• BREAST – milk ejection
CVS- Transient vasodilation & tachycardia
-Constriction of umbilical arteries and veins
CNS -Causes maternal behaviour
• KIDNEY – ADH like actions.
Not absorbed orally
Administered by i.v. , i.m. ,rarely nasal route.
Plasma t1/2- approx. 15 mins
It is primarily inactivated in the KIDNEY and the
DOSAGE- OXYTOCIN, SYNTOCINON 2 IU/2ml
and 5 IU/ml inj. PITOCIN 5 IU/0.5ml inj.
Induction & Augmentation of labor:
i.v. infusion pump
Dilution-5 IU in 500ml NS/Glucose
0.2-2ml/mt. depending on response
﹡birth canal abnormality
Postpartum hemorrhage :Third stage of labour,
5 IU i.m or i.v
Breast engorgement: Nasal spray before
Oxytocin challenge test: To assess placental
Buccal formulation, uses same as oxytocin, less consistent
-Induction of labour : 50 IU every 10min, max 10 tablets
-Uterine inertia : 25 IU every 30 mins
- Promotion of uterine involution: 25-50 IU
- Breast engorgement : 25-50 IU before breast feeding
•long acting structural analogue of human oxytocin
•given as a single IV bolus following the delivery of baby at Elective
or Emergency caesarean section.
•Carbetocin is as effective as an oxytocin infusion with respect to
blood loss following delivery
DOSE: Dilute 100mcg Carbetocin with 10mls Saline. Administer over one
minute following delivery of the baby
Ergometrine and Methyl ergometrine
Amine ergot alkaloid and methyl derivative.
duration of uterine contractions
Methyl ergometrine more potent action on
uterus and less on CVS, CNS, GIT etc.
Increase force, frequency,
Moderate increase of dose→Basal tone increased
Lower segment also contracts.
Post Partum Haemorrahge(PPH )→
After anterior shoulder presentation
Prevention → 0.2-0.3 mg i.m
Treatment → 0.5 mg i.v.
Prevent uterine atony
To promote involution in multipara →
0.125mg TDS -7days.
variant angina during Coronary
Nausea, vomiting, rise in BP.
Decreases milk secretion
Avoided in Vascular disease, Hypertension,
Liver and kidney disease.
Safe in obstetrical.doses
in pregnancy & early stages of labour
PGE2(Dinoprostone) → Vaginal application →
Induce II trimester abortion, missed abortion,
ripening of cervix in near term
Misoprostol → with mifepristone for early abortion
15-Methyl-PGF2α(Carboprost) → IInd trimester
Facilitate labour- Unlabelled use in cardiac, renal
Available as 50 mg/ml solution
For extra-amniotic infusion
EMCREDIL , VECREDIL
low dosage: rhythmic contraction of uterus;
fundus contracts while cervix relaxes;
used via ivd for induction or augmentation.
high dosage: sustained contraction in whole uterus;
used via im or iv for hemostasia or restoration of
2. Ergot alkaloids
stimulation of sustained contraction in whole uterus,
ergometrine used via po, im or iv for hemostasia or restoration of
stimulation of blood vessel constriction,
ergotamine used via po or im for migraine.
PGE2 & PGF2α stimulation of rhythmic uterine contraction,
used via ivd for induction (abortion)