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  • 1. Basic Videography and Editing Prepared for KQED October 17, 2013 Jim Foust jfoust@bgsu.edu
  • 2. Basic Video Stuff  Aspect ratio—the shape of the video screen  4:3 or 16:9 most common  Frame size (resolution)  Given as two numbers with width first  640 x 480; 320 x 240 (4:3)  1920 x 1080; 1280 x 720; 960 x 540; 480 x 270 (16:9)  Higher numbers = higher quality  Sometimes shortened to height and i or p for interlaced or progressive (720p)  Frame Rate—number of still pix per second  30 “normal” for TV; 20 or less jittery
  • 3. A Little About Compression Makes video files smaller  By altering resolution, frame rate, pixels, etc.  Often measured by bitrate Higher bitrate = higher quality = larger file  Common Formats AVI, MOV MPEG FLV (Flash video) h264
  • 4. Rule of Thirds
  • 5. Rule of Thirds
  • 6. Rule of Thirds
  • 7. Shooting Soundbites  Eyes at top third (or thereabouts)  Lead space in direction they’re looking (frame to left or right third)  Not looking into camera, but looking slightly off camera (both eyes should be visible; both ears if possible) NO PROFILES!  Shoot in medium shot—head and shoulders Can be exceptions (wider shots) for artistic purpose As you go wider, eyes move slightly more toward top of frame, but always in vicinity of top third  Beware of distracting backgrounds  Only one person in frame  Beware of shooting from high or low angle
  • 8. Soundbite Framing
  • 9. Headroom POOR BETTER
  • 10. Examples Soundbite Framing Grid Soundbite Framing Examples Story Example: Dangerous Curve Story Example: Bee Swarm
  • 11. Depth of Field The range of distance in a given shot in which objects are in acceptable focus.
  • 12. Depth of Field Aperture: the more open (the lower the number) the smaller the depth of field.
  • 13. Depth of Field Subject distance: the closer the subject is to the camera, the smaller the depth of field.
  • 14. Depth of Field Focal length: the more “zoomed in” the smaller the depth of field. Video Example
  • 15. Basic Aesthetics  Separation of subject from background  Using depth of field  Being aware of the background Avoid brick walls, etc.  Moving subject away from the background  Ideally, in event-specific stories, the background should have something to do with story
  • 16. Lighting  Be aware of light situation  Don’t shoot against windows or other strong light sources  Use natural light to your advantage  Move person around so window shines on them
  • 17. Sound—Technical  Use Lav whenever possible  Beware of background noise  NEVER unrelated background noise
  • 18. Sound—Content  Set expectations beforehand  Tell interviewee a little about finished product  Consider “Tell me about. . .” rather than actually asking questions  Remember that the story will have to stand on its own without narrative/questions
  • 19. Equipment AC Adapter/Charger Camera Batteries USB Card Reader SD Card
  • 20. Equipment
  • 21. Lav Mic Nice long cable Removable (and losable) wind screen LR-44 watch battery inside Power switch: remember to turn ON when recording and OFF when done, or it will drain battery.
  • 22. Recommended Accessories  Camera light  Monopod  KQED Tripod (currently in limbo)  Headphones
  • 23. Pre-Shoot Checklist  Batteries charged  SD Card ready  Lav mic working  Do a test shoot
  • 24. Camera Controls: Left Side Powered Image Stabilization: press and hold for more aggressive image stabilization Zoom Control Power Button
  • 25. Camera Controls: Right Side Record Button Mode Switch: Set to M
  • 26. Camera Controls: Behind Door SD Card Slot Display Button: toggles how much info you see on display Record/Play: toggles camera between record and playback mode
  • 27. Make sure you’re in VIDEO Mode Should see video cam Icon here If not, press the video camera icon here to go to video mode
  • 28. Accessing and Checking Video Settings Access and check by pressing FUNC
  • 29. Basic Camera Settings  Auto white balance  FUNC > WB > AWB (can just check it)  Auto Focus (usually)  FUNC > Focus > AF  Auto Exposure  FUNC > Exposure > A  Digital Effects OFF  FUNC > Digital Effects > Off
  • 30. A Simple SOT  Green Room Video
  • 31. Editing Basic Editing Process 1. Start editing project in FCP 2. Import Video from camera/card 3. Trim individual video clips 4. Assemble clips on timeline 5. Export finished project
  • 32. Editing  Jump Cuts Example  Me with Jump Cuts  Me with Dissolve  Me with White Flash
  • 33. Story Types Soundbite(s) Soundbite(s) with B-roll Nat Sound Piece (soundbites, nat, music) Nat Sound Piece 2 Voice Over (VO) Narrative story (with reporter voice) not often used online.
  • 34. Shooting B-Roll Shot Types The Case Against Zooms and Pans Some Simple Sequences Bad Sequence Soundbite Framing Grid Soundbite Framing Examples