ICSMT Shanghai


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Yeap Ban Har presented a regular lecture on second day of the conference.

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ICSMT Shanghai

  1. 1. The Emphasis of Primary-Level Textbooks in Singapore on Higher-Order Competencies<br />Yeap Ban Har<br />Marshall Cavendish Institute<br />Singapore<br />banhar@sg.marshallcavendish.com<br />Slides are available for download at Marshall Cavendish Institute’s Facebook or at www.banhar.blogspot.com<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Mathematics is “an excellent vehicle for the development and improvement of a person’s intellectual competence”.<br />Ministry of Education Singapore 2006<br />1982<br />Introduction of Singapore mathematics textbooks as they are known today.<br />1992<br />Introduction of Problem-Solving Curriculum<br />1997<br />Thinking Schools<br />Learning Nation<br />2001<br />Introduction of textbooks published by private publishers and approved by Ministry of Education.<br />2007<br />New editions of textbooks are published with the introduction of the revised curriculum.<br />
  3. 3. Methodology<br />Sample<br />Two textbook series were selected. <br />One was the one published by Ministry of Education in 1982 and revised twice. The edition used in this study is the latest edition (1999). This was the only textbook series used.<br />The other was published by a private publisher in 2001 and revised once. The edition used in this study is the latest edition (2007). This is the textbook series used by majority of schools.<br />
  4. 4. Details<br />Textbook<br />Workbook<br />1999 Series<br />3A 104 pages<br />3B 096 pages<br />3A-1 80 pages<br />3A-2 72 pages<br />3B-1 72 pages<br />3B-2 72 pages <br />506 pages<br />2007 Series<br />3A 136 pages<br />3B 174pages<br />3A-1 088 pages<br />3A-2 104 pages<br />3B-1 112 pages<br />3B-2 104 pages <br />718 pages<br />
  5. 5. Emphasis on Visualization<br />See also Ho, S. Y. & Yeap, B. H. (2011). Development of Visualization Skills in Singapore Primary School Mathematics Textbooks. Paper presented at PME-35 Angkara, Turkey.<br />Visuals are used to teach concepts – in this case multiplication.<br />
  6. 6. Emphasis on Visualization<br />Visuals are used to teach concepts – distributive property of multiplication – without using formal terms.<br />
  7. 7. Emphasis on Visualization<br />Visuals are used in a systematic way to teach terms. The progression from visual to abstract is observed throughout the books.<br />
  8. 8. Emphasis on Visualization<br />
  9. 9. Emphasis on Visualization<br />There is also an emphasis on the use of concrete materials to lead to visuals.<br />“The main feature of the package is the use of Concrete  Pictorial  Abstract approach.”<br />Primary Mathematics 1999<br />
  10. 10. Emphasis on Visualization<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Emphasis on Visualization<br />Visuals are used extensively in solving of word problems.<br />
  13. 13. Emphasis on Visualization<br />The use of visuals such as the model method was in response to students’ poor performance in word problems.<br />
  14. 14. Emphasis on Generalization<br />Looking for patterns and making generalization is also emphasized.<br />This emphasizes the relatedness between the 2, 4 and 8 times table.<br />This emphasizes a general idea – the use of doubling to multiply. <br />
  15. 15. Emphasis on Generalization<br />Explicit request to engage in higher-order competencies such as to look for a pattern.<br />
  16. 16. Emphasis on Generalization<br />There are sections of the later series devoted to higher-order thinking.<br />
  17. 17. Emphasis on Number Sense<br />Number sense, as opposed to computation, is given emphasis.<br />
  18. 18. Emphasis on Number Sense<br />Mental strategies are taught explicitly.<br />
  19. 19. Emphasis on Number Sense<br />Mental strategies are taught explicitly across domains.<br />
  20. 20. Emphasis on Communication<br />There are sections in the later series that require students to articulate their thinking in written language.<br />
  21. 21. Emphasis on Metacognition<br />Also, the later series require students to identify mistakes.<br />
  22. 22. The later series also include some open-ended tasks.<br />
  23. 23. Higher-Order Competencies<br /><ul><li>Visualization
  24. 24. Generalization
  25. 25. Number Sense
  26. 26. Communication
  27. 27. Metacognition</li>