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Putting Mineral Licenses on the Map: Bringing Government Cadastres Online
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Putting Mineral Licenses on the Map: Bringing Government Cadastres Online


A presentation given by Charles Young, Senior Consultant at Spatial Dimension, on their work bringing the mining cadastres of DRC, Tanzania and Uganda online. Includes an overview of their systems and …

A presentation given by Charles Young, Senior Consultant at Spatial Dimension, on their work bringing the mining cadastres of DRC, Tanzania and Uganda online. Includes an overview of their systems and the thinking into the future related to online portals and online license applications.

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  • 1. In Conversation with Charles Young Bringing Government Cadastres Online
  • 2. Spatial Dimension Background• Founded in 1999 with 4 staff• Currently 50 staff (business analysts, programmers, database specialists, project managers, etc)• Offices in Cape Town, Johannesburg, Vancouver, Belo Horizonte and Sydney• Focus on implementing FlexiCadastre (mining cadastre system) for corporates and governments• Extending FlexiCadastre online services Strategic Partnerships
  • 3. FlexiCadastreCorporate Clients
  • 4. FlexiCadastreGovernment Clients
  • 5. FlexiCadastre FootprintCorporate and Government User Base 600+ users in 90+ locations 1 million lines of code > 8 million km2 of land managed
  • 6. Presentation Framework• End Game – Improve the quality of licensing data – Improve the general availability of up-to-date licensing data – Increase transparency in the licensing application process – Develop tools for civil society and investors to dynamically access licensing data online – Develop tools to allow for the application of licenses online• Online Mining Cadastre Implementation Steps – Mining cadastre systems – Online license mapping portals – Online license application portals
  • 7. Online Mining Cadastre Implementation Mining Cadastre Systems
  • 8. Mining Cadastre Systems Evolution Introduction• Paper Based ‘System’ – Only hardcopy records available with no digital data• GIS Based ‘System’ – Includes a mapping application (ArcGIS, MapInfo, etc) with associated database (MS Access, MS Excel, etc)• Mining Cadastre System – Integrates the relevant Laws and Regulatory business processes and forces data integrity• Online License Mapping Portal – Provides online access to a dynamic license map• Online License Application Portal – Allows for online transactions i.e. new applications, renewals, transfers, etc
  • 9. Mining Cadastre Systems Current Situation 25 20 15 10 5 0 Paper Based GIS Based Mining Cadastre Tenement Mapping Tenement Online ‘System’ ‘System’ System Portal Transactions African Cadastre SystemsPlease note that this graph is for illustration purposes only and has no scientific backing
  • 10. Mining Cadastre SystemsData Access Corruption vs. Transparency100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Paper Based GIS Based Mining Cadastre Tenement Mapping Online Tenement ‘System’ ‘System’ System Portal Transactions Corruption Transparency Please note that this graph is for illustration purposes only and has no scientific backing
  • 11. Mining Cadastre SystemsPaper Based Cadastre ‘System’
  • 12. Mining Cadastre Systems GIS Based Cadastre ‘System’ArcGIS – Only records the spatial information MS Excel – Only records the tabular information
  • 13. Mining Cadastre Systems Paper / GIS System Data Integrity Drawbacks• Paper and GIS based systems – Not possible to handle large application volumes – Isnt modeled in accordance with the Mining Law and Regulations – Poor license overlap detection (topographic sheets) – Poor restricted area overlap detection – No data auditing – Creation of disparate datasets• Results in POOR DATA MANAGEMENT• Results in POOR DATA QUALITY• DOESN’T ALLOW FOR THE PUBLISHING OF ACCURATE DATA ONLINE
  • 14. Mining Cadastre Systems Cadastre Systems Data Integrity Benefits• Mining Cadastre Systems – Processes designed in accordance with the Laws and Regulations – Provides tools to accurately capture cadastre data – Validates license overlaps on application – Reduces possible conflicts with licenses and restricted areas – Notifies up and coming renewals and expiries – Ensures full data auditing• Results in GOOD DATA MANAGEMENT• Results in GOOD DATA QUALITY• ALLOWS FOR THE PUBLISHING OF ACCURATE DATA ONLINE
  • 15. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Institutional Setup
  • 16. Mining Cadastre Systems Implementation - Business Process Modeling Application for an Exploration license Applicant: Submit application Receivability items Receivability items * Natural person * Legal person LT: Capture application Full name Full name Nationality Nationality Application not C Place and date of birth Legal form Not receivable Head of LT: Check Immediately received Profession Capital receivability Place of recidense and Address of head office, Immediately address name and address of its LT: Scan and upload The type of mineral and representative in Ethiopia documents geographical Copies of memorandum coordinates and aritcles of association, Immediately Any previous right held latest annual report, LT: Register application in License status: APPLICATION Statements: financial, balance sheet, profits and Archive technical competence loss statement and auditors Application rejected Complete overlap or Partial overlap or and experience reports for the previous License status: Immediately Work program max area exceeded over max area three years and a list of REJECTED Expenditure members’ name of the board of directors incl. Lic overlap and max area check Determine area free of address and nationality and overlap and/or adjust size any other authorised Spatial validation person Immediately Immediately The type of minreal and Shape Validation geographical coordinates Print letter of modified area is always closed Any previous right held to applicant successfully. Statements: financial, Maximum size Result shape is technical competence and allowed is 2000 km2 Immediately determined by experience if in area Category 1, Validation Work program or 3500 km2 if in area No overlap and not exceeding max area Archive: Send letter of Expenditure Category 2. modified area to the Maximum total area applicant allowed for one Immediately license holder is 5000 km2 for all No response or resources except Receive response from negative response construction applicant LT: Generate Flexicadastre materials, 20 km2, confirmation letter and 15 days Gemstones, 200 km2 notification for national and Industrial newspaper, send to minerals, 500 km2 applicant via archive Immediately Confirmation of application letter Applicant: Collect notification letter from archive and publish 15 days LT: Register publication date Public: LT:Evaluate objection Objection Within 120 days Within 30 days No objection Application rejected LT: Evaluation License documents are: Technical program LT: Prepare license License letter (agreement) Environmental statement Maps and coordinates documents Work Program 7 days Unspecified Memo to minister LT: Print letter to request outstanding information from applicant (via archive) 15 days HOD: Authorisation LT: Capture Work Program Unspecified No response or commitments Application rejected unsatisfactory 7 copies for signature Unspecified HOD: Send documents to License fee is minister/regional bureau calculated based on 3 Head of MOD: Sign head for signature items rejection of application Unspecified 10 birr per page Unspecified 10 birr certificate fee 200 birr per license License status: REJECTED (20 km2) License fee: 200 Birr Receive copy of signed Minister/Regional Bureau LT: Notify applicant and documents from archive. head: Sign and send back Applicant: Pay license fee LT: Notify applicant Prepare license fee papergive reasons for rejection to HOD and certificate Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Unspecified Licensee: Collect license License status: ACTIVE Unspecified (schedule on previous action) Schedule granting and close on date of Minister signs. Set license status to Active Schedule submission of annual (2nd and 3rd) work program 11 months and 23 LT = Licensing Team month after granting IT= Inspection Team Schedule Expiry 3 years after granting (date of minister signing) Annual land rate is 60 Birr per km2 . Schedule annual report 30 days after expiry The Land rates are These rates may calculated differently from vary from region to region to region, functionality region has to accommodate several Schedule Land Rates actions in the workflow, only the appropriate action (based on region) must be selected and used for scheduling the Copies of approved application/license to land rate. Regional Mines office, MOD, offices of Minister and state minister.
  • 17. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Historical Data Verification
  • 18. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation – Standard Procedures
  • 19. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Spatial Validation
  • 20. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Lifetime Obligations
  • 21. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Renewal Verification
  • 22. Mining Cadastre SystemsImplementation - Integrated GIS Map
  • 23. Online Mining Cadastre Implementation License Mapping Portal
  • 24. License Mapping Portal Implementation Effort Split• Technology (software) – 10% effort• Infrastructure (hardware, bandwidth, etc) – 20% effort• Data (licenses) – 30% effort• Culture (political) – 40% effort
  • 25. License Mapping Portal Technical Architecture• Service – Cloud computing methodology – End users access the online portal through a standard web browser – Allows for the sharing of resources to achieve economies of scale• Application Framework – Initially developed in Esri Silverlight API but incompatible with Apple’s mobile operating system (iOS) – Silverlight requires a plug-in download (6 megabytes) – Plan to expand supported target platforms to HTML5 capable devices (iOS & Android) using the Esri JavaScript API• Mapping Framework – Esri’s ArcGIS Server• Spatial Database – Esri’s ArcSDE
  • 26. License Mapping Portal Data Structure• Layers – Licenses: Hosted in South Africa – Physical map backdrop: Esri online map service – Satellite imagery: Microsoft Bing maps – Geology: Hosted by OneGeology – Project data: Various• User Experience – Seamless data integration – Integrated datasets presented in one interface
  • 27. License Mapping Portal Challenges Legal Framework Solution• The legal framework needs to accommodate online data sharing / online payments / online applications• Solution – Future World Bank regulatory framework reviews should make provision for online transactions – The Zambia government is currently updating the legal framework to incorporate online transactions – Tanzania is also undertaking a legal framework review
  • 28. License Mapping Portal Challenges ‘Dirty’ Data Solution• Portal of limited use if the licensing data is of poor quality• Solution – Implement mining cadastre systems to create the basis for ‘clean’ data – Cadastre implementation includes an initial data verification process – Ensures good data quality on an ongoing basis – Not only spatial inaccuracies but attribute errors i.e. active status but expired – Tanzania portal used to involve the public in data cleaning verification
  • 29. License Mapping Portal Challenges Political Buy In Solution• The most challenging aspect of implementing an online solution• Solution – Build on the momentum of other cadastre / online implementations – Encourage policy makers, funders, civil society and investors to put pressure on government – Implement a soft skills approach which includes creating a wave of change from middle to upper management Cadastre Head Director of Mines Permanent Secretary Minister of Mines – Ultimately the key is to build strong relationships with governments. It could take years to push the shift from a culture of protecting license data to a culture of sharing license data. – The bottom line is there are no shortcuts, it takes time and requires patience
  • 30. License Mapping Portal Challenges Poor Server Infrastructure Solution• Developing countries generally have poor infrastructure. The online systems need to guarantee 100% uptime.• Solution – Host the servers and online system externally – Advantages of hosting externally at a Data Centre – Dedicated and fast bandwidth guaranteed – Scheduled data backups – System uptime guaranteed – Availability of generators and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems – Provides a reliable remote access connection for support and maintenance
  • 31. License Mapping Portal Challenges Funding Solution• Governments generally don’t have sufficient funds to implement online systems• Solution – The solution needs to be addressed internally (government) and externally (donors) – Sell data online i.e. licenses GIS data (government) – Provide a monthly subscription feature service for a fee (government) – Follow the route of PNG by including the provision of online services in the mining cadastre RfP (donors) – Need to fund online cadastre portals as the ultimate way of increasing license transparency (donors)
  • 32. License Mapping Portal Challenges Integrate Extractive Data• Not only mining data but country wide extractive data showing mining licenses as well as oil and gas blocks. This problem is pronounced in East Africa with the newly discovered oil and gas discoveries.• Solution – Oil and gas government institutions will require proper cadastre systems to ensure transparency and good data – Initial ‘integration’ can be a data extract from existing ‘systems’ – Tanzania will ‘integrate’ oil and gas licenses in the mining portal (data export)
  • 33. License Mapping PortalUser Friendly Interface
  • 34. License Mapping PortalData Update Date Stamp
  • 35. License Mapping PortalIntegration with Bing Maps
  • 36. License Mapping PortalIntegration with OneGeology OneGeology geology data for Kenya
  • 37. License Mapping PortalIntegration with Militarised Mining Areas
  • 38. License Mapping Portal Updating Routines
  • 39. License Mapping Portal DRC Usage Statistics
  • 40. License Mapping Portal Future Plans – Spatial Features• XY tool allowing for the capture of coordinates for application prescreening• Overlap detection subsequent to capturing coordinates• E-commerce module allowing for the purchasing / downloading of licenses data in GIS format• Provision of dynamic feature services• Integration with related data i.e. IPIS Research project in the DRC
  • 41. License Mapping Portal Future Plans – Non Spatial Features• Inclusion of revenue reporting• Include officially publicly available corporate records for download. ‘Much of the DRC’s most important corporate information is left to rot away, tied up in loose bundles at the Tribunal de Commerce in Kinshasa’.• Increase transparency by providing company information of directors and shareholders
  • 42. License Mapping Portal Including License Transparency in EITI• In order to be more effective, the database should have a GIS interface to plot the coordinates of the tenements ……..• The minimum information to be published for each license should include – Applicant name – Date of application – Coordinates of the license – Type of applied license – Date of granting or refusal – If refused, reasons for refusal – If granted, date of expiration or first renewal deadline• The above is addressed with online license portals
  • 43. License Mapping Portal System Rollout
  • 44. License Mapping PortalCadastre and Portal Application Combination Online License Portal Desktop License Portal Analysis Immediate Text Message Notification License Captured Immediate Application on Application Receipt Letter Immediate License Portal Update
  • 45. License Mapping Portal Tanzania Portal Demonstration Facts Updated daily More than 60,000 licenses displayed Inclusion of oil and gas licenses in the futureUsed to distribute data as well as allowing for external data verification
  • 46. Online Mining Cadastre Implementation Online License Application Portal
  • 47. Online Application Portal Introduction• Simple to use with a user friendly interface• Different user registration / access configuration• Accommodate all business processes i.e. new applications, renewals, transfers, extensions, cancelations, suspensions, etc• Ability to locate ‘free’ areas• Ability to upload required documents• Ability to pay required fees• Relevant cadastre system business processes (new applications, renewals, transfers, extensions, cancelations, suspensions, etc) are triggered on saving the online application• Cadastre staff are notified of online transaction and process accordingly• User receives email / text message notification
  • 48. Online Application Portal User Access• Anonymous Users – Browse maps – Browse licenses – Register as user Anonymous Public User• Registered & Authenticated Users – Apply for new licenses – Pay license fees – Manage account details – View own licenses Public Portal – View available work details – Submit work reports – Submit licenses renewals, transfers, etc – Receive reports Registered Public Users
  • 49. Online Application Portal System Login
  • 50. Online Application Portal User Interface
  • 51. Online Application Portal License Details
  • 52. Online Application Portal Payment Process
  • 53. Online Application Portal License Coordinate CaptureAccommodate regular / irregular shapes as well as grid / non-grid based jurisdictions
  • 54. Online Application Portal Application Capture Process Online Mining License Renewal System Triggers FlexiCadastre WorkflowsOnline ProspectingLicense Application Online Application System Cadastre Officer Processes application Cadastre Officer Processes renewal
  • 55. Online Application Portal Poor Infrastructure Solution• Poor access to the internet and computers in Africa• Solution – Generally impacts small-scale miners – Zambia will be providing an Application Reception Area at the Cadastre Office – The Application Reception Area will include computer terminals with internet access
  • 56. Online Application Portal Payments Solution• Very low credit card base in Africa• Solution – Need to include various online payment options – Credit card payments – Mobile payments – Debit card payments (Africard) – Bank payments (setup a branch at the Cadastre Office) – Ensure that local banks make use of an online payment gateway
  • 57. Online Application Portal Rollout
  • 58. QuestionsCharles YoungSenior ConsultantSpatial DimensionTel: +27 21 531 3132Mobile: +27 83 679 1789Email: charles.young@spatialdimension.comWeb: www.spatialdimension.com