Introduction and philosophy


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Course Introduction lecture for year one paper Human Occupation.

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  • Getting the students to feedback. This might also test if they had been listening to the course introduction.
  • It’s all about occupation
  • This follows on from a task we did in Dunedin to introduce the course. Can also be the starting point for their presentation topics later in the course.
  • Occupation as our goal and our medium of practice. Recognizing our views and those of others in relation to how, why, where and when we participate in occupation. Recognizing meaning and purpose.
  • Some of the areas we’ll look at and ways of viewing occupation.
  • Social constructionism or social constructivism is a sociological theory of knowledge that considers how social phenomena develop in particular social contexts. Within constructionist thought, a social construction (social construct) is a concept or practice which may appear to be natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention or artifact of a particular culture or society. In recent decades, constructivist theorists have extended the traditional focus on individual learning to address collaborative and The term Communal constructivism was introduced by Bryn Holmes in 2001 . As described in an early paper, "in this model , students will not simply pass through a course like water through a sieve but instead leave their own imprint in the learning process." [1]
  • Talking through the blocks of the course
  • Don’t talk through all worksheets just a brief overview. Go into expectations (occupation reading) for this weeks tutorials here.
  • What the profession believes about Occupation The person The environment Health Client centered practice
  • Modeling activity – What are the skills that you use to complete this task? Any knowledge, history you drew on? Ties to place/people/past experiences – BRAINSTORM Expand – occupation as our medium of interest Expand on quote. ‘Occupation comprises all the ways in which we occupy ourselves individually and as societies. Everyday life proceeds through a myriad of occupations, embedded in time and place, and in the cultural and other patterns that organise what we do’ 3,4,5 
  • A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, conn a ship, design a building, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve equations, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects. Lazarus Long, Time Enough For Love Humans not specialist’s Common shared occupations – Food, games/play/performance, crafts/work Various ways of engaging in these shared interests
  • A long list of persons, religions, philosophies and social movements that recognised the link between meaningful and purposeful occupation and health (can refer to the references for those who want more information) Occupational therapy Started with a community focus groups in asylums groups at war programmes offered in classes to groups Shifted to individual focus Referrals for individuals Within the institution Focus on life in the institution or shift to move them out Shift to broader perspective Person within their social setting Living outside the health context Work to prevent readmission Focus on whole society Ecological perspective Social model of disability Work with whole family to sustain Occupational Science developed in the later decade of the last century and concerned with the rigorous study of people’s occupational nature and needs, science being used in the original sense of “knowledge”. Wilcock p.531 The science is in line with the professions initial objectives which called for the study of the effect of occupation upon the human being.
  • Talk to one or two of these.
  • Taken from CAOT structure to explain OT These values – interconnected/lots of crossover – part of a values system Open to debate within the profession
  • As a profession occupational therapy is based on the understanding that participation in occupation is the means or medium of intervention, and ideally is also the ends or outcomes 1,2.   Molineux and McKay 1999 more succinctly put it ‘Engagement in occupation is a fundamental human need’ 7 .   As a profession we have created occupational taxonomies to help explain and define these interactions looking at both similarities and differences in how and why we do. Focus on occupational achievement rather than attention towards the problems being overcome Wilcock occupations for health p.3 Maori examples – dictated by roles and ways of relating to whanau/others/environment/past (Muttonbirding, weaving) Canoe experience – ‘good medicine’
  • Social Justice Occupational Justice   ‘ Experiences of meaning and enrichment, enjoyment, health, identity, and quality of life with in chosen places and routines appear to be derived from participation in one’s occupations’ 8,9,6,10,11,12,13 In-justice comes with lack of resources and opportunities.   Townsend and Wilcock propose occupational rights 8 Treaty breaches – impact Tapawha – wairua, hinengaro, tinana, whanau  
  •   Knowledge of the power of the environment, and manipulating the environment is not new for occupational therapists (Dunn et al., Law, 1991; Rowles, 1991). As OT’s we are required to critically evaluate both the environment and how we are, our way of ‘being’, in that environment. 22 Place and Space Synergy between work and worker Taonga – harakeke example – taking care of Environment making us
  • That fundamental truth is the essence of occupational therapists’ claim that what people do can influence physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Often overlooked. Wilcock quote.     There is a notable synergy between the move towards addressing social determinants of health and occupational therapy principles. A number of authors have advocated for this match and discussed the implications for occupational therapy practice in social and community health 15,8,16,17,18. Thibeault and Hebert declare   ‘ Community participation, empowerment, autonomy and the individual’s worth are recurrent themes weaving a golden thread from beginning to end. The demonstrates the possibility of blending occupational therapy practice with a health promotion model without losing our identity or bending the pillars of health promotion out of shape... Moreover, the similarities between health promotion and occupational therapy can translate into more than concepts: 15.     Not focussed on pathology – language use – outward looking – focussing on what the person needs/wants to do POE, Medicine wheel and health, tapa wha
  • There are challenges present here for the occupational therapy profession and occupational science. The prevalent notion and focus on client centred practice may need to be addressed in situations where community focus and need takes precedence over individuals needs within the community. By enabling strong communities there is a follow on effect for individuals. dependence on the group to shape the individual .Within literature there has been a predominant focus on specific health needs and disability with limited study and research on so called ‘well’ and ‘able’ populations .   ‘ In western occupational therapy, we often proceed with our assumptions that the entire world values and celebrates ‘doing’ for its self-actualising effects. Many other cultural groups ... view our reality as a collective-orientated ethic with ‘belonging’ and our connecting to nature and ancestors as the shared social ethos. The vision of occupational therapy with its promise of individual enablement and empowerment is often both confusing and excluding’ 20 (p.2)       Links with pages 13, 14 and 15 0f Te Umanga Whakaora as well as with Iwamas work and Whaiora?   Advocacy role – sustainablity – doing ourselves out of a job Facilitatory role – not doing for Catalyst for change As panel presentation on historical trauma identified – it is the community the cures – so return to communtiy or create a new one
  • “ A concern for this profession lies in the maintenance of ideas and concepts that are out of sync with our clients’ real worlds of meaning. A profession that places the blinkers on alternative views and constructions of meaning in daily life stands to trivialise itself into extinction, and thus fall far short of occupational therapy’s magnificent promise” 19 Te Umanga Whakaora – workforce development Advocating for an occupational perspective Hard to justify our effectiveness – subtly EBP – quantify vs qualify Liasion – access Health professional Personal autonomy (awaad) There is a role for the profession to champion and support those movements which meet the needs and match the occupational rights of individuals and populations. ‘Occupational therapists can choose to either advocate consciously with others for justice, or comply with occupational injustices through silence and inaction. Given occupational therapists’ populations of concern, professional values, beliefs, and client centred intentions, and focus on social inclusion, occupational justice is an implicit issue, whether or not we choose to make it explicit’ 8. As Linda Tuhiwai – Smith and others have said…
  • As Linda and others have said knowing, being, living
  • Introduction and philosophy

    1. 1. Human Occupation Course Introduction 2012
    2. 2. Session plan <ul><li>To provide an introduction to the course outline  To present the course assessments and expectations  To introduce the course schedule  To introduce an occupational perspective, considering course content and it’s relevance to Occupational Therapy To provide students with opportunities to ask questions related to course content and structure </li></ul>
    3. 3. Given the course title, Human Occupation, what do you think this course might be about?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Occupation </li></ul>
    5. 5. Your occupations <ul><li>Take 2 minutes and list: </li></ul><ul><li>Four activities/occupations you have personally enjoyed doing so far throughout your life. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Occupation <ul><li>What humans do </li></ul><ul><li>Where they do (did) it </li></ul><ul><li>When they do (did) it </li></ul><ul><li>How it is done, what is required </li></ul><ul><li>Why they do (did) it </li></ul><ul><li>Who does (did) it </li></ul>
    7. 7. Develop an occupational viewpoint <ul><li>Why might this be important for an occupational therapy student? </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>History (yours and others) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Record Keeping and Research </li></ul><ul><li>Geography (humans and the creation of place) </li></ul><ul><li>Film, literature and multi media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentary and film fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic articles and text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs and websites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance and Play </li></ul><ul><li>Craft, Design and Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Food production and consumption </li></ul>
    9. 9. Learning philosophy <ul><li>Experiential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge not passively received </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sense of things in our own way in relation to what we already know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive at our own sense of the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructionist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We learn by making things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially a public entity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas form by working things out for a specific context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing ideas makes them tangible and shareable </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. You are expected to... <ul><li>Be an active participant in the range of tasks and activities presented in class and set outside of contact hours </li></ul><ul><li>Complete assessments in relation to set guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to share, and argue, your points of view and knowledge while also listening to others </li></ul><ul><li>Support your fellow students </li></ul><ul><li>Question lecturers </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding and articulate your own view of humans as occupational beings </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Handout: course schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture slots </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Associated worksheets </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Essay preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork two component </li></ul>
    12. 12. Assessment Handouts: Workshop Record, Essay (including worksheets), Fieldwork evaluation.
    13. 13. What Occupational Therapy has to Offer Examining the founding philosophies of the profession
    14. 14. Introduction <ul><li>Occupation and health </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Therapy defined and described </li></ul><ul><li>The professions values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges and arguments facing the profession </li></ul>
    15. 15. Addressing the broadness of occupation <ul><li>Occupational therapy is the art and science of helping people do the day-to-day activities that are important to them despite impairment, disability or handicap. “Occupation” in occupational therapy does not simply refer to jobs or job training; occupation in occupational therapy refers to all the activities that occupy peoples time and give meaning to our lives (Willard and Spackman, p. 5) </li></ul>
    16. 17. Occupation and the human condition <ul><li>Historical Perspective: Occupation and health </li></ul><ul><li>The foundations and developments of occupational therapy </li></ul>
    17. 18. Image taken from Wilcock, 1998, p.540 Occupational therapy and associated ideologies from the 19 th century
    18. 19. Occupational Therapies Professional Beliefs
    19. 20. About Occupation <ul><li>We believe that occupation </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>gives meaning to life </li></ul><ul><li>is an important determinant of health and well being </li></ul><ul><li>organizes behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>develops and changes over a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>shapes and is shaped by environments </li></ul><ul><li>has therapeutic effectiveness </li></ul>
    20. 21. About the Person <ul><li>We believe that humans </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>are occupational beings </li></ul><ul><li>are unique </li></ul><ul><li>have intrinsic dignity and worth </li></ul><ul><li>can make choices about life </li></ul><ul><li>have some capacity towards self determination </li></ul><ul><li>have some ability to participate in occupations </li></ul><ul><li>have some potential to change </li></ul><ul><li>are social and spiritual beings  </li></ul><ul><li>have diverse abilities for participating in occupations </li></ul><ul><li>shape and are shaped by their environment  </li></ul>
    21. 22. About the Environment <ul><li>We believe that  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Environment includes cultural, institutional, physical and social components </li></ul><ul><li>Performance, organization, choice and satisfaction in occupations are determined by the relationship between persons and their environment </li></ul>
    22. 24. About Health <ul><li>We believe that </li></ul><ul><li>Health is more than the absence of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Health is strongly influenced by having choice and control in everyday occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Health has dimensions associated with spiritual meaning and life satisfaction in occupations and social dimensions associated with fairness and equal opportunity in occupations </li></ul>
    23. 25. About Client Centered Practice <ul><li>We believe that </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Clients have experience and knowledge about their occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Clients are active partners in the occupational therapy process </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking is necessary for positive change </li></ul><ul><li>Client centred practice in occupational therapy focuses on enabling occupation </li></ul>
    24. 26. Challenges and arguments facing the profession <ul><li>Being part of community. Recruitment and retention practitioners who reflect community needs </li></ul><ul><li>Profession as a minority in a medical based model of health delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy  </li></ul><ul><li>OT Practice should be bent to the context and not the other way around this is often difficult given the systems worked with in and the points of power and control  </li></ul>
    25. 27. Conclusions <ul><li>It is acknowledged that individuals, communities and environments are dynamic and multi facetted and herein lays the ‘Art of Practice’. </li></ul><ul><li>Doing, being, becoming, belonging </li></ul>
    26. 28. References <ul><li>Gray, J.M. (1998). Putting occupation into practice: Occupation as an ends occupation as a means. American journal of occupational therapy, 52, 354-364. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Rebeiro, K. (1998). 0ccupation-as-means to mental health: A review of literature and a call for research. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 12-19. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (1994). Position statement on everyday occupation and health. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 294-297. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (1996). Profile of occupational therapy practice in Canada. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63, 79-113. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists (1997). Enabling occupation: an occupational therapy perspective. Ottawa, ON: Townsend. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Blair, S. E .E. (2000). The centrality of occupation during transition. British Journal of Occupational Therapy , 63(5), 231-237. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Molineux, M., & Whiteford, G. (1999). Prisons: From occupational deprivation to occupational enrichment. Journal of Occupational Science, 6 (3), 124-130. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Townsend, E. & Wilcock, A. (2004). Occupational justice and client-centred practice: A dialogue in progress. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71(2), 75-87. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes, C. (2000). A working social model? Disability, work and disability politics in the 21 st century. Critical Social Policy, 20, 441-457. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Christiansen, C. (1999). Defining lives: Occupation as identity: An essay on competence, coherence and the creation of meaning. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 547-558. </li></ul>
    27. 29. References continued <ul><li>Nygard, L., & Borell, L. (1998). A life-world of alternating meaning: Expressions of the illness experience of dementia in everyday life over three years. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 18, 109-136. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Primeau, L.A. (1996). Running as an occupation, multiple meanings and purpose. In R.Z.F. Clark (Ed.). Occupational Science: the evolving discipline (p. 275-286). Philadelphia: FA. Davis. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Vrkljan, B. H., & Miller-Polgar, J. (2001). Meaning of occupational engagement in life threatening illness. A qualitative pilot project. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68, 237-246. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Townsend, E. (1997). Inclusiveness: a community dimension of spirituality. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(3), 146-155. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Townsend, E. (2003). Occupational justice: Ethical, moral and civic principles for an inclusive world . Keynote presentation at the Annual Conference of the European Network of Occupational Therapy Educators, Czech Republic, Prague, October. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mace, J. (2008). Developing opportunities for occupational therapists in primary health organisations in New Zealand. OT Insight, 29 (6), 3-5. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilcock, A.A. (1993). A theory of human need for occupation. Journal of Occupational Science: Australia,1, 17-24. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Wilcock, A.A. (1998). An occupational perspective on health . Thorofare, NJ: Slack </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Iwama, M. (2006). The Kawa Model. China: Elsevier. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Iwama, M. (2006a). Culturally Relevant Occupational Therapy. Implications for the effective use of our therapeutic selves. Occupational Therapy Insight, 27 (2), 16-23. </li></ul>
    28. 30. References continued <ul><li>Durie, M.H. (2004). Understanding health and illness: research at the interface between science and indigenous knowledge. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33 (5), 1138-1143. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Jungersen, K. (2002). Cultural safety: Kawa Whakaruruhau- An occupational therapy perspective. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49 (1), 4-9. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dunn, W., Brown, C., & McGuigan, A. (1994). The ecology of human performance: A framework for considering the effect of context. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 48 , 595-607 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Law, M. (1991). The environment: A focus for occupational therapy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 58, 171-179. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Rowles, G. (1991). Beyond performance: Being in place as a component of occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45, 265-271. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>