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Sociology crime and deviance
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Sociology crime and deviance

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  • 1. Crime is behaviour thatbreaks the formal written laws of a society. If someonecommits a crime they can be arrested, charged and prosecuted. Actions can be illegal but not deviant.
  • 2. Deviance is behaviour which does not comply with thedominant norms of a specificsociety. If people are seen as deviant it can lead to negative sanctions such as being told off or ridiculed.
  • 3. Gary, walked through his locallibrary whilst talking loudly on his mobile phone. This is legally deviant as he isnot breaking any law, he is justacting socially unacceptable.
  • 4. Robert, punched a pregnant lady in the face. This is illegally deviant as he committed an assault, the fact that he punched apregnant lady also makes the mater worse.
  • 5. Sam, illegally downloads thousands of songs for her mp3 player. Sam is a criminal as she isbreaking the copyright act. She isnot a deviant as what she is doing is not hurting anyone.
  • 6. VALUE; InArab culture family honour is dependant on female purity. CRIMINAL Social Code DEVIANT Public nudity Separation of sexes Taking photos ofSex outside marriage Modesty in dress women Homosexuality Marriage Talking to random Jobs for women at Showing thighs,women in the street home or in the care shoulders, cleavage Public displays of industry - Nurses, and midriff affection Teachers
  • 7.  Official Statistics; a set of statistics generated from datagathered by the government orother official organisations. Oftenused as secondary data in social research.
  • 8. REASONS WHY NOT ALL CRIMES AREINCLUDED IN THE OFFICIAL CRIME STATISTICS Detection; Is a crime detected? If a crime is observed and identified as a crime, the police may be informed. However, if the crime has not been detected it cannot be reported to the police neither can it be included in official statistics. This is the reason many crimes occur but go undetected.
  • 9. WHY DO NOT ALL  Victim of crime is VICTIMS OF CRIME criminal themselves  Victim suffered no loss REPORT CRIME?  Victim does not  Blackmail consider crime worthy  Embarrassment  Victim feels crime is too  Fear personal Lack of confidence in  Institutional crime may force be swept under carpet  Hassle due to fear of bad press.
  • 10. Victim Surveys Surveys the public asking them to reportany crimes committed against them andwhether or not they reported these crimes. Advantages Disadvantages May uncover hidden Not all crimes reported figure of crime Participants may lie Local geo-graphic data generated In some cases victims can not be questioned
  • 11. British Crime Survey A victim survey conducted annually by a team of researchers at the Home Office. The BCS measures the amount of crime in England and Wales by asking the publicabout their experiences with crime over the last year.
  • 12. Self Report Surveys  Self Report Surveys of the populationwhich ask them to confess to crime theyhave committed but for which they were not caught. Advantages Disadvantages Participants may lie May uncover the hidden They can not do anything figure of crime about the crimes respondents were not caught for.
  • 13. DESPERATION
  • 14. Nature  In 1876, Lombroso conducted research into large numbers of prisoners. He believed that criminals could be identified by visual traits as they were less evolved than ‘normal’ citizens. This theory is no longer accepted. Hormones; Stress caused by menstruation cancause women to act irrationally, 80% of female offenders committed their crimes during the menstruation period.  Relationships;
  • 15. Nature Hormones; Stress caused by menstruation cancause women to act irrationally, 80% of female offenders committed their crimes during the menstruation period.
  • 16. Nature Relationships; Early childhood deprivation, lack of emotional security and secure attachment in childhood can lead to peopledeveloping criminal personalities as they crave affection and attention.
  • 17. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of CrimePeer Groups & Subcultures; Some sociologists pin criminal activity on influences from otherparties - mainly peers - known as peer pressure.Being in a group gives us a sense of belonging and acceptance, for some these feelings are so important, so much so that they risk breaking the law and being caught, just to remain in a certain social circle. As themembers of the group feel that illegal activities are acceptable they are classified as a negative subculture.
  • 18. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime Socialisation; People who do not receive a decent level of socialisation during their childhood, do not know how to act appropriately in society as they can not comprehend the norms and values. This may lead to them braking laws / acting deviantly because they know no better. Another way socialisation can affect whetherpeople go on to commit crimes, is if a person is brought up with a criminal role model - meaning they developed criminal values.
  • 19. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime Socialisation; People who do not receive a decent level of socialisation during their childhood, do not know how to act appropriately in society as they can not comprehend the norms and values. This may lead to them braking laws / acting deviantly because they know no better. Another way socialisation can affect whetherpeople go on to commit crimes, is if a person is brought up with a criminal role model - meaning they developed criminal values.
  • 20. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime  Labelling; Labelling is giving someone in society a ‘tag’. Labelling someone a criminal /negatively can have serious consequences ontheir identity, if the label sticks and the person is viewed as a criminal by everyone then they may develop self-fulfilling prophecies and break the law as it’s all they think they can achieve.
  • 21. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime  Relative Deprivation; When a person is brought up amongst poverty and do not own luxuries such as a mobile phone or computer,they may act illegally to obtain such desirables.  This is a Marxist explanation of crime as it is caused by social inequality; the working class seeing the rich with personal possessions and wanting them but not being able to obtain them legitimately.
  • 22. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime  Relative Deprivation; When a person is brought up amongst poverty and do not own luxuries such as a mobile phone or computer,they may act illegally to obtain such desirables.  This is a Marxist explanation of crime as it is caused by social inequality; the working class seeing the rich with personal possessions and wanting them but not being able to obtain them legitimately.
  • 23. Nurture: Sociological Explanations Of Crime  Media; The media reports on crime in a selective way. Amplification of deviancy is when moral panic is created by the mass media, which then causes a frenzy of worry,and the police take drastic action to deal with it, starting the cycle all over again.
  • 24. INFORMAL AGENTS FORMAL AGENTS Parents SchoolSchool Teachers Employer Media Charity Groups Legal System Sub-cultures / peers Religion Celebrity Role Police Officers Models
  • 25. Why Males Commit More Crime Than Females  Different Socialisation Processes; Boys are more likely to be taught values associated with toughnessand aggression. Whereas girls adoptqualities and expectations which see them abide by the law.
  • 26. Why Males Commit More Crime Than Females  Different Opportunities to Commit Crime; Generally teenage girls are subjected to restrictions and closesupervision and then in later life they are usually occupied withmaintaining the home and caring for the family.
  • 27. Why Males Commit More Crime Than Females Social Control; Men may constrainwomen into ‘home’ lives limiting their freedom due to the care of the family being imposed on them. The media creates expectations of women too.
  • 28. Why Males Commit More Crime Than Females  Chivalry Thesis; This is a common belief that the male-dominated police force and courts, are easier on women due to them not beingconsidered a threat. Whereas a man may be arrested, police may let women off with a warning.
  • 29. Why Males Commit More Crime Than Females  Inaccurate Statistics; Statisticswhich show men commit more crime than women could be representative of the labelling of men as criminals and police going out to look for male offenders ignoring female criminals.
  • 30. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime  Institutional Racism; Police officialsbelonging to certain ethnic groups may set out to punish members of other ethnic groups whilst protecting their own.
  • 31. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime Relative Deprivation; Foreign workersare usually left with low paying manual jobs, thus meaning they may not be able to afford material goods and so obtain these desirables illegally.
  • 32. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime Labelling; If a police officer labels aparticular ethnic group as criminals he will go out and arrest more criminals belonging to that ethnic group, whilst ignoring other crimes.
  • 33. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime  Racism; White police officers maypurposely prosecute or dig deeper intocrimes involving different ethnic groupsdue to a racial hatred for such a group. This may also mean they ignore cases where a certain ethnic minority has fallen victim eg. Steven Lawrence.
  • 34. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime  Racism; White police officers mayeven frame Black or Asian criminals with crimes they did not commit.
  • 35. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime Media; Creates the moral panic and then promotes labelling in the force.
  • 36. Reasons why some ethnic groups seem to commit more crime  Inaccuracy of Figures; The figures could just be a reflection of racism within the force.
  • 37. Reasons why the poor commit more crime.  Poor Socialisation Relative Deprivation Anomie; Society does not provide enough opportunities for people to succeed, therefore some turn their back on society and cause trouble Education; More likely to be in low sets, getlow paying job, struggle for money, so turn to illegal ways of obtaining it.
  • 38. WHITE COLLAR CRIME White Colour Crime; Involves middle class people, who commit crimes during work hours.  4 Main Types:  Occupational Crime  Proffessional Crime  Corporate Crime  Computer Crime
  • 39. WHITE COLLAR CRIME White Colour Crime is difficult to deal with as;  Judges Are Often From Similar Social Backgrounds To White Collar Criminals Compared to Burglary and Assault it is not dangerous to the public.  There are usually no victims and no one person is impaired The media does not show WCC as serious

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