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9-7
 

9-7

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    9-7 9-7 Presentation Transcript

    • 9-7
    • Socrates
      • born a stonemason
      • lived 470-399 B.C.
      • wrote nothing himself
      • knowledge of him comes from three sources
        • Plato
        • Xenophon
        • Aristophanes
    • Aristophanes
      • wrote several comedies which presented Socrates in a satirical light
      • his play Clouds is the play Socrates refers to in the Apology
      • accused Socrates of misleading the youth and not giving due respect to the poets
    • Xenophon
      • was a soldier-historian best known for writing Hellenica (History of Greece)
      • presentation of Socrates is rather mundane and not concentrated on philosophical discussion
      • unlikely to have spent any significant amount of time with Socrates
    • Plato
      • student of Socrates (and teacher of Aristotle)
      • wrote the Apology
      • used Socrates as the mouthpiece in much of his writing
      • most likely to give us an accurate portrayal of Socrates, but still unlikely to be fully genuine as it was customary to put one’s own ideas in the mouth of a famous orator or teacher
    • Socrates’ contributions
      • used the Socratic method
        • is a dialectical method centering primarily on questioning
        • for Socrates the result was most always a demonstration that some definition was found lacking
        • was a negative method of hypothesis elimination which primarily resulted in a recognition of a lack of knowldege
      • we have little evidence that Socrates had much of anything in the way of positive beliefs
        • positive views we have, such as in Plato’s Republic , may well just be Plato’s own ideas
      • claimed that the Oracle at Delphi said he was the wisest of all men, but he himself claimed he was not wise; he claimed his only wisdom lay in his knowledge of his own ignorance, something other “wise men” were lacking
      • most important to Socrates was moral virtue
        • shun wealth
        • cultivate friendship
        • search for the Good