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  • 1. 9-14
  • 2. arguments for God
    • arguments from reason
      • a priori
        • ontological
      • a posteriori
        • cosmological
        • teleological
    • arguments from faith
    • argument from religious experience
  • 3. attributes of God
    • omnipotent
    • omniscient
    • omnibenevolent
    • God is not like us
      • no reason to worship
      • no reason to even designate as “God”
  • 4. cosmological argument
    • a posteriori argument
    • comes in two forms
      • argument from causation
      • argument from contingency
    • relies on the existence of something outside the system
  • 5. first cause
    • aquinas’ “second way”
      • looks something like:
      • 1) there are things that exist that are caused
      • 2) nothing can be self-caused
      • 3) there cannot be an infinte regress of causes
      • hence, there exists some uncaused First Cause
        • then the conclusion is used in another argument:
        • 1) there exists some First Cause
        • 2) By the word ‘God’ we mean “First Cause”
        • hence, God exists
  • 6. objections
    • there seems to be a contradiction between the second premise (nothing is self-caused) and the conclusion (there is an uncaused First Cause
    • why can’t there be an infinite regress?
    • in what way can we call this First Cause “God”?
    • what kind of sense does it make to apply a concept with temporal attributes (cause) to something that exists outside of time (what was there before the universe is like asking “what is north of the north pole?” [stephen hawking])
  • 7. contingency
    • aquinas’ “third way”
    • looks something like:
      • 1) everything that exists is either necessary or contingent
      • 2) not every being can be contingent
      • hence, there is some necessary Being
      • further, this is God
  • 8. objections
    • why can’t the universe itself be the necessary thing?
    • how does this give us “God”?
  • 9. teleological argument
    • a posteriori argument
    • is an argument “from design”
    • argument goes something like this:
    • 1) human artifacts show evidence of design
    • 2) the universe is analogous to an artifact
    • hence, the universe is a product of design
        • conclusion becomes premise in another argument:
          • 1) the universe is a product of design
          • 2) products of design require a designer
          • hence, there is a designer of the universe
  • 10. objections
    • there is not enough similarity for the analogy to work
      • cannot argue from the parts to the whole
      • we learn about artifacts requiring a designer based upon multiple experiences which we are able to compare, but there is only one universe, and, hence, we are unable to compare one against our experience of several
    • our attempt at this reasoning results in a god who is very un-godlike; the analogy is strongest when God is most like us
      • remove infinity (cause should be proportionate to the effects, and the effects are clearly finite)
      • remove perfection (we can only deliver perfection of creation by assuming that the “faults” we see are merely apparent because of our finite reasoning)
      • remove unity (there is no reason there must be only one designer)
      • remove immortality (men are mortal and must, necessarily, reproduce to continue the species)
      • might as well make “god” completely human-like, and then we have no reason for worship at all