, pH and increased chelation capacity.
    • Green manuring of 45 days old cowpea alongwith 60 kg N/ha give considerably higher yield of rice as well as succeeding wheat by 270-430 kg/ha due to residual effect.
  • 20. Legume intercropping and residue incorporation
    • Crops like sugarcane, maize, grain sorghum may be benefited from green manuring in crop rotation and incorporation of legume residues
    • It can economize 60 kg N/ha in rice-wheat system
  • 21. Crop residue and recyclable waste
    • 1/3 of crop residues are available for utilization in agricultural production.
    • On an average, 25% N and P, 50% S and 75% K is retained in cereal residues.
    • 2-4 mg N could be fixed by heterotrophic microbes per gram of straw added in flooded soils.
    • Press-mud is a recyclable waste of sugar industry and alongwith fertilizer it increases cane yield and substitute about 25% fertilizer equivalent to N.
    • Potato haulms contain 2.5% N and integrated use with Chemical fertilizer can save about 45 kg N/ha and also increase in cane yield by 5t/ha.
    • 5 tonnes of sugarcane trash/ha with fertilizer increase cane yield and save nearly 75 kg N/ha, beside improving soil organic matter status.
  • 22. Biofertilizers
    • The Rhizobium-legume symbiosis could meet more than 80% N needs of legume crops and increase yield of pulse crop by 10-15%.
    • Blue green algae and Azolla which are more relevant to rice cultivation and contribution is 20-40 kg/ha fertilizer equivalent to N.
    • Phosphate solubilizing bacteria with low grade rock phosphate contribute about 30-35 kg P 2 O 5 /ha in neutral to slightly alkaline soils.
    • Vermicompost, sewage manure and biogas biproduct slurry with chemical fertilizers should be encouraged as these are potential sources of nutrients available to agriculture.
  • 23. Conclusion
    • Integrated nutrient supply and management models should be developed to provide guidance for rational, integrated and efficient supply and use of nutrient sources.
    • Strategies are also required to prepare and distribute bulk sources of nutrients to reduce their bulk employing modern technology.
  • 24. THANK YOU