Guide to Social Media Strategy Development, Implementation and Performance Measurement


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Our guide to social media strategy development prepared in April 2010 for the tourism and hospitality industry - currently being updated.

Guide to Social Media Strategy Development, Implementation and Performance Measurement

  1. 1. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Guide to Social Media Strategy Development, Implementation and Performance MeasurementDr Jim Hamill and Alan StevensonApril,
  2. 2. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPurpose of the Guide1. EVALUATE YOUR SOCIAL MEDIA LANDSCAPE Applications, impact, customers, conversations, features and characteristics2. AGREE YOUR GENERIC SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY Channels and depth of engagement3. KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Measuring success4. INTERNAL SOCIAL MEDIA AUDIT Progress benchmarking5. READINESS TO ENGAGE Are you ready to engage?6. SOCIAL MEDIA STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT Vision, strategy, objectives, targets, customers, key initiatives and actions7. CHANNEL ACTION PLANS “Getting there”8. ORGANISATION, RESOURCE AND PEOPLE ISSUES The key pillars of social media success9. IMPLEMENTATION Professional project management for social media success10. MONITOR AND MEASURE On-going performance measurement
  3. 3. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentThe social media revolution………. Figure 1: The Social Media RevolutionA Fundamental Shift Social Networks • 78% of consumers trust • 66% of the global internet population visit Social Networks1 peer recommendations • Visiting social sites is the 4th most popular online activity whilst only 14% trust ahead of personal email1 2 advertising • Time on social networks is growing at 3x the overall Internet • 25% of search results rate, accounting for about 10% of Internet time1 for the Worlds Top • There are 400m Facebook users, roughly 50% are active; more Brands link to User than 50m use LinkedIn Generated Content4 Publishing • 93% of Social Media • 77% of all active internet users regularly read blogs6 users believe a • Organizations that blog get 97% more inbound links to their company should have a website and 55% more website visitors7 presence in Social • 54% of bloggers post content or tweet daily; 34% of bloggers Media5 post about products or brands2 Multimedia Sharing“Marketers dont understand • 13 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute andchannels where you have to 100m videos are viewed per day4talk and listen at the same • 3.6bn photos are archived on as of June 2009.time...” Josh Bernoff, 2009 Roughly 1 photo for every 2 people on the planet4 Mobile Web • In December 2009, 25% of the UKs population (16m people) accessed the Internet from their mobile3 • iPhone App downloads hit 1 billion in 9 months from launch2 • 2.2bn minutes were spend on Facebook (UK) in December 2009 using mobile handsets3 Open Source and Free Hosted Applications • As of February 2009, there are more than 230,000 open source software projects8 • There are more than 100m downloads in 80 languages of OpenOffice, the Open Source version of MS Office9 • More than 25m people use Google Apps, including major corporations like National Geographic and Jaguar Landrover10Source: The Authors and Others Cited (1) Source: Nielsen, Global Faces & Networked (6) Source: ‘Universal McCann Wave 3’ 2009 Places, 2009 (Slideshare) (2) Source: Socialnomics’09 (YouTube) (7) Source: Hubspot Inbound Internet Marketing (3) Source: Guardian Unlimited, “Facebook Blog, 2009 Leads Rise in Mobile Web Use” (8) Source: (4) Source: What the fk is Social Media (9) Source: (Slideshare) (10) Source: (5) Source: Cone, Business in Social Media Study, September 2008Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 3
  4. 4. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentIntroductionThe Web 2.0/Social Media revolution presents major opportunities (but also threats) forScottish tourism and hospitality businesses. The proliferation of travel review andrecommendation sites, peer-to-peer interaction in online communities, user generatedcontent, openness, sharing, mutual collaboration, online democracy, people and networkempowerment create exciting new opportunities for engaging with and energising yourcustomers, employees, business partners, stakeholders and brand advocates. Rather thantalking ‘at’ your customers, social media provides new, low cost channels for talking ‘with’them i.e. business and marketing as a two-way dialogue and conversation with your customers,a two-way dialogue with your network. As shown on the cover page, Web 2.0/Social Media isnot a thing, it is a state of mind!There will be ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ in social media. ‘Winners’ will be tourism and hospitalitybusinesses who fully utilise the interactive power of social media for engaging with andenergising customer, employee and network relationships.With emerging social media (SM) opportunities, come new organizational challenges. Tourismand hospitality businesses in Scotland are increasingly asking the following questions. Whatsocial media channels should we engage with and how deep should our level of engagementbe? How can social media best help us to achieve our overall strategic goals and objectives?What resource should we commit to social media, what Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)should we use and how can Return on Investment be measured? How open should ourorganization become? Who is talking about us, where online? How can we best manage ouronline reputation? What ‘buzz’ is being created about our brand? Do we require neworganizational structures and new ‘mindsets’ to leverage the full potential of social media?What new skills, knowledge and staff training are required? Should we have a corporate wide‘Social Media Proper Use Policy’ for staff?The timing of this Guide to Social Media Strategy Development for the tourism industry is verypertinent. Levels of industry awareness and enthusiasm for social media have increasedexponentially over the last six months and there is now general acceptance of the excitingopportunities being created. However, with growing enthusiasm comes the realization thateffective use of social media presents major strategic, operational, management andorganizational challenges for most companies.Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 4
  5. 5. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentPurpose of the GuideGiven the explosion of interest in Web 2.0/Social Media, it is not surprising that many tourismbusinesses, DMOs and others are beginning to ‘dip their toe in the water’; experimenting withlow resource, low risk social media engagement activities. These early initiatives, often startedby ‘social media evangelists’, are very much to be encouraged. They help considerably inimproving organizational knowledge and understanding of social media and provide an earlyindicator of what will or will not work. Hopefully, such early initiatives will firmly establishsocial media as a key strategic priority.With growing experimentation, comes the realization that successful use of social mediarequires sound planning and the application of professional project management procedures tosocial media strategy development, implementation, management and performancemeasurement.The purpose of this ‘Guide’ is to present a detailedoverview of the key strategic, operational, Figure 2: Ten Key Steps to SM Successmanagement and organizational challenges 1. The social media landscapeinvolved in planning, implementing and managing 2. Generic social media strategysuccessful Web 2.0/Social Media strategies for 3. Key performance indicatorssustained tourism growth. The ‘Guide’ is 4. Internal SM auditstructured around the Ten Key Steps involved in 5. Readiness to engagebuilding a successful social media (SM) strategy 6. SM strategy developmentsummarised in Figure 2 and in the Social Media 7. Channel action plansDevelopment Cycle shown in Figure 3. A key 8. Organisation, resource & peoplepremise of the Guide is that ‘Social Media Planning 9. ImplementationPays’. In other words, a planned and systematic 10. Performance monitoringapproach to SM strategy development willconsiderably improve the likelihood of success, ensuring that your SM strategy is fully alignedbehind and supportive of your core business goals and objectivesScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 5
  6. 6. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Figure 3: Social Media Development CycleSource: The AuthorsThe Ten Steps can be sub-divided into three main stages: • Getting the foundations right (Steps 1 to 5) – Your social media landscape; generic strategy; key performance measures; internal social media audit; and ‘readiness to engage’ • Social Media Strategy Development and Implementation (Steps 6 to 9) – Vision; strategy; objectives; targets; customers; key initiatives and actions for ‘getting there’; organisation, resource and people issues; project management for social media success • Performance measurement (Step 10) – Measuring on-going success and business impactScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 6
  7. 7. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentTo get the best out of the ‘Guide’, you should ask yourself the following questions as you readthrough it:Self Help Questions • What impact is social media having on my industry? How are my customers and stakeholders using it? What are the specific opportunities and threats for my business? What conversations are taking place relevant to my business, where and by whom? What sentiments are being expressed? How open should we become? Do we need a new organizational ‘mindset’ and structure? • What are the most relevant SM channels for my business? Which channels should we use and how engaged should we become in each channel? • What KPIs should we use to monitor on-going social media performance? • How well are we currently performing? What progress have we made benchmarked against agreed KPIs and industry ‘best practice’? • What are our main SM strengths and weaknesses; what obstacles and barriers do we need to overcome? • How do we ensure that our social media strategy is full aligned with and supportive of our core business goals and objectives? • How do we develop Action Plans for ‘getting there’? • What are the key organizational, people and resource issues that need to be resolved? What professional project management procedures will ensure successful implementation of our agreed SM strategy? • How can we measure on-going performance and business impact?Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 7
  8. 8. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development1. Evaluate Your Social Media LandscapeAt its simplest, social media can be thought of as a set of applications and technologies thatallow individuals to interact in online communities, directly exchange information with oneanother and create their own online content. As shown in Figure 4, the social media landscapeand range of applications available is extremely broad and diverse – too wide for anyorganisation to consider all of the applications available. The starting point in developing asocial media engagement strategy is to monitor and evaluate the social media landscape foryour business. Social media landscaping will help you decide the best generic strategy to follow(Section 2) and should be undertaken at five main levels: • Applications – what social media applications are most relevant to your business/organisation? • Impact – what impact is social media having on your industry, how important has it become? • Customers – how are your customers using social media? What impact is it having on customer behaviour? • Conversations - what online conversations are taking place relevant to your business; who is saying what about your brand where on the Internet and how should you respond? • Features and characteristics – what are the key features and characteristics of social media that you need to understand i.e. social media culture?Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 8
  9. 9. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Figure 4: The Social Media LandscapeSource: FredCavazza.netApplicationsTo avoid the ‘we must use it because it’s available’ trap, you should identify the social mediaapplications and channels most relevant to your business. For most organisations, these wouldinclude the applications listed in Figure 5 below and covered in more detail in Appendix 1. Figure 5: Most Relevant Social Media Applications • Feeds and Alerts • Multimedia Sharing • Review Sites • Rich Internet Applications • Publishing • Social Bookmarking • Microblogging • Mobile and Internet Telephony • Social and Professional Networking • Open Source and Hosted ApplicationsSource: The AuthorsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 9
  10. 10. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentIndustry ImpactThree of the most important questions to address in deciding the generic social media (SM)strategy most appropriate for your business, are: 1. What impact is Web 2.0/Social Media having on your industry, product/service, or strategic business unit? 2. How important is SM to achieving your overall strategic goals and objectives? 3. What are the specific SM opportunities and threats for our business? HighIn terms of the first two questions,you should strategically position Figure 6: Generic SM Strategy Matrixyour organisation, product/service High industry impact/ High industry impact/or strategic business unit on the Low strategic High strategicmatrix shown in Figure 6. The importance importance Industry Impactvertical axis shows the industryimpact of social media and the Strategic priority High engagementhorizontal axis the strategic strategyimportance of social media to Low industry impact/ Low industry impact/achieving your core business Low strategic High strategicobjectives. There is a clear generic importance importancestrategy recommendationemerging from each cell: Passive approach Industry leader • Strategic priority • High engagement strategy • Passive approach Low Strategic Importance High • Industry leader Source: the AuthorsA Passive approach to social media strategy development and implementation may beacceptable in industries where social media has had limited impact and is not consideredstrategically important to achieving overall business goals and objectives. A more proactiveapproach will be required in all other situations. A High engagement strategy will be requiredin industries where social media has had a major impact and is considered ‘mission critical’ toachieving strategic objectives. Your organisation has an opportunity for emerging as anIndustry leader in cases where social media is considered to be strategically important but theoverall industry impact, to date, has been quite limited. As social media begins to have a moreimportant industry impact, your organisation should be strategically positioned to capitalise onthis. In industries where social media is already having a major impact, but your organisationScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 10
  11. 11. Guide to Social Media Strategy Developmenthas only made limited progress, the development and implementation of an effective strategyshould be considered a Strategic priority.In terms of the specific opportunities and threats for your business, we would suggest thatsocial media has the potential for impacting on ten main areas as summarised in Figure 7. Figure 7: Business Impact of Social Media 1. Mindset 6. Reputation Management 2. Business Intelligence 7. Sales and Marketing 3. Customer Insight and 8. Product Development and R&D Understanding e.g. engage and co-create 4. Customer Interaction 9. IT/Software/Applications 5. Enhanced Customer Experience – 10. Operations, Internal Processes and Rich Internet Applications HRMSource: The AuthorsAppendix 1 shows the way in which different social media applications can be used to deliverreal business benefits across five areas: • Knowledge and insight • Engagement and reputation management • Enhanced customer experience • Sales and marketing • Operations and internal processesScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 11
  12. 12. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentCustomersYour customers, business partners, employees, stakeholders and brand advocates will alreadybe using social media in some capacity. Understanding the why and where of how they use itand the influence of social media on customer behavior and decision-making is a cornerstone ofSM success.Being customer and network led is critical to a successful social media strategy. It boils downto three very simple questions: 1. Who are our customers, who do we wish to engage with? 2. Where do we find them ‘hanging out’ on social media? 3. How can we best engage and energise them?Figure 8 shows a useful model for thinking about your SM presence. Consider the very centre ofthe diagram as your company, organisation or web site. Each of the surrounding nodesrepresents online communities that your customers may already be engaging with i.e. theSocial Media Channels where your customers ‘hang out’. These may include Facebook,LinkedIn, YouTube, Twitter, Flickr, blogs, forums or other social media channels. Your genericSM strategy will be determined by where your customers ‘hang out’; how you can best engagewith and energise them. Figure 8: Online Customer CommunitiesSource: Mashable – www.mashable.comScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 12
  13. 13. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentConversationsOne of the major trends on the social web has been the emergence of Social Media MonitoringTools – applications which allow companies to monitor the conversations taking place abouttheir brand across different social media platforms; who is saying what, where on the socialweb. We have identified over 100 companies operating in this space, as summarized in Figure9. These range from no or low cost tools such as Google Alerts, Trackur, Social Mention andViralHeat to more expensive and sophisticated tools such as Scoutlabs, Radian6, SM2 andSocialRadar. The more expensive tools allow businesses to monitor and evaluate the following: • ‘River of news’: all the information pertaining to your business • The volume of relevant mentions • The topic trends (peaks and troughs over a period), tying in with events or other initiatives • What is being said at an aggregate level • The mention medium: tweet, blog post, forum post, news item, media upload • The importance of individual mentions • Overall sentiment or tone and reputation issues • The importance of channels, sources or individuals (influencers) • Updates and changes as they happen • Actionable insights based on the aboveScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 13
  14. 14. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Figure 9: Social Media Monitoring Tools – Tag CloudSource: The Authors Who’s talking about you?Using a Social Media Monitoring Tool relevant to your business, undertake an initial reviewand evaluation of who is talking about your brand, where online. Sum up your initial findingshere:Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 14
  15. 15. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentFeatures and CharacteristicsBefore discussing specific applications and how you can use these in your business, this sectionpresents the key features and characteristics of social media. An understanding of the ‘Ten KeyPrinciples’ is critical to your future success in this area. Figure 10: The Ten Key Principles of Social Media1. The social aspect: Web 2.0 is first and foremost a social phenomenon. A key feature is online democracy and user generated content. You cannot control what people say about your brand online.2. Power shift: Web 2.0 and social media empower your customers, empower your network. There has been a major ‘power shift’ from companies and organisations to customers.3. Declining effectiveness of traditional approaches: Traditional sales and marketing approaches are becoming less effective. Customers no longer listen to broadcast brand messages.4. Pull versus Push: It has become more difficult to push information/sales messages at customers. In an SM environment, the customer decides what information feeds they wish to subscribe to.5. New ‘mindsets’ are required: Social media is business as a conversation with your customers, a conversation with your network. New organisational mindsets are required. Most organisations are not good at talking with their customers.6. Engage and Energise: Effective use of social media is about engaging with and energising your network (customers, employees, stakeholders) to become brand advocates.7. New performance measures: New performance measures are required. Measures that evaluate the quality of your customer base, the quality of your online network and the strength of the relationship you have with them. In a social media era, the 4I’s (Involvement, Interaction, Intimacy and Influence) become the main drivers of future business success.8. Social media monitoring tools: Monitoring the online conversations taking place about your brand has become ‘mission critical’.9. Redefines online marketing: SM redefines the concept of a web site and online marketing. It is no longer about driving traffic to your site. It about online engagement with your network and delivering rich online customer experiences.10. New approaches to your business: New approaches based on communities, networks, openness, customer empowerment, engaging with and energising your network.Source: The AuthorsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 15
  16. 16. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development2. Agree your Generic Social Media StrategyYour evaluation of the social media landscape provides the foundation on which decisions canbe made concerning the generic social media strategy most appropriate for your organisation.Your generic social media strategy covers options and decisions in two main areas: 1. The number of social media channels to use 2. The depth of your engagement in each channelBased on a detailed research project involving the world’s top 100 brands, the recentEngagementdb study ( identified four main types of generic socialmedia strategy: • Mavens: Brands that sustain a high level of engagement across multiple social media channels. Mavens have a robust social media strategy supported by dedicated teams. Active engagement across a range of social media channels is a key element of their overall brand management strategy. • Butterflies: Brands using a large number of social media channels but with lower than average engagement scores in each channel. Would probably like to become ‘Mavens’ but full organizational buy-in and resources to do so have not yet been achieved. Danger of spreading activities too thinly. • Selectives: Brands that focus on a small number of channels but with high engagement scores in each one. Selectives focus on deep customer engagement in a small number of channels where it matters most. Social media initiatives at these brands tend to be lightly staffed, started by impassioned evangelists on a shoestring budget – can be a powerful beachhead for further development. • Wallflowers: Brands using a small number of channels and with below-average engagement scores. These brands have been slow to respond to the opportunities presented by social media, currently dipping their toes in the water, cautious about the risks and uncertain about the benefits. Your Generic Social Media StrategyAgree the generic social media strategy to follow. Indicate whether you are a Maven,Butterfly, Selective or Wallflower? What do you need to become?Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 16
  17. 17. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development3. Key Performance MeasuresYour social media engagement strategy should be fully aligned with and supportive of youroverall strategic goals and objectives. It is critical, therefore, that Key Performance Indicators(KPIs) are agreed for measuring on-going performance and business impact.Using a simplified Balanced Scorecard approach (see Section 6), KPIs should be agreed coveringboth ‘lag’ and ‘lead’ measures. • ‘Lag’ measures are your ultimate business goals and objectives. • ‘Lead’ measures are the social media KPIs that will help you to achieve your overall business goals and objectives.We would recommend using the ‘4Is’ approach to agreeing your Social Media KPIs –Involvement, Interaction, Intimacy and Influence, as shown below. Figure 11: Social Media KPIs – the ‘4Is’ ApproachInvolvement The number and quality of people in your various online networks; those that read or viewInteraction Actions they take – post, reply, comment and reviewIntimacy Levels of affection or aversion to the brand; community sentiments, opinions expressedInfluence Advocacy, viral forwards, referrals and recommendations, social bookmarkingSource: The AuthorsThe ‘4Is’ can be measured at two main levels. Each social media channel provides its ownstatistics for measuring channel performance e.g. Facebook ‘Insights’, YouTube video statistics,Twitter analytics etc. Second, Social Media Monitoring Tools (see Conversations, p11) can beused for more detailed analysis and for evaluating the overall ‘buzz’ created by your socialmedia activities. ‘Lag’ Measures ‘Lead’ MeasuresList here the overall strategic objectives to List here the main social media KPIs to be used;be achieved from your social media activities for example, the ‘4Is’. In an SM era, these become the main drivers of future business performanceScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 17
  18. 18. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development4. Internal Social Media AuditYour Internal Social Media Audit evaluates progress made, benchmarked against agreedcriteria. Key questions to address include: • What progress has been made? • What social media channels do we already use? • What is the level of engagement with each channel? • Where are the main areas for future improvement?Benchmarking is a key element of the Internal Audit and should be undertaken at five mainlevels: • Social Media Landscape – what progress has been made benchmarked against the opportunities presented by your social media landscape? • Generic Strategy – the level of progress made benchmarked against your generic social media strategy? • KPIs – what progress has been made benchmarked against agreed KPIs? • Industry ‘Best Practice’ – the level of progress made benchmarked against industry ‘best practice’? How does your current level of SM engagement compare with the industry average? What lessons can be learned from industry ‘mavens’? • Strategic Gap Analysis – based on the above, what is the ‘Strategic Gap’ that exists between the ‘current’ and ‘ideal’ scenarios; between where you are and where you should be? The ‘Strategic Gap’ provides a very strong basis for future social media strategy development.Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 18
  19. 19. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development5. Readiness to EngageThe Internal Audit of progress made (Section 4) should be followed by an evaluation of yourorganisation’s readiness or preparedness to engage with social media. This involves evaluatingthe social media strengths and weaknesses of the organisation and the main barriers andobstacles to be overcome. The template shown in Figure 12 can be used for this purpose. Figure 12: Readiness to Engage Strengths WeaknessesList here the main SM strengths of your List here the main SM weaknesses of yourorganisation e.g. strong brand, quality organisation e.g. limited staff knowledge andcustomer base, customers already active in understanding, resource issues, organizationalSocial Media etc. mindset, influence/attitude of the IT Dept etc. Obstacles/Barriers OvercomeDetail the main obstacles and barriers for your Indicate how barriers will be overcome,organisation. including in-sourcing / out-sourcing optionsSource: the AuthorsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 19
  20. 20. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development6. Social Media Strategy DevelopmentSteps 1 to 5 will establish a very strong foundation for developing and implementing aneffective social media strategy for your organisation. Steps 6 to 10, discussed below, coversocial media strategy development and action plans for ‘getting there’. They address in moredetail the following issues: organisation, people and resources; implementation; andperformance measurement.We would recommend the use of a simplified Balanced Scorecard approach ( to SM strategy development and implementation. This willensure that the social media actions and initiatives you introduce are fully aligned behind andsupportive of your overall business goals and objectives.The key steps involved are: • Agree the social media vision for your organisation • Identify the key strategic objectives and targets to be achieved • Detail who your most valuable customers are, where they ‘hang out’ on social media and how you can best engage with them • Describe the key social media actions and initiatives you need to introduce to achieve your strategic objectives and targets • Detail all organization, people and resource issues to be overcomeYou will find the Social Media Landscape framework shown in Appendix 1 to be very useful indeveloping your SM strategy. This matches ten of the most important Web 2.0/Social Mediaapplications with associated business benefits in five main areas: • Knowledge and Insight • Engagement and Reputation Management • Enhanced Customer Experience • Sales and Marketing • Operations and Internal Processes Social Media PlanningUsing Appendix 1, detail the main social media applications relevant to your organisation andtheir associated business benefitsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 20
  21. 21. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentYou can use the template in Figure 13 to ensure that your Web 2.0/Social Media strategy is fullyaligned with and supportive of the overall business goals and objectives of your organisation. Figure 13: Web 2.0 Balanced Scorecard Template Strategic Theme Insert here a clear statement of the overall ‘vision/mission’ to be achieved from your Web 2.0/Social Media Strategy: Strategic Objectives List the main strategic objectives to be achieved: List the main KPIs to be used in evaluating the on-going success of your SM efforts: Identify the main Targets for each KPI listed: Customer Perspective Your overall aim here should be to build a ‘quality’ customer base i.e. a strong base of loyal, high value, high growth potential customers providing your organisation with a strong foundation for sustained growth in sales and profits Insert here a clear statement covering the main customer segments and their relative importance to achieving your overall business goals and objectives: List the main customer segments for your organisation: Rank order these in terms of importance to achieving core business goals and objectives: Internal Perspective (2.0 Initiatives) In this section, you should begin to map out the key Web 2.0/Social Media initiatives and actions required to achieve your overall goals and objectives. For each 2.0/Social Media ‘Initiative’ you should state clearly the overall objective to be achieved; targets and KPIs; and the key actions required for ‘getting there’.Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 21
  22. 22. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Initiative 1 Insert here a summary of Initiative 1 actions required to ensure that (e.g. Facebook) overall strategic objectives are achieved. This should cover a clear statement of: Initiative 1 Objectives. Targets and Performance Measures. Key Initiatives and Actions required. Initiative 2 Insert here a summary of the Initiative 2 actions required to ensure (e.g. Linkedin) that overall strategic objectives are achieved. This should cover a clear statement of: Initiative 2 Objectives. Targets and Performance Measures. Key Initiatives and Actions required. Initiative 3 Insert here a summary of the Initiative 3 actions required to ensure (e.g. Twitter) that overall strategic objectives are achieved. This should cover a clear statement of: Initiative 3 Objectives. Targets and Performance Measures. Key Initiatives and Actions required. Other initiatives Continue as above Organisation, Resource and People Issues In this section you should briefly identify the Organisation, Resource and People issues that will impact on your ability to successfully implement the Key Web 2.0/Social Media Initiatives and Actions agreed above. Organisation Insert here a summary of the key organizational issues that need to be resolved:Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 22
  23. 23. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Resource Insert here a summary of the key Resource issues that need to be resolved: People Insert here a summary of the key People issues that need to be resolved:Source: the AuthorsThe Social Media Strategy emerging from the above Balanced Scorecard exercise can bepresented as a one page strategy map as follows: Figure 14: BSC Social Media Strategy Map Brief statement of your overall 2.0/Social Media Vision and MissionStrategic Objectives Strategic Objectives KPIs / Targets KPIs / Targets KPIs / Targets KPIs / TargetsCustomer Perspective Customer Customer Customer Customer Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4Internal Management Perspective 2.0/Social Media 2.0/Social Media 2.0/Social Media 2.0/Social Media Initiative 1 Initiative 2 Initiative 3 Initiative 4 - Objectives - Objectives - Objectives - Objectives - KPIs - KPIs - KPIs - KPIs - Targets - Targets - Targets - Targets - Actions - Actions - Actions - ActionsOrganisation Perspective Organisation Resource PeopleSource: the AuthorsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 23
  24. 24. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development7. Channel Action PlansOnce your Social Media Strategy has been agreed, brief Action Plans should be developed foreach priority SM channel. This can be done by cascading the Balanced Scorecard approach toeach channel identified as a priority for development e.g. LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter. TheAction Plan for each channel should include a clear statement of: • The overall objectives for that channel • The KPIs to be used • Specific targets • The key channel actions and initiatives for ‘getting there’.The template shown in Figure 15 can be used for this purpose. Figure 15: Channel Action PlansChannel X e.g. LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter etcObjectives KPIs Targets ActionsInsert here bullet Insert here the main Insert here the Insert here thepoints summarizing KPIs you will use to specific targets specific channelyour overall strategic evaluate channel agreed for each KPI actions and initiativesobjectives for this effectiveness required to achievechannel agreed targets, KPIs and objectivesSource: the AuthorsScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 24
  25. 25. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development8. Organization, Resource and People issuesOrganisation, resource and people issues sit at the bottom of your SM Balanced Scorecard NOTbecause they are the least important issues to address. In fact, the exact opposite is true. Thesuccess of your social media strategy is very much dependent upon appropriate decisions beingmade in the areas listed below.Your ‘Social Media Strategy Document’ should contain a section that covers the followingissues: • Roles, responsibilities and resources o In-source roles and responsibilities o Out-source roles and responsibilities o Role of the Social Media champion o Social media decision-making and control structures o Resource plans o Organizational culture and ‘mindset’ • Policies and guidelines o Social Media Proper Use Policy o Social Media Content Guidelines o Social Media Channel Guidelines o Customer Response Policy and Guidelines o Employee Response Policy and Guidelines o Legal aspects to the above Organisation, Resource and People IssuesDetail the issues that your organisation must consider in this areaScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 25
  26. 26. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development9. ImplementationProfessional project management procedures should be used to ensure that your SM strategy isdelivered ‘on time, within budget’ and that agreed business objectives are achieved. Followingprofessional project management procedures will ensure that your Social Media Strategyaddresses the ten key success factors of any project: 1. Objectives – clarity; business case; link to overall strategy of the company 2. Project Scope – avoid being too narrow or too broad 3. Commitment – by the company, project team 4. Prioritization – vis-à-vis other commitments 5. Communications – project team, management team, employees 6. Project Team Dynamics – minimizing team conflicts 7. Scheduling and Managing Workload – aim being to achieve more with less 8. Deadlines – ‘Just in Time’ affects quality 9. Project Quality – aim to meet or exceed expectations 10. Customer Value – ensure the project meets the needs of “project customers”Project management knowledge and practices are best described in terms of their componentprocesses; every project goes through a life cycle as shown below. Social media projects are nodifferent. • Initiation / Definition: agreeing objectives and deciding what needs to be done • Planning and Analysis: creating a solution • Implementation: implementation and roll-out of the solution • Performance and Control: evaluate progress and performance • Project Closure: close the project and take lessons into the next projectThere are a range of skills and resources that accompany successful Project Management, toomany to mention in this document. Social Media Project ManagementOutline the issues that you or your organisation must consider in this areaScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 26
  27. 27. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development10. Monitor and MeasureTo ensure that your SM strategy delivers a return on your investment, it is important to monitorand evaluate on-going performance benchmarked against agreed objectives, KPIs and targets.Performance evaluation should be undertaken at three main levels: • Individual Channel Performance – the effectiveness/success of each channel benchmarked against agreed targets for the ‘4Is’ i.e. Involvement, Interaction, Intimacy and Influence. Most channels provide easy to access statistics for measuring each ‘I’ to a very high degree of accuracy. • Wider Social Media Performance – in addition to measuring the performance of each channel, we would recommend monthly or quarterly reporting of the overall ‘buzz’ created by your SM activities using appropriate Social Media Monitoring tools. This will show the impact of your SM activities on others and other channels. It will measure the volume of mentions, trends over time, which channels are driving your buzz, who is taking your message further, through which channels, and what affection or affinity are they showing, and so on. • Underlying Business Performance – the performance of each social media channel and the overall ‘buzz’ created are ‘lead’ rather than ‘lag’ measures. In a social media era, they are the main ‘drivers’ of future business performance. The final level of performance monitoring, therefore, is linking your social media activity to overall business goals and objectives e.g. enquiries, sales or customer loyalty. Is social media achieving your ultimate business objectives i.e. ‘lag’ measures? Whilst social media channels and monitoring tools provide a high level of (previously unavailable) performance data, they cannot map every ‘cause and effect’ of your SM initiatives. Whilst some of your users will visit a site and take an action directly from the SM channel, others will go directly to the site or search for the website later. Furthermore, some may learn about a great product or service from a Facebook friend, but order by more traditional means e.g. phone or email. How are these interactions captured? In this respect, businesses must be pragmatic and to some extent creative in how they evaluate Social Media impact on underlying business performance. Through creating a series of performance touch-points your business or organisation can build an SM evidence base. Web analytics packages such as Google Analytics should be utilized; they help your business to understand the following: • those ‘jumping’ from Social Media channels and then taking action • changes in proportions that are arriving “brand aware” and • peaks in website activity and relationships to social media ‘buzz’Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 27
  28. 28. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development However, discerning the underlying business impact of Social Media will also involve comparing Social Media “buzz” with trends in overall business activity (online and offline). It will involve, taking time to “speak” to your customers, directly and through polls or surveys in order to understand how they engage in SM channels and which of your initiatives influenced them. Ultimately, it will involve use of one of the new generation of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems. Companies like have already given their application a strong “2.0” focus. In addition to capturing “traditional” customer interactions, these tools are also capturing your customers’ social media interactions with you across Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and others. has been quick to adapt their product and grasp the opportunity Social Media has presented, others will soon follow. Monitor and MeasureOutline how you will measure the on-going performance of your Social Media StrategyScottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 28
  29. 29. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentSummary and ConclusionsWith more companies and organisations becoming serious about social media, there is agrowing realization that successful SM practice requires sound planning and the application ofprofessional project management procedures to SM strategy development, implementationand performance measurement.This Guide has outlined the Ten Key Steps involved in SM planning. We hope that you havefound the content of the Guide to be useful in determining your own response to the excitingopportunities that lie ahead. We would be more than happy to answer any questions you mayhave either by e-mailing us at the contact addresses shown below or by posting on our ‘crowdsourced’ Web 2.0 and Social Media e-Learning Community at You.Dr Jim Hamill and Alan StevensonApril, Tourism and Hospitality Page 29
  30. 30. Guide to Social Media Strategy DevelopmentAppendix 1 – The Social Media Landscape and Business BenefitsThe Web 2.0/Social Media applications most relevant to the majority of companies andorganisations are listed in Figure 16, each is matched with associated business benefits in fivemain areas: • Knowledge and Insight • Engagement and Reputation Management • Enhanced Customer Experience • Sales and Marketing • Operations and Internal ProcessesReferences for Further Learning are also provided. The shaded columns indicate the main usesfor each application.A Strategic Guide to Social Media Page 30
  31. 31. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Figure 16: The Social Media Landscape for Tourism and Hospitality Businesses Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Users subscribe to receive regular updates from favoured web sites, blogs, online news channels etc. The two Feed/Alert Google Alerts Improved Feed / Alert most popular ways of monitoring can RSS in Plain English Essential for you can be used as a customer monitoring can doing this are by support a range of to subscribe to free ‘social insight and generate direct subscribing to an RSS business processes, Google Reader 1 relevant feeds media understanding sales leads andFeeds & Alerts Feed and/or registering such as and alerts for monitoring’ tool should enhance opportunities; with Google Alerts. procurement (new Google Reader 2 building market alerting you the online and improved Updates can be read on contracts or /customer when someone offline customer customer an RSS Reader, tenders), employee Make Google Alerts your knowledge, talks about your experience knowledge can smartphone or received monitoring and virtual research assistant insight and brand or through lead to a better by e-mail. An increasing new product or understanding destination customisation/ online customer number of Web users service online personalisation experience are accessing development information updates this way. It represents information ‘pull’ rather than ‘push’ A Strategic Guide to Social Media Page 31
  32. 32. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Sites like Trip Advisor or Develop and which implement an Leverage Improve Internal allow travellers to post Use reviews to agreed positive ‘word Processes (such as reviews and Monitoring improve the TripAdvisor Explained reputation of mouth’ Staff Training,Review & recommendations review and customer management effects to Customer Service)Recommendation covering destinations, recommendation experience; TripAdvisor Tutorial policy for increase sales; and the Product orSites accommodation sites is critical to make it easy for responding to minimise the Service itself based providers, restaurants, developing deep customers at visitor impact of on customer activities etc. Businesses customer insight the trip comments negative reviews and can respond to planning stage (positive and comments recommendations comments and integrate negative) reviews into their site. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 32
  33. 33. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Includes Blogs (Wordpress, Blogger) and Wikis (Wikispaces, Wikimedia). A typical Good blog or wiki will combine Provide access communication Blogs and Wikis text, images, video and Provide an Wikis in Plain English to accurate and tools, which improve internal links to other web sites. Wikis are great opportunity to up-to-date make it easy for communications They promote user input sources of engage with Wikipedia Tutorial information. customers to between tiers of and user generated knowledge your customers. Allow view, comment management e.g.Publishing feedback and comment. through which to Speed and ease Blogs in Plain English customers to and pass-on key the CEO and the Used creatively, blogging engage and of publication research, messages to staff on the floor tools can be used to leverage. supports good Blog Marketing interact and others. Great to and within build your web site Customer reputation feedback. engage Departments e.g. a rather than relying on a feedback through management Wordpress Tutorial Support the customers, Staff Suggestion proprietary CMS – blogs can help to often at the customer at the build brand Wiki. This is significantly reducing build deeper highest levels of Wordpress Lessons planning, arrival awareness, particularly costs. Wikis provide a customer insight. the organisation and post-visit increase sales relevant for larger more efficient means to e.g. CEO blog. stages. and provide an organisations. publish, where the SEO uplift. community creates and reviews content e.g. Wikitravel Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 33
  34. 34. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Identify and engage Sites such as Twitter and Access to up-to- Engage your customers and Yammer which allow Famous for its date Twitter monitoring followers with more users to send short ability to break information for can improve tweets, replies, importantly ‘tweets’ of 140 news; Twitter the hyper- process efficiency; Twitter in Plain English retweets or influencers and characters or less. users are often connected. allowing speed and direct opinion setters Twitter is a public the ‘first to know’ Particularly efficiency ofMicroblogging Twitter Tutorial - Getting messages. You directly. Microblogging platform e.g. breaking useful at the response to Started can quickly Application whereas Yammer is news of the Haiti arrival or emerging identify and just makes it easy restricted. You can earthquake. activity stage. opportunities and Twitter Guidebook as quickly for great follow any Twitter Twitter Search Customers and threats. Yammer is respond to messages to account and be and Twitter lists potential a closed network potential reach a wide followed. Twitter is good help find and customers can and good for status reputation audience. Great for building a community organise your interact through updates as part of a issues through to engage of users with an interest knowledge feeds. grouping tweets company intranet. this application. customers, in your status updates. with #hashtags build brand and increase sales. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 34
  35. 35. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Sites which allow users to build their own online Increasingly profiles, connect with Great resources Facebook is Provides an paying their friends/business What is Facebook? for keeping track typically used opportunity to way through Facebook is associates and engage in of what friends, for customers identify lead generation replacing Customer social/professional Facebook for Business customers, to engage with reputation and increased Support SystemsSocial and networking. Includes Marketing associates and the brand issues as they brand loyalty for some largeProfessional most notably Facebook, colleagues are (through fan arise and resulting in brands likeNetworking the largest social Facebook for Business 101 doing. Provides pages’) or engage increased sales. TalkTalk. LinkedIn network in the world status updates of access support. customers and Some are using and Facebook with 400m registered What is LinkedIn? your network. LinkedIn allows staff, quickly these tools to extend and in some users and LinkedIn, the LinkedIn is an your customers and efficiently. build brand and instances replace largest professional How & Why To Use extension of your to get advice Supports good move into more the Contact network with over 50m Contact (through reputation lucrative Database. users. For those looking Management groups) and management. business to create their own System. connect to you. networks. network there are sites like Ning. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 35
  36. 36. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Video and User Generated images tell a Video and YouTube and Flickr YouTube is a story more Images can are essentially great resource for effectively than provide multi-media tutorials and Photo and words. Many valuable viral repositories. It is Sites which allow users Online Photo Sharing in how-to guides. Video SharingMultimedia recent brand impact for a possible to store to upload, share and plain English Both YouTube are great waysSharing reputation brand e.g. see your favourite comment on multimedia and Flickr will for customers issues centre the Battle at video footage and content – video and How to Use YouTube provide a range of to express their around an Kruger. These images which can images. The most videos and experience of a uploaded video. channels can then be embedded popular include YouTube Online Video for images on your brand, product Monitoring also leverage into your own site for Videosharing and Marketing brand, product or or destination. these media existing media, and elsewhere. Flickr for Photosharing. destination. A Both great and (and responding increase brand YouTube can also review of related terrible. effectively) is awareness, be viewed as an e- comments can critical to improve sales learning and staff provide insight. reputation and provide an training tool. management. SEO uplift. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 36
  37. 37. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Mash Ups are Mashups create applications created new value for through applying and customers – a combining different richer internet Mashups add applications (or APIs). Mashups provide experience with Customers are new value and They are often free and new types of video, images using Mashups generate brand available for use through valuable and even access to post awareness as a Podcasts can a browser. Examples information e.g. maps or reviews comments - result. support corporate include Panaramio What is a Mashup customer from other good and bad. It communications, e-Rich Internet images mashed in reviews, sites; makes it is important to Podcasts are a learning and staffApplications Google Earth or How To Make Your Own multimedia and easy for them. review these. good way to training. They are a TripAdvisor comments Web Mashup business listings build brand and good means for mashed into a Tourism by geo-location. Podcasts put Podcasts can be reach out to a everyone in the site. Podcasting in Plain English the customer in a good way to wider potential organisation to get Podcasts are a charge in terms engage with audience. They valuable Podcasting is a method How To Create A Podcast low cost and of when they your customers can create viral information in a of distributing efficient way to want to or tribe - like a impact. They time and place that multimedia files, such as access almost any consume serialisation for also create suits them. audio or video, over the conceivable information. It your business or brand loyalty Internet using RSS, for subject on the provides an destination. which converts playback on mobile move. extension to the to sales. devices and personal visitor computers. Podcasts can experience - be be found on websites here without and directories like being here. iTunes. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 37
  38. 38. Guide to Social Media Strategy Development Engagement Enhanced Knowledge and Sales and Operations/ Overview Further Learning and Reputation Customer Insight Marketing Internal Processes Management Experience Social bookmarking sites Perhaps the like Delicious, Social biggest single Social The sites allow Stumbleupon, Digg, bookmarking is benefit for an bookmarking sites users to tag Diigo and Reddit allow Social Bookmarking in not for organisation to Social bookmarking are an alternative content, usually users to collectively plain english everyone but promote the sites should be means of finding this is at two categorise interesting some customers use of social considered valuable extremes e.g. aSocial web content (urls) Social Bookmarking: expect to be bookmarking is knowledge knowledge and terrible exampleBookmarking through notes and tags Delicious tutorial able to easily the positive resources and can insight. Through or a great piece (keywords) and even bookmark your effect on page be a good way for connecting with of content. vote on whether it is Social Bookmarking content. Make rank. Social staff to quickly and users you can Monitoring good or not. What Tutorial 2 it easy for them bookmarking easily build and create a which of your emerges is a great way through can create share a company knowledge base content is being of finding and sharing Social Bookmarking: providing a valuable knowledge base on of individuals that tagged can the most relevant PageRank button on each backlinks into almost any subject will turn up niche indicate content whilst web page. your site and or discipline. content on a reputation identifying users that can These are easy increase your regular basis. issues. become your knowledge to install. ranking on the base. search engines. Scottish Tourism and Hospitality Page 38