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ICSMT Shanghai



Yeap Ban Har presented a regular lecture on second day of the conference.

Yeap Ban Har presented a regular lecture on second day of the conference.



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ICSMT Shanghai ICSMT Shanghai Presentation Transcript

  • The Emphasis of Primary-Level Textbooks in Singapore on Higher-Order Competencies
    Yeap Ban Har
    Marshall Cavendish Institute
    Slides are available for download at Marshall Cavendish Institute’s Facebook or at www.banhar.blogspot.com
  • Background
    Mathematics is “an excellent vehicle for the development and improvement of a person’s intellectual competence”.
    Ministry of Education Singapore 2006
    Introduction of Singapore mathematics textbooks as they are known today.
    Introduction of Problem-Solving Curriculum
    Thinking Schools
    Learning Nation
    Introduction of textbooks published by private publishers and approved by Ministry of Education.
    New editions of textbooks are published with the introduction of the revised curriculum.
  • Methodology
    Two textbook series were selected.
    One was the one published by Ministry of Education in 1982 and revised twice. The edition used in this study is the latest edition (1999). This was the only textbook series used.
    The other was published by a private publisher in 2001 and revised once. The edition used in this study is the latest edition (2007). This is the textbook series used by majority of schools.
  • Details
    1999 Series
    3A 104 pages
    3B 096 pages
    3A-1 80 pages
    3A-2 72 pages
    3B-1 72 pages
    3B-2 72 pages
    506 pages
    2007 Series
    3A 136 pages
    3B 174pages
    3A-1 088 pages
    3A-2 104 pages
    3B-1 112 pages
    3B-2 104 pages
    718 pages
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    See also Ho, S. Y. & Yeap, B. H. (2011). Development of Visualization Skills in Singapore Primary School Mathematics Textbooks. Paper presented at PME-35 Angkara, Turkey.
    Visuals are used to teach concepts – in this case multiplication.
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    Visuals are used to teach concepts – distributive property of multiplication – without using formal terms.
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    Visuals are used in a systematic way to teach terms. The progression from visual to abstract is observed throughout the books.
  • Emphasis on Visualization
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    There is also an emphasis on the use of concrete materials to lead to visuals.
    “The main feature of the package is the use of Concrete  Pictorial  Abstract approach.”
    Primary Mathematics 1999
  • Emphasis on Visualization
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    Visuals are used extensively in solving of word problems.
  • Emphasis on Visualization
    The use of visuals such as the model method was in response to students’ poor performance in word problems.
  • Emphasis on Generalization
    Looking for patterns and making generalization is also emphasized.
    This emphasizes the relatedness between the 2, 4 and 8 times table.
    This emphasizes a general idea – the use of doubling to multiply.
  • Emphasis on Generalization
    Explicit request to engage in higher-order competencies such as to look for a pattern.
  • Emphasis on Generalization
    There are sections of the later series devoted to higher-order thinking.
  • Emphasis on Number Sense
    Number sense, as opposed to computation, is given emphasis.
  • Emphasis on Number Sense
    Mental strategies are taught explicitly.
  • Emphasis on Number Sense
    Mental strategies are taught explicitly across domains.
  • Emphasis on Communication
    There are sections in the later series that require students to articulate their thinking in written language.
  • Emphasis on Metacognition
    Also, the later series require students to identify mistakes.
  • The later series also include some open-ended tasks.
  • Higher-Order Competencies
    • Visualization
    • Generalization
    • Number Sense
    • Communication
    • Metacognition