Open Source Management


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Open Source Management and Governance : a presentation to the CDC

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Open Source Management

  1. 1. Open Source Projects:Management/GovernanceJim Jagielski
  2. 2. AgendaIntroductionWhat exactly is “Open Source”How the ASF Does It
  3. 3. IntroductionJim JagielskiLongest still-active developer/contributorCo-founder of the ASFMember, Director and ChairmanCTO/Chief Architect for the Covalent Division ofSpringSource
  4. 4. The draw of Open SourceHaving a real impact in the development and direction of ITPersonal satisfaction: I wrote that!Sense of membership in a communitySense of accomplishment - very quick turnaround timesDevelopers and engineers love to tinker - huge opportunityto do so
  5. 5. What is Open Source?Open Source LicensingOSI ApprovedOpen Source Developmentala, the Apache Software FoundationFree SoftwareAs in Free Speech, not Free Beer
  6. 6. What is Open Source?Basically, it’s a “new” way to develop, license and distributecodeActually, there was “open source” even before it was calledthatThe key technologies behind the Internet and the Web are allOpen Source based
  7. 7. True Open SourceFor software to be Open Source, it must be under an OSIapproved Open Source LicenseAt last count, over 70 exist
  8. 8. Open Source LicensesGive Me CreditAL, BSD, MITGive Me Fixes(L)GPL, EPL, MPLGive Me EverythingGPL- Dave Johnson
  9. 9. The Apache License (AL)A liberal open source software license - BSD-likeBusiness friendlyRequires attributionIncludes Patent GrantEasily reused by other projects & organizations
  10. 10. Give Me FixesMPL / EPL / (L)GPLUsed mostly with platforms or librariesProtects the licensed code, but allows larger derivativeworks with different licensingStill very business friendly
  11. 11. Give Me EverythingGPL (copyleft)Derivative works also under GPLLinked works may also be under GPLViral nature may limit adoptionGPL trumps all or else incompatible
  12. 12. License DifferencesMainly involve the licensing of derivative worksOnly really applies during (re)distribution of workWhere the “freedom” should be mostly focused: the user orthe code itself
  13. 13. One True LicenseThere is no such thingLicensing is selected to address what you are trying to doIn general, Open Standards do better with AL-like license
  14. 14. The ASFASF == The Apache Software FoundationBefore the ASF there was “The Apache Group”The ASF was incorporated in 1999
  15. 15. How We WorkThe Apache Software Foundation provides support for theApache community of open-source software projects. TheApache projects are characterized by a collaborative,consensus based development process, an open andpragmatic software license, and a desire to create highquality software that leads the way in its field. We considerourselves not simply a group of projects sharing a server, butrather a community of developers and users.
  16. 16. Structure of the ASF - devVolunteer Driven OrganizationSoftware Projects are managed by Project ManagementCommittees (PMCs)PMCs vote in new PMC members and committers
  17. 17. Structure of the ASF - legalMember-based corporation - individuals onlyMembers nominate and elect new membersMembers elect a board - 9 seatsSemi-annual meetings via IRCEach PMC has a Chair - eyes and ears of the board (oversightonly)
  18. 18. Issues with Dual StacksDespite clear differentiation, sometimes there are leakseg: PMC chair seen as “lead” developerSometimes officers are assumed to have too much power ifthey venture into development issues“hats”
  19. 19. The Apache WayAlthough the term is deprecated, “The Apache Way” relatesto how the ASF (and its projects) work and operateBasically, the least common denominators on how PMCsoperate
  20. 20. Basic MemesMeritocracyPeer-basedConsensus decision makingCollaborative developmentResponsible oversight
  21. 21. Meritocracy“Govern by Merit”Merit is based on what you doMerit never expiresThose with merit, get more responsibility
  22. 22. Peer-basedDevelopers represent themselves - individualsMutual trust and respectAll votes hold the same weightCommunity over codeHealthy communities create healthy codePoisonous communities don’t
  23. 23. Why Community > CodeSince we are all volunteers, people’s time and interestschangeA healthy community is “warm and inviting” and encouragesa continued influx of developersPoisonous people/communities turn people off, and theproject will dieEnd result - better code, long-term code
  24. 24. Consensus decision makingKey is the idea of voting+1 - yes+0 - no real comment-1 - vetoSometimes you’ll also see stuff like -0, -0.5, etc...
  25. 25. Collaborative DevelopmentCode is developed by the communityVoting ensures at least 3 active developersDevelopment done online and on-listIf it didn’t happen on-list, it didn’t happen
  26. 26. Collaborative DevelopmentMailing lists are the preferred methodArchivedAsynchronousAvailable to anyone - public list
  27. 27. Collaborative DevelopmentOther methods are OK, if not primaryWikisIRCF2FAlways bring back to the list
  28. 28. Responsible OversightEnsure license complianceTrack IPQuality codeQuality community
  29. 29. Look Familiar?These concepts are not new or uniqueBest practices regarding how the Scientific and Healthcommunity works
  30. 30. Publish or PerishIn Open Source, frequent releases indicate healthy activityWhat is collaborative s/w development other than peerreview?Think how restrictive research would be w/o opencommunication
  31. 31. Internal AdvantagesMight tighter communitybetter communication (esp. with “users”)tighter feedback loopReady made audienceDon’t need to “sell” the aspects of Open Source which scare/confuse IT people
  32. 32. Governance GotchasTrust and Merit are earned, which implies timeThe available pool might be relatively smallHow to encourage external involvement“scratching your own itch”Mentoring: lurking on lists vs. direct involvment
  33. 33. Typical CXX Level QuestionsHow do I know what Open Source s/w to use?What if something breaks?What if the project goes away?Am I the first?
  34. 34. Helpful linksThe Apache Software Foundationwww.apache.orgSpringSourcewww.springsource.comWant to help a great organization?
  35. 35. That’s ItThank you!Any questions?