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  1. 1. 1-24 the greeks
  2. 2. pre-socratics <ul><li>general term we use for the philosophers preceding socrates </li></ul><ul><li>rejected traditional explanations, mostly based on myth </li></ul><ul><li>were primarily interested in “big” questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where does everything come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what is everything really made of? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can we explain the apparent plurality of nature? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how might we describe nature mathematically (math being the ultimate form of reason)? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. milesian school <ul><li>thales: (624-546 bc) </li></ul><ul><li>anaximander: (610-547 bc) </li></ul><ul><li>anaximenes: (585-525 bc) </li></ul>
  4. 5. thales <ul><li>attempted to find naturalistic explanations for the world </li></ul><ul><li>held the cosmological doctrine that everything that is is made up of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first recorded attempt to explain the world in naturalistic terms as opposed to spiritual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>was a great mathematician and astronomer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predicted solar eclipses and set the solstices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divided the year into 365 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>biggest contribution was a kind of materialism and a kind of monism </li></ul>
  5. 6. anaximander <ul><li>companion or student to thales </li></ul><ul><li>came up with concept of Apeiron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boundless, infinite material substance which underlies all things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embraces the notion of chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows for the creation of seemingly qualitatively different kinds of things (e.g. water and fire) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>proposed an early theory of evolution that suggested man had an aquatic origin </li></ul>
  6. 7. anaximenes <ul><li>student of anaximander </li></ul><ul><li>thought that the underlying nature of the world was indeed one and infinite, but, unlike anaximander, was determinate </li></ul><ul><li>ultimate source of everything was air </li></ul>
  7. 8. pythagoras <ul><li>580-496 bc </li></ul><ul><li>famous mathematician (pythagorean theorem) </li></ul><ul><li>asked the fundamental questions of philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what is reality? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how can we know truth? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how should i live? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>rejected materialism </li></ul><ul><li>was a kind of dualist </li></ul><ul><li>thought that numbers made up the True Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers gave form to matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>founded a religious movement based upon his beliefs about numbers and Truth </li></ul>
  8. 9. eleatics <ul><li>parmenides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>540-470 bc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>zeno </li></ul><ul><ul><li>489-430 bc </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. parmenides <ul><li>thought that knowledge must be grounded in the unchanging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as the world appears in flux, it must be mere illusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>senses grasp appearance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real World is fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reason grasps World, or Being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Being never comes into existence, never goes out of existence, cannot be divided into parts, cannot be moved, and is uncaused </li></ul><ul><li>three theses integral to his ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that which is, is and cannot not-be; that which is not, is not and cannot be. the real is and cannot be nonexistent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that which is can be thought or know and truly named that which is not, cannot. thinking and the thought that it is are the same thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that which is, is one and cannot be many. the real is unique. there is no second thing besides it. it is indivisible. it contains no parts. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. zeno <ul><li>student of parmenides </li></ul><ul><li>best known for his paradoxes which attempt to show the World is static </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>achilles and the tortoise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the arrow </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. heracleitus (heraclitus) <ul><li>535-475 bc </li></ul><ul><li>rejected the notion of a static Being and put forth the idea of Becoming </li></ul><ul><li>single principle at work in the world is “fire” </li></ul><ul><li>suggested that logos (reason) staved off complete chaos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this logos has an independent existence; it is not mankind’s reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>embraced conflict at a way to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War is father and king over all </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. pluralist school <ul><li>empedocles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>490-430 bc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>anaxagoras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500-428 bc </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. empedocles <ul><li>world is made up of four elements: water, earth, air, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Love explains the attraction of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Hate (Strife) explains the differentiation of matter </li></ul>
  14. 15. anaxagoras <ul><li>there is a part of everything in everything else </li></ul><ul><li>Thought ( Nous ) is responsible for the segregation of like from unlike </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought rules all life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought causes motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought is a kind of God-like substance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. sophists <ul><li>protagoras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>481-420 bc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>gorgias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>483-375 bc </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. protagoras <ul><li>was a relativist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for the quote “man is the measure of all things” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>was a famous proponent of agnosticism </li></ul>
  17. 18. gorgias <ul><li>was a skeptic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) nothing exists; 2) even if something exists, it can’t be known; 3) even if something could be known about it, knowledge about it can’t be communicated to others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>was known for making absurd, paradoxical arguments seem reasonable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>think about the criticism against socrates that he “made the worse seem the better” </li></ul></ul>