Online Video and Next-gen Storage

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What if you could improve video streaming, storage, and delivery by 1000x?

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  • By 2014,12 billionDVDs will cross the Internet each month.The average monthly trafficin 2014 will be equivalent to 32 million people streaming Avatar in 3D, continuously for the entire month.Single Layer / Dual Layer (smallest is 4.7GB and largest 60GB)12 cm, single sided 15 GB 30 GB12 cm, double sided 30 GB 60 GB 8 cm, single sided 4.7 GB 9.4 GB 8 cm, double sided 9.4 GB 18.8 GBOlder DVD-1 SS / SL 8cm was 1.46GBAnnual global IP traffic will exceed three-quarters of a zettabyte (767 exabytes) in four years. Global IP traffic grew 45 percent during 2009 to reach an annual run rate of 176 exabytes per year or 15 exabytes per month. In 2014, global IP traffic will reach 767 exabytes per year or 64 exabytes per month. The average monthly traffic in 2014 will be equivalent to 32 million people streaming Avatar in 3D, continuously for the entire month.Global IP traffic will quadruple from 2009 to 2014. Overall, IP traffic will grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 34 percent.Hyperconnectivity has emerged as an important dynamic that has the potential to greatly increase traffic. In the past year, it has become clear that visual networking applications are often used concurrently with other applications and sometimes even other visual networking applications, as the visual network becomes a persistent backdrop that remains "on" while the user multitasks or is engaged elsewhere. This trend accompanies what is sometimes called the widgetization of Internet and TV, as network traffic expands beyond the borders of the browser window and the confines of the PC.There are four key enablers of hyperconnectivity, and all four are poised for strong growth. Multitasking and passive networking, the two key pillars of hyperconnectivity, are enabled by: (a) the growing penetration of high-speed broadband, (b) the expansion of digital screen surface area and resolution, (c) the proliferation of network-enabled devices, and (d) the increases in the power and speed of computing devices.Global Internet HighlightsIn 2014, the Internet will be four times larger than it was in 2009. By year-end 2014, the equivalent of 12 billion DVDs will cross the Internet each month.Peer-to-peer (P2P) is growing in volume, but declining as a percentage of overall IP traffic. P2P file-sharing networks are now carrying 3.5 exabytes per month and will continue to grow at a moderate pace with a CAGR of 16 percent from 2009 to 2014. Other means of file sharing, such as one-click file hosting, will grow rapidly at a CAGR of 47 percent and will reach 4 exabytes per month in 2014. Despite this growth, P2P as a percentage of consumer Internet traffic will drop to 17 percent of consumer Internet traffic by 2014, down from 39 percent at the end of 2009.Global Video HighlightsInternet video is now over one-third of all consumer Internet traffic, and will approach 40 percent of consumer Internet traffic by the end of 2010, not including the amount of video exchanged through P2P file sharing.The sum of all forms of video (TV, video on demand, Internet, and P2P) will continue to exceed 91 percent of global consumer traffic by 2014. Internet video alone will account for 57 percent of all consumer Internet traffic in 2014.Advanced Internet video (3D and HD) will increase 23-fold between 2009 and 2014. By 2014, 3D and HD Internet video will comprise 46 percent of consumer Internet video traffic.Video communications traffic growth is accelerating. Though still a small fraction of overall Internet traffic, video over instant messaging and video calling are experiencing high growth. Video communications traffic will increase sevenfold from 2009 to 2014.Real-time video is growing in importance. By 2014, Internet TV will be over eight percent of consumer Internet traffic, and ambient video will be an additional five percent of consumer Internet traffic. Live TV has gained substantial ground in the past few years: globally, P2P TV is now over 280 petabytes per month.Video-on-demand (VoD) traffic will double every two and a half years through 2014. Consumer IPTV and CATV traffic will grow at a 33 percent CAGR between 2009 and 2014.Global Mobile HighlightsGlobally, mobile data traffic will double every year through 2014, increasing 39 times between 2009 and 2014. Mobile data traffic will grow at a CAGR of 108 percent between 2009 and 2014, reaching 3.5 exabytes per month by 2014.Almost 66 percent of the world's mobile data traffic will be video by 2014. Mobile video will grow at a CAGR of 131 percent between 2009 and 2014. Mobile video has the highest growth rate of any application category measured within the mobile data portion of the Cisco VNI Forecast at this time.
  • Largely due to visual networking in all its various forms, Cisco expects global IP traffic to quadruple from 2009 to 2014. As Figure 1 shows, overall IP traffic is expected to grow to 64 exabytes per month by 2014, and 56 of those are due to consumer traffic. Consumer traffic, in turn, is driven by IP transport of VoD over the metro (11 exabytes per month in 2014), Internet video streams and downloads (almost 24 exabytes per month in 2014), and the exchange of video and other files through P2P and other file-sharing systems.
  • Of the 42 exabytes per month of consumer Internet traffic that will be generated every month in 2014, nearly 60 percent will be due to Internet video.
  • While the overall application mix is shifting toward video, video is undergoing internal shifts of its own. In particular, real-time video is growing in importance. Real-time video includes Internet TV, video communications, and ambient video.
  • While the overall application mix is shifting toward video, video is undergoing internal shifts of its own. In particular, real-time video is growing in importance. Real-time video includes Internet TV, video communications, and ambient video.
  • ****Internet Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/product_data_sheet0900aecd806a40f3.htmlContent Acquirer:The Cisco Content Acquirer application provides content ingest and storage functionality.It supports both a pull- and push-based model to ingest content from a variety of sources including the web.Internet Streamer:The Cisco Internet Streamer application provides edge caching, content streaming, and download to subscriber IP devices such as PCs.Service Router:The Cisco Service Router application is used to mediate requests from the subscriber IP devices. It is responsible for choosing the most appropriate Internet streamer based on location and load conditions of individual Internet streamers.Content Delivery System Manager:The Cisco Content Delivery System Manager is a graphical, browser-based application designed to manage the elements of a Cisco CDS network. It offers a workflow-based approach, automating and centralizing the major system management functions, including configuration, monitoring, troubleshooting, reporting, and maintenance.****TV Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/data_sheet_c78-508937.htmlVault Array:The Cisco Vault application provides fast video ingest and resilient, shared storage of a highly scalable content library available to any streaming node on the network.TV Streamers:The Cisco TV Streamer application provides video caching, personalization, and streaming capability to set-top boxes and television sets serviced by telco and cable service providers. Cisco CDEs running the TV Streamer applications can either be co-located with Cisco CDEs running the Vault application or distributed closer to the edge of the network.Content Cache:The Cisco Content Cache application increases caching efficiency in a large-scale content delivery network by acting as an intermediate, popularity-based cache between Vault and Streamer arrays distributed across the network.
  • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7126/data_sheet_c78-635849.html****Internet Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/product_data_sheet0900aecd806a40f3.htmlContent Acquirer:The Cisco Content Acquirer application provides content ingest and storage functionality.It supports both a pull- and push-based model to ingest content from a variety of sources including the web.Internet Streamer:The Cisco Internet Streamer application provides edge caching, content streaming, and download to subscriber IP devices such as PCs.Service Router:The Cisco Service Router application is used to mediate requests from the subscriber IP devices. It is responsible for choosing the most appropriate Internet streamer based on location and load conditions of individual Internet streamers.Content Delivery System Manager:The Cisco Content Delivery System Manager is a graphical, browser-based application designed to manage the elements of a Cisco CDS network. It offers a workflow-based approach, automating and centralizing the major system management functions, including configuration, monitoring, troubleshooting, reporting, and maintenance.
  • ****TV Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/data_sheet_c78-508937.htmlVault Array:The Cisco Vault application provides fast video ingest and resilient, shared storage of a highly scalable content library available to any streaming node on the network.TV Streamers:The Cisco TV Streamer application provides video caching, personalization, and streaming capability to set-top boxes and television sets serviced by telco and cable service providers. Cisco CDEs running the TV Streamer applications can either be co-located with Cisco CDEs running the Vault application or distributed closer to the edge of the network.Content Cache:The Cisco Content Cache application increases caching efficiency in a large-scale content delivery network by acting as an intermediate, popularity-based cache between Vault and Streamer arrays distributed across the network.
  • ****TV Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/data_sheet_c78-508937.htmlhttp://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7126/data_sheet_c78-635849.htmlVault Array:The Cisco Vault application provides fast video ingest and resilient, shared storage of a highly scalable content library available to any streaming node on the network.Content Cache:The Cisco Content Cache application increases caching efficiency in a large-scale content delivery network by acting as an intermediate, popularity-based cache between Vault and Streamer arrays distributed across the network.TV Streamers:The Cisco TV Streamer application provides video caching, personalization, and streaming capability to set-top boxes and television sets serviced by telco and cable service providers. Cisco CDEs running the TV Streamer applications can either be co-located with Cisco CDEs running the Vault application or distributed closer to the edge of the network.
  • ****Internet Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/product_data_sheet0900aecd806a40f3.htmlContent Acquirer:The Cisco Content Acquirer application provides content ingest and storage functionality.It supports both a pull- and push-based model to ingest content from a variety of sources including the web.Internet Streamer:The Cisco Internet Streamer application provides edge caching, content streaming, and download to subscriber IP devices such as PCs.Service Router:The Cisco Service Router application is used to mediate requests from the subscriber IP devices. It is responsible for choosing the most appropriate Internet streamer based on location and load conditions of individual Internet streamers.Content Delivery System Manager:The Cisco Content Delivery System Manager is a graphical, browser-based application designed to manage the elements of a Cisco CDS network. It offers a workflow-based approach, automating and centralizing the major system management functions, including configuration, monitoring, troubleshooting, reporting, and maintenance.****TV Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/data_sheet_c78-508937.htmlVault Array:The Cisco Vault application provides fast video ingest and resilient, shared storage of a highly scalable content library available to any streaming node on the network.TV Streamers:The Cisco TV Streamer application provides video caching, personalization, and streaming capability to set-top boxes and television sets serviced by telco and cable service providers. Cisco CDEs running the TV Streamer applications can either be co-located with Cisco CDEs running the Vault application or distributed closer to the edge of the network.Content Cache:The Cisco Content Cache application increases caching efficiency in a large-scale content delivery network by acting as an intermediate, popularity-based cache between Vault and Streamer arrays distributed across the network.
  • Assume 3 decimals of data reduction and bandwidth transport improvement (excluding any transport overhead….TCP/IP vs. UDP)Assume 3 decimals in storage savings, but only passing 100x or less in value to customer.Assume that latency improvement is 10x (taking into shipping 1000x in size less decode overhead = 10x)
  • http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/lhc/lhc-en.htmlThe Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a gigantic scientific instrument near Geneva, where it spans the border between Switzerland and France about 100 m underground. It is a particle accelerator used by physicists to study the smallest known particles – the fundamental building blocks of all things. It will revolutionise our understanding, from the minuscule world deep within atoms to the vastness of the Universe.
  • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7126/data_sheet_c78-635849.html****Internet Streaming:http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/video/ps7191/ps7127/product_data_sheet0900aecd806a40f3.htmlContent Acquirer:The Cisco Content Acquirer application provides content ingest and storage functionality.It supports both a pull- and push-based model to ingest content from a variety of sources including the web.Internet Streamer:The Cisco Internet Streamer application provides edge caching, content streaming, and download to subscriber IP devices such as PCs.Service Router:The Cisco Service Router application is used to mediate requests from the subscriber IP devices. It is responsible for choosing the most appropriate Internet streamer based on location and load conditions of individual Internet streamers.Content Delivery System Manager:The Cisco Content Delivery System Manager is a graphical, browser-based application designed to manage the elements of a Cisco CDS network. It offers a workflow-based approach, automating and centralizing the major system management functions, including configuration, monitoring, troubleshooting, reporting, and maintenance.
  • The International Telecommunication Union (Union internationale des télécommunications, in French) is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies. The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) is the informal name of Question 6 (Visual coding) of Working Party 3 (Media coding) of Study Group 16 (Multimedia coding, systems and applications) of the ITU-T. Its abbreviated title is ITU-T Q.6/SG 16. It is responsible for standardization of the "H.26x" line of video coding standards, the "T.8xx" line of image coding standards, and related technologies.DV is an intraframe compression scheme, which uses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) to compress video on a frame-by-frame basis. Audio is stored uncompressed.Closely following ITU-R Rec.601 standard, DV video employs interlaced scanning with the luminance sampling frequency of 13.5 MHz. Prior to the DCT compression stage, chromasubsampling is applied to the source video in order to reduce the amount of data to be compressed. HDV is a format for recording of high-definition video on DV cassette tape.[1] The format was originally developed by JVC and supported by Sony, Canon and Sharp.[2] The four companies formed the HDV consortium in September 2003.HDV video and audio are encoded in digital form, using lossy compression. Video is encoded with the MPEG-2 codec, using 8-bit chroma and luma samples with 4:2:0 chromasubsampling. Stereo audio is encoded with the MPEG-1 Layer 2 codec. The compressed audio and video are multiplexed into a MPEG transport stream, which is typically recorded onto magnetic tape, but can also be stored in a computer file.The data rate for both the audio and video is constant and is roughly the same as DV data rate. The relatively low data rate can cause bit rate starvation in scenes that have lots of fine detail, rapid movement or other complex activity like flashing lights, and may result in visible artifacts, such as blockiness and blurring. In contrast to the video, HDV audio bitrate is relatively generous. At the coded bitrate of 384kbit/s, MPEG-1 Layer 2 audio is regarded as perceptually lossless.MPEG transport stream (TS) is a standard format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and data,[7] and is used in broadcast systems such as DVB and ATSC.Transport Stream is specified in MPEG-2 Part 1, Systems (formally known as ISO/IEC standard 13818-1 or ITU-T Rec. H.222.0).[3][4][5]Transport stream specifies a container format encapsulating packetized elementary streams, with error correction and stream synchronization features for maintaining transmission integrity when the signal is degraded.The container file is used to identify and interleave different data types. Simpler container formats can contain different types of audio formats, while more advanced container formats can support multiple audio and video streams, subtitles, chapter-information, and meta-data (tags) — along with the synchronization information needed to play back the various streams together. In most cases, the file header, most of the metadata and the synchro chunks are specified by the container format. For example, container formats exist for optimized, low-quality, internet video streaming which differs from high-quality DVD streaming requirements. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_container_formats
  • Online Video and Next-gen Storage

    1. 1. Enabling the Zettabyte Era<br />Digital Video Applications<br />By Jim Kaskade<br />March, 2011<br />Confidential<br />
    2. 2. Annual global IP traffic <br />will exceed three-quarters of a<br />zettabyte (767 exabytes) <br />by 2014<br />Note: <br />Exabyte = 1,000 petabytes<br /> = 1million terabytes<br /> = 1billion gigabytes<br />
    3. 3. Internet Traffic (per month)<br />Consumer 87% / Business 13%<br />
    4. 4. Internet Video (% of Consumer)<br />57% Consumer Traffic = Internet Video<br />
    5. 5. Video Driving Infrastructure<br />The sum of all forms of video (TV, video on demand, Internet, and P2P) will exceed 91% of global consumer trafficby 2014.<br />Advanced Internet video (3D and HD) will increase 23-fold between 2009 and 2014. By 2014, 3D and HD Internet video will comprise 46% of consumer Internet video traffic.<br />
    6. 6. Premium Video Dominates<br />Long Form = Premium Studio Content<br />
    7. 7. Static Content vs. Live<br />Static : Live = 90 : 10<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Internet Streaming<br />CDS IS Manager (CDE 205)<br />Content Acquirer (CDE250-2G2)<br />2 Quad Core Intel Xeon (Westmere) CPUs @ 2.4GHz<br />Service Router (CDE220-2G2)<br />Internet Streamer (CDE250-2S6)<br />
    10. 10. TV Streaming<br />
    11. 11. TV Streaming<br />CDS TV Manager (CDE 110)<br />Content Library Vault (CDE420)<br />Content Cache (CDE250-2G3)<br />TV Streamer (CDE250-2S6)<br />Integrated Streamer Vault (CDE220-2D1)<br />Video Navigator (CDE 110)<br />
    12. 12. New<br />Storage<br />New<br />Storage<br />
    13. 13. A New Video Content Vault?<br />Seamicro SM10000 OEM<br />512 1.6 GHz Intel Atom CPUs<br />64 Ethernet switch interfaces<br />Server management<br />Application Load Balancing<br />Multi-petabytesstorage with latest in compression tech<br />25% of the Power and Space (compared to best-in-class servers)<br />
    14. 14. What if You Could…<br />Reduce Streaming Costs<br />Reduce Vault Storage<br />Reduce Delivery Time<br />…By 1000X<br />
    15. 15. Ecosystem Players<br />MSO Provider<br />Studio<br />Create<br />Produce<br />OTT Provider<br />
    16. 16. Ecosystem Disruption<br />Studio<br />Create<br />Produce<br />
    17. 17. Ecosystem Economics<br />Comcast Video = $19B / year <br />
    18. 18. Ecosystem Economics<br />Six Out Of 10 Digital Movies Are Streamed via NetflixNPD, March 2011<br />
    19. 19. Many<br />Data Intensive <br />Applications<br />
    20. 20. Where is Next-gen Storage?<br />Storage<br />Device<br />Storage<br />Subsystem<br />Storage<br />Solution<br />Storage<br />Service<br />
    21. 21. Market Valuations Around Storage<br />
    22. 22. Thank You!<br />Enabling the Zettabyte Era<br />
    23. 23. 31B Videos Viewed / Mth<br />
    24. 24. Typical Content Engine<br />CDE 250<br />2 Quad Core Intel Xeon (Westmere) CPUs @ 2.4GHz<br />4 Onboard Gigabit Ethernet NIC (see Table 1-6 for NIC information for the various CDE250 models)<br />2 x Dual 10GE NIC ports in slot 2, and 10GE Ports support Copper and Fiber SFP Media Modules<br />2 Hot-swappable power supplies<br />1 x 8-GB CF + IDE adapter physically attached as IDE primary master<br />3 external SAS disk controllers located into slots 1, 3 and 4.<br />1 internal MegaRAID SAS disk controller located in slot 5.<br />SSD drives mounted internally<br />
    25. 25. VOD Implementation<br />
    26. 26. Video History<br />
    27. 27. Video History<br />
    28. 28. 90min DVD<br />

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