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    radiology radiology Document Transcript

    • _____ absorb x-radiation during x-ray exposure and store the energy from the radiation. 2 methods of processing radiographic films: Accelerator: Acidifer: Air Bubble Appearance: ALARA concept: Aluminum Filters remove: Amperage determines: Beam Alignment Device: Best: Film speed, Collimation, Technique, & Exposure factors Bitewing: Cephalometric: CMRS: (# of films) Collimator: Concave dot: Cone-cut Appearance: 1. silver halide crystals 2. manual and automatic 3. sodium carbonate- alkali or base solution to activate the developing solution 4. acrtic acid or sulfuric acid- neutralizes the alkaline developer 5. white spots on film image 6. states that all exposure to radiation must be kept to a minimum, "as low as reasonably achieved" 7. low-energy, less penetrating, longer wavelengths 8. the amount of electrons passing through the cathode filament 9. used to help the radiographer position the PID in relationship to the tooth and film 10. Using F-speed instead of D-speed reduces the absorbed dose by 60%, Using a rectangular collimation instead of a round reduces the absorbed by 60-70%, Can be limited by using longer source-to-film distance, long-cone & paralleling technique, Exposure can be limited by using a higher kilovoltage peak 11. examines the interproximal surfaces of the crowns of both MX and MD teeth w/ crestal bone 12. provides a leteral view of the skull 13. # of films depends on the radiographic technique used & the # of teeth present, Edentulous pt: 14 films, Dentulous pt: 14-20 films 14. lead diaphragm used to restrict the size of the x-ray beam (round, rectangular, cone) 15. away from tubehead or source of radiation 16. a clear, unexposed area on the film Consumer-Patient Radiation Health & Safety Act: (1981) Control panel used to: (3) Convex dot: Critical Organs: (4) Curve of Spee: Density: Describe the Role of Developer: Describe the Role of Fixer: Developer Spots: Developing & Fixing solutions are/are not sterilizing agents: Developing Agent: (2) Developing purposes: (2) Developing Solution Chemicals: (4) Difference between Manual & Automatic Processing: Distance Recommendations: Dose: Double Exposure Appearance: Dropped Film Corner Appearance: 17. issues of education & certification of persons using radiographic equipment 18. allows for regulation x-ray beam, control electrical current for generation of X-rays, & house control buttons and settings 19. surface towards tubehead or source of radiation 20. skin, thyroid gland, lens of the eye, & bone marrow 21. smile line curves up 22. overall darkness or blackness 23. reacts w/ silver halide crystals on the film that were affected by radiation, These crystals form the images 24. removes any crystals that did not react, hardens the emulsion, and preserves the image 25. dark spots appear on the film 26. are NOT 27. hydroquinoine- generates black tones & sharp contrast, elon- acts to quickly produce, generates shades of gray 28. softens emulsion, & distinguishes between exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals to form image 29. developing agent, preservative, accelerator, restrainer 30. automatic has no rinse 31. avoid the primary beam & limit x- radiation exposure, stand at least 6 ft. away from x-ray tubehead 32. the amount of energy absorbed by a tissue 33. two (double) images are superimpose on top of each other 34. the occlusal plane appears tipped or tilted DANB RHS Study online at quizlet.com/_55hkp
    • Exposure time is measured in: Exposure Time: Exposure time: Extension arm used to: (3) Extra-Oral Radiographic Examinations: Fast Film: Federal Regulations- 1968: Federal Regulations- 1974: Film Bending Appearance: Film Compostion: (4) Film Creasing Appearance: Film emulsion purpose & mixture: Film Exposed to White Light Appearance: Film Holding Device: Film Storage: (Temp & Humidity) Film-less Radiography Introduced In: Filtration: Fixer Spots: Fixing Agent (Clearing Agent): Fixing purposes: (2) Fixing Solution Chemicals: (4) 35. impulses 36. standard- 1/60th sec, digital- 1/100th sec 37. 1/60th of a second- standard & 1/100th of a second- digital 38. suspend tubehead, house electrical wires, & allows movement in all directions & positioning of the x-ray tubehead 39. inspection of large areas of the skull or jaw 40. reduces exposure to radiation 41. Radiation Control for Health & Safety Act: Standardize performance of x-ray equipment 42. US FDA standardized all manufacturing of radiographic dental equipment (all machines must meet this) 43. film appears stretched & distorted (all or portion of film) 44. film base, adhesive layer, film emulsion, protective layer 45. a thin radiolucent (dark) line appears on the film (usually straight) 46. to give film greater sensitivity to x- radiation, homogeneous misture of gelatin & silver halide crystals 47. film appears black 48. reduces exposure to pt, stabilizes film & reduces film movement 49. store in cool, dry place. Temp- 50-70 degrees F, Humidity- 30-50% 50. 1987 51. removes unwanted x-rays, amount equal to 0.5-1.0 mm 52. white spots appear on the film 53. sodium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate- remove unexposed silver halide crystals 54. removes unexposed crystals (unenergized), & hardens the emulsion 55. fixing agent, preservative, hardening agent, acidifier Fogged Film Appearance: Hardening Agent: Identification dot: Image: Incorrect Film Placement Appearance: Incorrect Horizontal Angulation Appearance: Incorrect Vertical Angulation Appearance: Information on Label for Mount: (4) Interproximal: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique) Inverse Square Law: Inversely proportional means: Kilovoltage Peak Rule: Kilovoltage Peak: kVp controls: kvP: Labial: Latent Image: Latent Period: Lead Apron: Lingual: 56. gray film image; lacks detail and contrast 57. potassium alum- hards and shrinks emulsion 58. small, raised bump 59. picture or likeness of an object 60. no apices on the film 61. overlapped contact areas appear on the film 62. short teeth w/ blunted roots appear on the film (foreshortened) 63. pt. full name, radiographers name, date of exposure, doctor name 64. examine the crown of both the mx & md teeth on a single film, & adjacent surfaces of teeth & crestal bone, bite-wing film, bite- wing technique 65. the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of radiation 66. that as one variable increases, the other decreases 67. when kilovoltage is increased by 15, exposure time should be decreased by half. When kilovoltage is decreased by 15, exposure time should be doubled 68. pentrating power, quality 69. the quality or wavelength and energy of the x-ray beam 70. 65-100 kVp range- peak of enegry 71. facing patient to view (pt.'s right side, your left), convex 72. stored image not visible on the film 73. the time that elapses between exposure to ionizing radiation and the appearance of observable clinical signs 74. protects lap & chest 75. behind patient to view (pt.'s right side, your right), concave
    • mA: Manual Film Processing: (5) Maximum Accumulated Dose: Maximum Permissible Does (MPD): Milliamperage Regulates: Milliamperage: Molar Bite-Wing must include: Most effective method of reducing pt exposure to radiation: Nonstochastic Effects: Occlusal: Occlusal: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique) OFD(Object-Film Distance): Over Exposed Film Appearance: Panoramic: Patient movement Appearance: Penumbra: Periapical: Periapical: (Purpose, Film Type, & Technique) 76. 7-15 range- amount 77. developing solutions, film rinse, fixing solutions, wash film, dry films 78. based on worker's age. MAD= (N - 18) x 5 rems/year MAD= (N - 18) x 0.05 Sv/year 79. maximum dose equivalent a body is permitted to receive in a specific amount of time w/ little or no injury. Occupational- 5.0 rems/year (0.05 SV/year) Nonoccupationally- 0.5 rems/year (0.005 Sv/year) 80. the temperature of the cathode filament 81. current coming in; tells you how many, # of, qt. 82. Distal 1/2 of second premolar, all molars present, & both MX & MD molars, & crestal bone 83. fast films 84. have a threshold and increased severity with increased absorbed dose, ex. loss of hair, decreased fertility, erythema 85. examines large area of the MX or MD jaw 86. examine large areas of the mx or md on a single film, occlusal film, occlusal technique 87. the film and the object should be as close together as possible to reduce the amount of magnification 88. film appears dark 89. provides a view of the entire mx and md 90. film image is distorted or blurred 91. fuzzy, unclear area that surrounds a radiographic image 92. examines the entire tooth and surrounding structures 93. used to examine the entire tooth & supporting bone, periapical film, paralleling & bisecting technique Phalangioma Appearance: Photons: Place _____ barriers on all equipment to be ____ during procedure: Polychromatic x-ray beam: PPE in radiology: Premolar Bite- Wing must include: Prescribing Dental Radiographs: Preservative: Preservative: Purpose of Film Processing: (2) Purpose of Lead Foil Sheet: Purpose/Why of Film Mounting: (4) Radiation: Radiograph(X- ray film): Radiolucent: Radiopaque: Receptor: Replace Manual Chemicals: 94. patient's finger appears on the film image 95. bundles of energy with no mass or weight that travel as waves at the speed of light and move through space in a straight line 96. removable, touched 97. a beam that contains many different wave-lengths of varying intensities 98. gloves, eyewear, & gowns should be used at all times, Mask is optional. 99. Distal 1/2 canine, all premolars present & 1st molars of the MX & MD teeth, & crestal bone 100. based on the individual needs of the pt, professional judgement of the dentist: #, type, & frequency 101. sodium sulfite- antioxidate to prevent developer solution from oxidizing in presence of air, extends life 102. sodium sulfite- prevents chemicals from deteriorating 103. to convert the latent (invisible) image on the film into a visible image, to preserve the visible image so that it is permanent and does not disappear from the dental radiograph 104. to prevent film fogging from scatter radiation 105. easier/quicker to view/interpret, easily stored, decrease chance of error in determining pt. R/L, & decrease handling/damage to emulsion 106. a form of energy carried by waves or stream of particles 107. a picture; recording medium 108. black areas- allow x-rays to pass through, greater penetration of x-rays reach x-ray film 109. gray/white areas- resist passage of x-rays (block) 110. something that responds to a stimulus 111. every 3-4 weeks
    • Replenisher Solutions must be replenished: Restrainer: Reticulation: Reversed Film Appearance: Rinsing purpose: Scatter radiation causes: Shades of Gray: SI Units of Radiation: (3) Silver Halide crystals duty: SLOB: Speed of Light: State Gov't Regulations determine when & how dental x-ray equipment is monitored: Stochastic Effects: Target-film distance: Target-object distance: Target-surface distance: TFD(Target-Film Distance): The dental radiographer should stand ______ degrees away from the primary beam: 112. daily 113. potassium bromide- control developer solution & prevent the developing of exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals, prevents fog 114. emulsion cracking (pebbled or cracked appearance), from temp being over at least 5 degrees 115. light images w/ a herringbone pattern appear on the film 116. to remove developer chemicals 117. film fogging 118. 256 119. Couloms/kilogram (C/kg), gray (Gy), sievert (Sv) 120. absorb x-radiation and store energy 121. same lingual, opposite buccal 122. 186,000 miles per second 123. MN- mandatory every 2 years 124. direct function of dose with the probablility of occurrence increasing with increased dose, ex. cancer, genetic mutations 125. distance from the source of radiation to the film 126. distance from the source of radiation to the tooth 127. distance from the source of radiation to the patient's skin 128. the distance from the target to the film should be as long as possible to direct the most parallel rays to the film and object 129. 90-135 The thyroid collar must be worn for all intraoral & extraoral films: (True or False) Thyroid Collar: Tomogram: Traditional Units of Radiation: (3) Tube head or tube housing used to: Two Types of Filtration: Two types of lightening: Types of Intra-Oral Radiographic Examination: (3) Types of Scanners: (3) Umbra: Under Exposed Film: Unexposed Film Appearance: Water Bath purpose: Wavelenght determines the: (2) What mounting is preferred by ADA: When to mount film(s): Which PID is preferred & why: Who mounts film: Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen: William Rollins: X-radiation: X-ray film holders: 130. False 131. protects thyroid gland 132. provides a view of sections of the TMJ 133. roentgen (R), radiation absorbed dose (rad), roentgen equivalent man (rem) 134. produce x-rays 135. inherent and added 136. safe light- (7 1/2 or 15 watts, red-orange light spectrum), & overhead lighting- used to perform tasks 137. periapical, interpoximal, & occlusal 138. round drum, flat screen, & slot scanner 139. clear area on the center of the film image (most focused area) 140. film appears light 141. clear film w/ a bluish tinge 142. rinses out chemicals from film 143. energy and penetrating power of radiation 144. labial 145. immediately after processing 146. Longer (16-inch PID) is preferred because it produces less divergence of the x-ray beam 147. any trained dental professional 148. discovered x-radation in 1895 149. developed first dental x-ray unit 150. a high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube 151. stabe(styrofoam bite block, slimplest), XCP, Bite tab, EEZE grip, etc.
    • X-ray Machine Purpose: (2) X-ray: 152. 1- produce quality radiographs, 2- detection of disease & lesions for diagnostic purposes 153. beam of energy