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  • 1. V.G. KET’S V. G. VAZE COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE, & COMMERCE MITHAGAR (ROAD, MULUND (E), MUMBAI – 400 081. ROLL NO: B018. NAME: VISHWAKARMA. PINKY. S ROLL NO: B042 NAME: RALKAR. NIKITA. P ROLL NO: B052 NAME: MANEK. JINAL. B CLASS: F.Y.B.COM BANKING & INSURANCE. SUBJECT: EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION – II. TITLE: ‘THE BUS STOPPED’ BY TABBISH KHAIR.A PROJECT IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BACHLOR OF COMMERCE 1
  • 2. ABOUT TABISH KHAIR Khair was born in 1966 in Ranchi (then part of Bihar, now the capital of Jharkhand) and grew up inhis hometown, Gaya. Gaya is a small but historically-significant town in Bihar: it is the most holy of alltowns (after Benaras) for many Hindus and it is also the place where Gautama, founder of Buddhism, hadattained enlightenment. As such, while situated in one of the most backward and neglected parts of India,it is surprisingly international -- at least during the tourism season. Khair finished secondary school fromthe local Nazareth Academy and, after dropping out of medical studies, went on to do a BA in History,Sociology and English from Gaya College and a Masters in English from the local Magadh University.While a college student, he also worked as the district reporter for the Patna Edition of the Times of India.Later, following some trouble with local fundamentalists (see Links), he left for Delhi, where he workedas a Staff Reporter for the Times of India. Khair had his first collection of poems, My World, acceptedfor publication by a major national house (Rupa & Co., Delhi) before he left his hometown. It wasfavourably reviewed by senior poets and critics like Keki N. Daruwalla, Adil Jussawalla, Vilas Sarangand Shiv K. Kumar. While in Delhi, Khair brought out two other collections and started working on hisfirst novel, An Angel in Pyjamas, which was later published by Harper Collins and described by IndiaToday as "the calling card of a writer with the power to fascinate. After about four years as a staffreporter, Khair left for Copenhagen, Denmark, to do a PhD, which he completed in 2000. It waspublished as Babu Fictions by Oxford University Press in 2001 (a paperback edition came out in 2005)and has since become one of the important secondary texts on Indian English fiction. In 2000, Khair alsopublished a collection of poems, Where Parallel Lines Meet (Penguin), which is considered to be "one ofthe most significant collections in recent years by an Indian writing in English." It included poems forwhich he had won the prestigious All India Poetry Prize. Khairs second novel, The Bus Stopped, waspublished by Picador in 2004. Along with novels by Hari Kunzru and Nadeem Aslam, it was short-listedfor the Encore Award (UK). Khair has also co-edited various books and journals, including a casebook ofessays on Amitav Ghosh (Permanent Black, Delhi) and Other Routes, an anthology of pre-1900 Asianand African travel writing, with a foreword by Amitav Ghosh (Signal Books, Oxford, and Indiana UP).Born and educated mostly in Bihar, India, Tabish Khair is the author of various books, including thepoetry collection, Where Parallel Lines Meet (Penguin, 2000), the study, Babu Fictions: Alienation inIndian English Novels (Oxford UP, 2001) and the novel, The Bus Stopped (Picador, 2004), which wasshort-listed for the Encore Award. A French translation will be out in 2010 and an Italian translation is onthe anvil. His honours and prizes include the All India Poetry Prize (awarded by the Poetry Society andthe British Council) and honorary fellowship (for creative writing) of the Baptist University of HongKong. Other Routes, an anthology of pre-modern travel texts by Africans and Asians, co-edited andintroduced by Khair (with a foreword by Amitav Ghosh) was published by Signal Books and Indiana 2
  • 3. University Press in 2005 and 2006 respectively. His work has appeared in various anthologies of poetryand fiction, including The Bloodaxe Book of Contemporary Indian Poetry, City Improbable: Writings onDelhi, The New Anthem, Fear Factor: Terror Incognito, Delhi Noir and Penguins 60 Indian Poets.Academic papers, reviews, essays, fiction and poems by Khair have appeared in Indian (Hindu, Times ofIndia, Biblio: A Review of Books, Indian Book Review, Economic Times, PEN, DNA, Telegraph,Outlook etc), British (Guardian, New Left Review, Wasafiri, Third Text, Independent, New Statesman,First Post, Journal of Commonwealth Literature, Journal of Postcolonial Writing, London Magazine, P.N.Review, Salt, Metre, Thumbscrew, Stand etc), Danish (Information, Politiken, Weekendavisen etc),American, German, Italian, South African, Chinese and other publications. Khairs novel, Filming: ALove Story (2007), examines memory and guilt against the backdrop of the Partition and the 1940sBombay film industry. Ranked by Khushwant Singh as one of the best twenty novels in English byIndians or writers of Indian origin, it received positive and rave reviews in British and Asian publicationsand was short-listed for Indias main fiction award. A Danish translation, called Film, came out in thewinter of 2009 to positive reviews in the Danish press. Muslim Modernities: Essays on Moderation andMayhem, a collection of topical articles by Khair written for newspapers and journals, was compiled andedited as a book by Renu Kaul Verma (Vitasta Publishers), and Khairs first illustrated book for children(The Glum Peacock) was published by Zubaan Books -- both from India in 2008. Khairs study, TheGothic, Postcolonialism and Otherness: Ghosts from Elsewhere, released in the UK and USA by Palgrave(Macmillan) in Winter 2009, has evoked much interest. He has completed a new novel, set in VictorianLondon published by Harper Collins as The Thing About Thugs and his first collection of poems in adecade, Man of Glass. Khair mostly lives in Aarhus, Denmark. 3
  • 4. SUMMARY Khair has an observant eye, especially the signs that line the route, whether advertisements fortoothpaste or cigarettes The Bus Stopped weaves an evocative portrait of rural and small-town Indiathrough a single journey on the rickety private bus that plies the Gaya to Phansa route.The varied cast ofcharacters on the trip provides a glimpse of some of the many facts of modern India. Disparate livesintersect on the journey: the foul-mouthed driver Mangal Singh, a novelist manqué, abandoned by hiswife and exploited by his cousin and employer; Mrs Mirchandani, a smug and prosperous Hindumatriarch; Farhana Begum, a eunuch nostalgic for the glory days when hijras were more than prostitutesand beggars at weddings; Rasmus, a frustrated businessman of mixed Indian and Danish descent; Chottu,the servant boy, fleeing the scene of a terrible crime; Zeenat a sexy "street woman", and a tribal womancarrying a tragic bundle. Yet Khair is more engaged by points of departure and destination than by thejourney itself. The moments at the beginning and the close of the novel, when the first-person narratordescribes his childhood home, are the most beautifully written passages in the book. This is a novelhaunted by houses, by "their scratched geography, their shadowed histories, their many voices of noonand curtaintude, evening and smokeliness". Khairs prose is arrestingly beautiful when he describes theechoes and intersections of life: both in the once grand, now diminished, homes of the aristocracy, and inthe modern lower middle-class apartment blocks of Patna, where "the walls are membranes throughwhose tight secrecy permeates much that can only be heard, not seen". At times, Khairs lightness oftouch, his eye for detail and benevolent affection for his characters, recalls the writing of Amit Chaudhuri.Like Chaudhuri, Khair can be both lyrical and observant, imbuing the quotidian with emotional depth.The crucial difference between the two writers is that realism is a moral imperative in Chaudhuris work;his vision is driven by a writerly fidelity to his characters, whereas Khair is always more engaged by themessage he is trying to convey than by his novelistic duty towards his creations. Khairs realism is alsocompromised by his taste for the melodramatic. The conclusion of The Bus Stopped punishes theparochial prejudices of Hindu nationalists, but does so in a way that stretches the readers credulitybeyond endurance, highlighting all that is unsatisfying about the storyline. Khair is a remarkable writerand the fragments of a great book are buried here, glimpsed in the gorgeously poetic first- and second-person portraits of life in small-town India. But, as a novel, The Bus Stopped adds up to less than the sumof its parts. 4
  • 5. HOMES In this book writer has described his grandfather’s home in which there were more than sahabs,bibis and babus, it was the servants who knew the lay of the two houses, in which writer grew up in theirscratched geography, their shadowed histories, their many voices of noon and curtaintude, evening andsmokeliness. Because more than the masters there were more of servants in two houses. Both the houseshad grown up and wizened with them. The two houses were built by their masters, it is not only built bythe material available but also with their dreams, hopes and eccentric. Firstly when the writer was smallhe used to stay at his grandfather’s home but at the age of five or six they shifted to the new house whichwas been newly polished with mosaictile floor. The white one was built by the writer’s grandfather whowas a doctor, educationist, and amateur archaeologist with some minor finds to his name. Hisgrandfather’s home was built during the second world war, when cement was strictly rationed. The whitehouse had particularly its relationship with servants. There were different quarters for the servants inwhich they use to stay. The quarters was constructed around a large courtyard and attached to the kitchenand the storeroom. His father home was built in the late sixties. The writer’s father believed in continuity.It was built to resist the major earthquakes which hit the region in every fifty years or so. His father’shome had only three room servant’s quarter at the back. And the servants who were new to father’s homewould prefer to sleep at verandas or in guestroom’s . ABOUT THE JOURNEY The journey is between Gaya to Phansa. A bus was moving through rural areas and as passengersget on off, their stories are interleaved with those of the bus and conductor. Travellers thinking of theirstories, conversations that reveal the past, events that are seemingly out of control but which are, as youcome to realise later, firmly in the hands of a skilled storyteller. Indian journey, as the bus ramblesthrough Bihar roads, rumbling and lurching into sudden stops. The flashing-by of graffiti can be eitherwhimsical or plain banal-walls crawl in Devnagri exhorting travellers to "Proust Padho" to cigarettes thatpromise to set you free. A government’s jeep past the bus, blaring its horn in typical impertinence, afamily on a motorcycle overtook the bus, a woman was squating beside the road, selling popcorn. KHANSAMA WAZIR MIAN A man from an old feudal house who remembers his Khansama Wazir Mian of the elaborate menusand manners. He was the servant at writer’s grandfather’s home. He is bearded, massive,anduncompromising person. Earlier he had been the head cook of Rajah of Manipur or some such colonialnobility. He was a literate servant. He wrote Urdu with some fluency and could calculate Hindu ArabicNovels. He was known for Continenetal and Muglai cooking. He had been the chief chef of the Rajah of 5
  • 6. Manipur. He meant for flowing pathan suits with overall with kind of tall chefs head dress snow whiteand immaculately creased that only five stars hotel cooks wear those days. Wazir Mians son with theBrylcreemed hair and bellbottoms who journeys on in his "private bus". ZEENAT Zeenat, the sexy "street woman" employed to the house next door to one of the passenger. Whiletravelling through the private bus he remembered Zeenat who was the writer’s teenage crush at the age ofsixteen. She worked at the neighbours house. Zeenat was the last maid servant left in that house. Writer’sparents found her “brazen” and “waton” . MANGAL SINGH AND SHANKAR Mangal Singh was the driver of the bus in which the writer and another passengers were travelling.The driver Mangal Singh whose disappointments and boorishness hide a confused humanity and at everysense of observation. Shankar was the conductor of the bus. Driver Mangal Singh had dressed in torn butclean clothes , shirt and cotton trousers. He seems to his own world. MR and MRS. SHARMA Mr. Sharma is junior level officer in some government office in town. No one knew in which officehe worked whether it is electricity department or PWD and that was the why no one knew his first name.He had three daughters, eldest daughter completed civil service exam for three times and twice gotpreliminary marks but not more than that. The youngest daughter preparing for civil service exam forvery first time and second daughter is going to try for third time for same exam. Mrs. Sharma alwaystrying to keeping herself busy in all household chorches with its barred and netted window. CHOTTU: Chottu was a thirteen-fourteen years old servant who was working in Mrs. Prasad’s house. Hewas not quickest couriers though; but he never loses any opportunity to linger on various landings,gossiping with other servants, women, and children’s. He knows more people in neighbourhood than Mrs.Prasad does. He was bought to Mrs Prasad by villagers saying that 75% of his salary would be money-ordered to his father every month and sometimes He used to spent his 25% of salary with older boys ofnukkad. Mrs Prasad believing in education so she always trying to give some lessons to him but he doesnot see much point in getting education. He always thought that education is something not really forlikes of him. He makes a point of disappearing right when Mrs. Prasad was about call him to do hishomework. He dressed as smartly as he can and carries a comb all the times and he also had collection ofcheap plastic sunglasses. He had seen many Hindi movies and knows all shortcuts to earn easy money, 6
  • 7. though he had never had any. He sees the world quite clearly, though tinted one fixed shade by his owndeprivation, as if he was wearing a pair of plastic sunglasses all the times. At the end of the story hekilled Mrs. Prasad and ran away with a lot of money and jewellery. RASMUS and HARI: Rasmus was a frustrated businessman of mixed Indian and Danish anscent. He had come to India tomeet state Government Minister. Hari was the driver of Rasmus’s car who was trying to get started thecar. But at that time Rasmus told that why don’t he sell this junk and get a view Maruti. Rasmus felt verybad hearing such a bad comment on his car. Hari was a person who got a lucrative job where he was paidthree times less than his ability. He was one of the two or three drivers in Gaya who could understandEnglish. He used to worked as a tourist guide in Bodh-Gaya and Nalanda; where he used to pick up moreof English words than most drivers require. But still his best tourist language was not English butJapanese. Rasmus had come to India to meet a State Government Minister. But while going to Phansa inhis car, the car was not in condition to make him reach to Phansa. While waiting nearby his car he got abus in which he thought to go to meet Minister, but while going he orders Hari to repair the car and reachPhansa. While travelling he recollects his old memories when he was 7 years old and had come to Indiawith his parents. As soon as he reaches to Phansa he did not find hari with the car Ambassador. Rasmuswas irritated by the fact that Hari had repaired the car and managed to reach Phansa after he reaches .Now Rasmus ought to appreciate Hari’s skills as mechanic, for he had caste serious aspersions on thoseskills. Rasmus then gone to meet minister with his private secretary. After meeting Minister Rasmus feltthat he had lifted a burden from his soul. Then he goes back to guesthouse for getting freshenup beforethe return trip. OLD WOMEN (MRS.MIRCHANDANI) There was a old lady sitting beside the writer named as Mrs. Mirchandani. The old women wassixty years old but she was sharp and alert. When the bus stopped near the tea shop the old womenordered a special tea, the special tea was rupees fifty paisa but the shopkeeper were demanding onerupees she start fighting with the shopkeeper to give him fifty paisa back. By looking at her suchbehaviour the one would think that she belong from a poor family. But the way she dressed, talk withothers that indicate that she belong from sophisticated family. She start talking with the writer and startedtelling about her that she first used to stay in refugee area at Lahore they have to share the room with amuslim family . then afterwards they had been shifted to east delhi at that time there were a very rarehouse in east delhi her husband were sold his house in East Delhi and buy a garments shop in Phansa. 7
  • 8. His husband was nine years elder than her. When her husband died they had to start it again. They hadonly 1000 rupees note and old women had to sell her all jewellery except Mangalsutra. They used to livevery hard life. They had shop but it was not enough for their daily bread. His son name Vijay who had notstudied in good English medium school. Than the old women sat beside next to the lady named asFarhana. The old lady asked her name and why asked her that why she was travelling alone. Sheanswered that her named is parvati and theres no one in her family. Then that women told that don’t say itagain that there’s no one your family she told that she would be her mother. Parvati had married withVijay a son of Mrs. Mirchandani (old women). And parvati become a Mrs. Mirchandani. TRIBAL WOMEN The tribal women was also travelling by that bus. She was carrying a child and she was going toPhansa. One man wrongly touches her child and he realizes that the child had become cold, then he cameto know that the child was dead. But that women answered to everyone that child was ill and so wasgoing to Phansa. She even did not know that where his husband is staying in Phansa. It took a lot of timeto convince that women that her child is dead. 8
  • 9. CONCLUSION (B018) There was a very good experience by reading this novel. The novel is truly interesting whilereading. The writer has described a story in a very good manner so that the reader can easily understandit. The writer has share his experience while travelling through journey. (B042) I have read a novel for a very first time and by reading this novel I realise that the novel reading istruly interesting. It takes me lot of time to complete this novel. Firstly when I start reading this novel Ifound a bit boring as this was my first book but later on as continued to read found interesting. (B052) I had read two to three love stories, but this was my first novel for which I had to read as per thepresentation and not according to my interest. At the first when I had started to read I found this novel abit confusing as the stories were not in a serial but after reading twice thrice, I got the proper knowledgeand also knew that what exactly the writer had conveyed was about his journey in provisional area ofBihar and the different natures of the humans in the bus in this geonarrative novel. 9
  • 10. CONCLUSION (B018) There was a very good experience by reading this novel. The novel is truly interesting whilereading. The writer has described a story in a very good manner so that the reader can easily understandit. The writer has share his experience while travelling through journey. (B042) I have read a novel for a very first time and by reading this novel I realise that the novel reading istruly interesting. It takes me lot of time to complete this novel. Firstly when I start reading this novel Ifound a bit boring as this was my first book but later on as continued to read found interesting. (B052) I had read two to three love stories, but this was my first novel for which I had to read as per thepresentation and not according to my interest. At the first when I had started to read I found this novel abit confusing as the stories were not in a serial but after reading twice thrice, I got the proper knowledgeand also knew that what exactly the writer had conveyed was about his journey in provisional area ofBihar and the different natures of the humans in the bus in this geonarrative novel. 9