What is "Open Source"

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Presentation from my Keynote at the Isle of Open Innovation 2012 Conference in Malta

Presentation from my Keynote at the Isle of Open Innovation 2012 Conference in Malta

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Transcript

  • 1. Just what is“Open Source”? (and why should I care) Jim Jagielski || @jimjag
  • 2. Who is this guy?Jim Jagielski Longest still-active developer/contributor Co-founder of the Apache Software Foundation (ASF), Member, Director and President Director: Outercurve and Open Source Initiative (OSI) Consulting Engineer with Red Hat Council Member: MARSEC-XL This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 3. What is Open Source?Open Source Licensing OSI and/or Free Software Foundation (FSF) ApprovedFree Software As in Free Speech, not Free BeerOpen Source Methodology (secondary) Community/Governance types Many consider this just as important as the license This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 4. What is Open Source? Also called Free Software But the word “Free” confuses some people FOSS: Free and Open Source Software FLOSS: Free/Libre Open Source Software Pretty much, all mean the same thing The name can cause “religious” or “philosophical” debates, but in government and industry, Open Source is the more widely used term. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 5. What is Open Source?Basic tenets: Access to the source code (the code is Open and Free) Ability to use the source code (run it and/or leverage it) Ability to modify the source code Ability to distribute the (modified) source code This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 6. What is Open Source?Basically, it’s a “new” way to develop, license anddistribute codeActually, there was “open source” even before itwas called thatThe key technologies behind the Internet and theWeb and the Cloud are all Open Source basedBrings Scientific Method to IT This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 7. The draw of Open Source (hacker) Having a real impact in the development and direction of IT Personal satisfaction: I wrote that! Sense of membership in a community Sense of accomplishment - very quick turnaround times Developers and engineers love to tinker - huge opportunity to do so This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 8. The draw of Open Source (Companies/Orgs) Having a real impact in the development and direction of IT Sense of membership in a community (most of the time) Save on expensive resources Ability to focus on what differentiates yourself Allows for nimbleness and agility Increased revenue and market share This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 9. The draw of Open Source (users) Access to the source code Avoid vendor lock-in (or worse!) Much better software Better security record (more eyes) Much more nimble development - frequent releases Direct user input Open Standards This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 10. Open Source FUD ^No quality or quality controlPrevents or slows developmentHave to “give it away for free”No real innovation ^: Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 11. True Open SourceFor software to be Open Source, it must be underan OSI or FSF approved Open Source LicenseOpen Source Definition: http://www.opensource.org/docs/osdFree Software Definition: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.htmlNew Open Source licenses are very hard to getapprovedThere are really 3 main types This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 12. Licenses
  • 13. Licenses
  • 14. Open Source LicensesGive Me Credit AL (Apache License), BSD, MITGive Me Fixes LGPL (Lesser GPL), EPL (Eclipse Public License), MPL (Mozilla Public License)Give Me Everything GPL (General Public License) - Dave Johnson http://rollerweblogger.org/page/roller?entry=gimme_credit_gimme_fixes_gimmem This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 15. Give Me Credit This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 16. Give Me Credit This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 17. Give Me CreditA liberal open source software licenseBusiness friendlyRequires attributionNo warrantyEasily reused by other projects &organizations (universal donor)Legally, not complex This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 18. Give Me CreditCommunity Impacts: Limited control by a single entity Little value in direct competition Used in widest variety of community types This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 19. Give Me FixesThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 20. Give Me FixesThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 21. Give Me FixesMPL / EPL / LGPL Used mostly with platforms or libraries Protects the licensed code, but allows larger derivative works with different licensing Still very business friendly This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 22. Give Me FixesCommunity Impacts: Easier single entity control Direct development/improvements of the code benefits all This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 23. Give Me Everything This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 24. Give Me Everything This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 25. Give Me EverythingGPL (copyleft) Derivative works also under GPL Linked works could also be under GPL Viral nature may likely limit adoption GPL trumps all others or else incompatible legally, most complex This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 26. Give Me EverythingCommunity Impacts: “Forces”/”enables” dual-license business strategy for copyright holder Encourages full free-software community Direct development/improvements of any uses of the code benefits all, but mostly the orig. author(s) Contributors guaranteed all code will be free This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 27. License DifferencesMainly involve the licensing of derivative worksOnly really applies during (re)distribution ofworkWhere the “freedom” should be mostlyfocused: the user or the code itself This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 28. One True LicenseThere is no such thingLicensing is selected to address what you aretrying to doIn general, Open Standards do better with AL-like licenseIf wide adoption is important to you: again AL.T restrict non-shared enhancements: copyleft o This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 29. Governance/Community
  • 30. Governance/Community
  • 31. CommunityAKA: Governance Defines how the community operates How conflicts are resolved Growth path of the community code members Again, 3 main types This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 32. Governance Models This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 33. Governance ModelsWalled Garden This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 34. Governance ModelsWalled Garden “All your base are belong to us.” This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 35. Governance ModelsWalled Garden “All your base are belong to us.”Benevolent Dictator This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 36. Governance ModelsWalled Garden “All your base are belong to us.”Benevolent Dictator “Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not some farcical aquatic ceremony.” This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 37. Governance ModelsWalled Garden “All your base are belong to us.”Benevolent Dictator “Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not some farcical aquatic ceremony.”Meritocratic Community This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 38. Governance ModelsWalled Garden “All your base are belong to us.”Benevolent Dictator “Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not some farcical aquatic ceremony.”Meritocratic Community “Out of Chaos comes Order.” This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 39. Walled GardenThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 40. Walled GardenThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 41. Walled GardenGenerally Licensed under copyleft-ish license (GPL)Involvement in code is closedCommit/patches limited to company employees Any accepted code has stringent assignments (copyright)Code benefits mainly the corporate key-holders.“Crowd-sourcing”Final say in direction: not the coders but the owners. Example: Spring and Java (kinda) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 42. BDFLThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 43. BDFLThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 44. Benevolent Dictator:Licensed under All Open Source licensesInvolvement in code is open and based on merit. Easy to provide patches/codeSingle Dictator or Dictator with Generals (depending on sizeand complexity of the code)Dictator (and Generals) non-aligned with corporate interests.The community assigns power to Dictator who has final say ifneeded Example: Think Linus and Linux. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 45. MeritocracyThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 46. MeritocracyThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 47. MeritocracyGenerally Licensed under liberal license (AL)Involvement in code is open and based on merit. Easiest model to provide code (simple, but complete, IP clearance: no assign copyright)Clearly defined path based on meritCollaboration and Community Consensus is critical Example: Think Apache Software Foundation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 48. Community Building
  • 49. Community Building
  • 50. Use Email Lists
  • 51. Use Email Lists
  • 52. Drive Consensus
  • 53. Drive Consensus +1
  • 54. No Poisonous People
  • 55. No Poisonous People
  • 56. Success Stories - HTTPD Apache HTTP Server (“Apache”) Reference implementation of HTTP Most popular web server in existence Found in numerous commercial web servers Oracle, IBM,... Influenced countless more This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 57. Success Stories - HTTPD By having a “free” and open source reference implementation, the drive to create a separate proprietary version was reduced. “Why spend time and money, when we can use this” This allowed HTTP (and the Web) to grow and STAY usable (compare to the old browser wars) This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 58. Success Stories - Linux Succeeded dramatically where UNIX and BSD did not. Rules the server and mobile market-space Variations serve as core of other devices as well (think marine!!) Numerous companies/entities are built around it and depend on it This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 59. Success Stories - MARSSATrue Open architecture in maritime industryEnsures wide and deep interoperabilityRevolutionary Open Source, OpenStandard implementation This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 60. Concluding ThoughtsOpen Source should have a viable business oremotional reason - be realistic in expectationsGive some thought to licensing earlyMake it easier for developers and users to“join”Give them a reason to This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 61. Concluding ThoughtsTrust your developers AND your usersCommunication is keyOpen Source is NOT the Good HousekeepingSeal Of ApprovalBut don’t believe in all the FUD eitherSuccess is not measured in market share, butin adoption This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 62. Helpful linksThe Apache Software Foundation www.apache.orgRed Hat, Inc (my employer) www.redhat.comOpen Source Foundations www.opensource.org www.outercurve.org This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 63. That’s ItThank you!Any questions? @jimjag jim@jaguNET.com / jimjag@gmail.com This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 64. That’s ItThank you!Any questions? In Honor: Joseph Jagielski, Jr. @jimjag jim@jaguNET.com / jimjag@gmail.com This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 65. BACKUP CHARTS This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 66. Publish or PerishIn Open Source, frequent releases indicatehealthy activityWhat is collaborative s/w development otherthan peer review?Think how restrictive research would be w/oopen communication This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.