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9-7 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 9-7
  • 2. Socrates
    • born a stonemason
    • lived 470-399 B.C.
    • wrote nothing himself
    • knowledge of him comes from three sources
      • Plato
      • Xenophon
      • Aristophanes
  • 3. Aristophanes
    • wrote several comedies which presented Socrates in a satirical light
    • his play Clouds is the play Socrates refers to in the Apology
    • accused Socrates of misleading the youth and not giving due respect to the poets
  • 4. Xenophon
    • was a soldier-historian best known for writing Hellenica (History of Greece)
    • presentation of Socrates is rather mundane and not concentrated on philosophical discussion
    • unlikely to have spent any significant amount of time with Socrates
  • 5. Plato
    • student of Socrates (and teacher of Aristotle)
    • wrote the Apology
    • used Socrates as the mouthpiece in much of his writing
    • most likely to give us an accurate portrayal of Socrates, but still unlikely to be fully genuine as it was customary to put one’s own ideas in the mouth of a famous orator or teacher
  • 6. Socrates’ contributions
    • used the Socratic method
      • is a dialectical method centering primarily on questioning
      • for Socrates the result was most always a demonstration that some definition was found lacking
      • was a negative method of hypothesis elimination which primarily resulted in a recognition of a lack of knowldege
  • 7.
    • we have little evidence that Socrates had much of anything in the way of positive beliefs
      • positive views we have, such as in Plato’s Republic , may well just be Plato’s own ideas
    • claimed that the Oracle at Delphi said he was the wisest of all men, but he himself claimed he was not wise; he claimed his only wisdom lay in his knowledge of his own ignorance, something other “wise men” were lacking
    • most important to Socrates was moral virtue
      • shun wealth
      • cultivate friendship
      • search for the Good