Bioplastics Advances and Sustainability The 9th SPSJ International Polymer Conference (IPC2012) December 14, 2012
Presentation Outline Basic Definitions for Bioplastics. Growth Factors For Bioplastics. Feedstocks and Sustainability. First and Second Generation Bioplastics. Bioplastics Growth Projections and Market Trends. Applications in Use Today for Bioplastics.
Basic Definitions for BioplasticsBiodegradable or Compostable BioplasticsMeet all scientifically recognized standards forbiodegradability and compostability of plastics and plasticproducts.Independent of carbon origin-(i.e. Ecoflex, PBS, PLA ).Focus is on end-of-life or disposability.Biobased BioplasticsMust be organic and contain some percentage of recentlyfixed (new) carbon found in biological resources or crops.Focus on renewable resource based origin.Uses C14 content measurement.
Growth Factors for BioplasticsRenewable resource versus oil based.Reduced environmental impact.Concerns about human health.End-of-Life disposal issues – Landfill.Legislative initiatives.
Growth Factors for Bioplastics Bioplastics Opportunity
First Generation Bioplastics …………………….……………………………………………Starch/PLA/ECOFLEX Polylactic Acid (PLA) O O HO OH HO OH H CH3 H3C H L-Lactic Acid D-Lactic Acid (0.5%) Compounded, 100% Renewable & Compostable Biobased & Compostable
First Generation PHA’sCompostable, biodegradable and renewable PHA picture courtesy of Telles
Projected Biomaterials Trends Bioplastics are still less than 1% of the approximate 230 million tons of plastics in use today. Projected 20-30%AGR
Projected Durables GrowthIncreasing demand for biobased, durable products in electronics and automotive applications. By 2011 durables were expected to account for almost 40% of bioplastics – compared with 12% in 2010. (European Bioplastics)
Sales Trends in Bioplastics 205KT 500KT 1.2MT Jim Lunt & Associates LLC. Projections
Why The Change? Continuing lack of infrastructure for use and disposal of compostable plastics. “Compostables” performance v durables. Increasing demand for biobased, semi-durable and durable products for household goods, electronics and automotive applications. Increasing interest and developments in existing and new monomers from renewable resources.
Examples of Emerging Technologies Avantium PEF ‘yxy’Avantium’s PEF is a 100% biobased polyester, with glasstransition 10 C higher than PET ,oxygen barrier 6-10times better than PET, CO2 barrier 2-4 times better thanPET, and water 2 times better than PET. FDCA bottles Plant based PEF filmscarbohydrates EG fibers Courtesy of Avantium
Ketal Plasticizers/Poly XLK O O O O L-Ketals OHHO HO OH HO OH O NH2 succinic acid 3-hydroxypropionic acid glutamic acid O O HO OH HO OHO O NH2 OH OH O O OR glycerol 4-hydroxybutyrolactone O aspartic acid HO O O O O OH OH OHO HO OH O O itaconic acid levulinic acid 2,5-furandicacboxylic acid OH OH OH OH OH O OH OH HO OH O OH OH OH OH OH OH OH OH O O O xylitol sorbitol glucaric acid O O O n PXLK XLTerra
The Future For Bioplastics Will Depend On Oil pricing continuing to increase. Improved performance. Composting/recycling infrastructure developments. Expanding from single-use compostable to durable applications. Moving to non-food source feedstocks. Competition from carbon dioxide based plastics.