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INTRODUCTIONMobile communication is an important aspect incommunication technology and mobile phone hasbecome the most common tool of communication overthe recent years.Several innovative improvements regarding mobilecommunication technologies have been made by developingvarious multiple-access schemes used for wirelesscommunication (such as TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, WCDMA,etc).The big challenge is to select the right technology for theapplications and systematically identify the factors thatinfluence the overall performance.
Mobility is one of the most invigorating features, havingan enormous impact on how communication is evolvinginto the future.Mobility in 4G networks requires new level of mobilitysupport as compared to traditional mobility.This presentation brings about the different generationsof mobile technology and identifies the different issuesand challenges related to mobility management in 4Gnetworks.
0TH GENERATIONPre-cell phone mobile telephony technology, such as radiotelephones that some had in cars before the arrival of cell phones.Communication was possible through voice only.These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks.Technologies : PTT(Push to Talk) MTS (Mobile Telephone System) IMTS (Improved MTS)
1 st GENERATIONAnalog cell phones.A voice call gets modulated to a higher frequency of about 150MHzand it is transmitted between radio towers. This is done using atechnique called Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA).Technologies: FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)Problems : No security Prone to distortions
2 nd GENERATIONDigital cell phonesSpeed: 10kbits/secTime to download a 3min MP3 song:31-41 minDifferent Services : digital voice calling short message service (SMS)Standards: GSM CDMA TDMABenefits: consume less battery power improves the voice clarity reduces noise in the line secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls
3 rd GENERATION 2G networks were built mainly for voice data and slow transmission. Due to rapid changes in user expectation, they do not meet todays wireless needs. 3G networks provide the ability to transfer voice data and non-voice data over the same network simultaneously.Applications : Internet, e-mail, fax, e-commerce, music, video clips, and videoconferencing The aim of the 3G is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment.
Combines a mobile phone, laptop PC and TVFeatures includes:- Phone calls- Global roaming- Send/receive large email messages- High-speed Web- Navigation/maps- Videoconferencing- TV streaming- Electronic agenda meeting reminder-GPSSpeed: 144kb/sec-3mb/sec i.e. 1 million bits, or 125,000bytes, of data are being transferred per secondTime to download a 3min MP3 song:11sec-1.5min
3G has the following enhancements over 2.5G and previousnetworks: Enhanced audio and video streaming Several Times higher data speed Video-conferencing support Web and WAP browsing at higher speeds IPTV (TV through the Internet) support
Poor voice quality, Poor battery life, Large phone size, No1G security, frequent call drops, Limited capacity and poor handoff reliability. The GSM is a circuit switched, connection oriented technology, where the end systems are dedicated for the 2G entire call session. This causes inefficiency in usage of bandwidth and resources. They are unable to handle complex data such as video. 3G 1.High bandwidth requirement. 2. High spectrum licensing fees. 3.Huge capital.
4 th GENERATION4G development focuses around achieving ultra-broadband speeds, competing with and in some casesoutstripping the speeds provided by your home internetconnection.4G average speeds are targeted to be in the 100Mbps to1Gbps range, roughly 10 to 100 times (dependent onlocation) faster than 3G networks. At that rate, that 4-minute MP3 download would take you mere seconds.A 4G phone can run on a 3G network just fine, and it’ll beready for the 4G revolution when the time comes.
There are two major systems in U.S, which are using the 4Gmobile technology – WiMax, backed by Clearwire and LongTerm Evolution or LTE.WiMax’s majority owner is Sprint Nextel. Sprint currently hastwo mobile phones, the HTC Evo and the Samsung Epic,which achieve speeds 10 times faster than 3G; coverage isstill limited to major metropolitan cities. Outside of theseareas, data speeds revert to 3G.Long Term Evolution is backed by Verizon. According tocnet, Verizon has completed initial 4G wireless test, but notavailable for widespread use until end of 2012.
The word “MAGIC” also refers to 4G wireless technology which stands for Mobile multimedia, Any-where, Global mobility solutions over, Integrated wireless and Customized services.Features include: - A spectrally efficient system - High network capacity - Huge data rate - Perfect connectivity & global roaming - High quality of service - Security & PrivacySpeed: The data transfer is 100 Mbps for outdoor and 1Gbps for indoor.
The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing), which is the key enablerof 4G technology. Other technological aspects of 4G areadaptive processing and smart antennas, both of which willbe used in 3G networks and enhance rates when used inwith OFDM
Applications :Games Games will be a major application segment in 4G.Electronic Agents There will be e-assistance, e-secretaries, e-advisors, e-administrators etc. This kind of control is what home automationapplications anticipate.Broadband Access in Remote Locations 4G networks will provide a wireless alternative forbroadband access to residential and business customers. Inaddition, 4G will provide the first opportunity for broadbandaccess in remote locations without an infrastructure to supportcable or DSL access.
• E-commerce• Business/Work• Private Life• Vehicular• Public Place• Entertainment• Education Technology 3G 4G Frequency band 1.8 - 2.5GHz 2 - 8GHz Bandwidth 5-20MHz 15-200MHz 100Mbps moving - Data rate Up to 2Mbps 1Gbps stationary Switching Circuit/Packet Packet
5 th GENERATION5G is a is a technology used in research papers and projectsto denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunicationstandards.It is a Real wireless world that is a completeWWWW: World Wide Wireless Web. 5G technology haschanged the means to use cell phones within very highbandwidth. A user would never have experienced such a highvalue technology.5G technology is going to be a new mobile revolution inmobile market.5G technology has extraordinary datacapabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted callvolumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobileoperating system.
CONCLUSIONWe have seen how the technology has progressed through theyears.4G mobile technologies will stimulate subscriber interest inbroadband wireless applications because of its ability and flexibilitytowards the world of wireless mobile communications.4G just right started from 2002 and there are many standards andtechnologies, which are still in developing process.Therefore, no one can really sure what the future 4G will look like and .what services it will offer to people.4G is the evolution based on 3G’s limitation and it will fulfill the ideaof WWWW(5G), World Wide Wireless Web, offering more servicesand smooth global roaming with inexpensive costSince 3G mobile is still in the market, 4G reduces the marketcompetition in the mobile industry
REFERENCESGenerations of Mobile Wireless Technology: A Survey By Mudit Ratana Bhalla & Anand Vardhan BhallaInternational Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.4, August 2010Evolution and Development Towards 4th Generation (4G)Mobile Communication Systems By M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Abad Shah Journal of American Science