De ciencia ficcion_a_ciencia_real_tecnologias_emergentes

341 views
265 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
341
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained, millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively distributed sensor network.  This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and will contain sensors, computational ability, bi-directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds.  The science and engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies (as opposed to futuristic technologies), which will require evolutionary and revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy management.  We forsee many applications for this technology:
    Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars
    Internal spacecraft monitoring
    Land/space comm. networks
    Chemical/biological sensors
    Weapons stockpile monitoring
    Defense-related sensor networks
    Inventory Control
    Product quality monitoring
    Smart office spaces
    Sports - sailing, balls
    For more information, see the main Smart Dust page at http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust and read our publications (see navigation button above).
    Brief description of the operation of the mote:
    The Smart Dust mote is run by a microcontroller that not only determines the tasks performed by the mote, but controls power to the various components of the system to conserve energy. Periodically the microcontroller gets a reading from one of the sensors, which measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure, processes the data, and stores it in memory. It also occasionally turns on the optical receiver to see if anyone is trying to communicate with it. This communication may include new programs or messages from other motes. In response to a message or upon its own initiative the microcontroller will use the corner cube retroreflector or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.
    Longer description of the operation of the mote:
    The primary constraint in the design of the Smart Dust motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells. Thus, the motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible. Most of the time, the majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off. A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure. When one of these timers expires, it powers up the corresponding sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. If the data is interesting, it may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it. When this task is complete, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting again.
    Another timer controls the receiver. When that timer expires, the receiver powers up and looks for an incoming packet. If it doesn't see one after a certain length of time, it is powered down again. The mote can receive several types of packets, including ones that are new program code that is stored in the program memory. This allows the user to change the behavior of the mote remotely. Packets may also include messages from the base station or other motes. When one of these is received, the microcontroller is powered up and used to interpret the contents of the message. The message may tell the mote to do something in particular, or it may be a message that is just being passed from one mote to another on its way to a particular destination. In response to a message or to another timer expiring, the microcontroller will assemble a packet containing sensor data or a message and transmit it using either the corner cube retroreflector or the laser diode, depending on which it has. The corner cube retroreflector transmits information just by moving a mirror and thus changing the reflection of a laser beam from the base station. This technique is substantially more energy efficient than actually generating some radiation. With the laser diode and a set of beam scanning mirrors, we can transmit data in any direction desired, allowing the mote to communicate with other Smart Dust motes.
  • Anti depressant, AIDS and Parkinsons dry mouth effects speech and sleepDentist and engineer
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • Lab-in-a-Pill – Revolutionising Bowel Cancer Screening
    Sector: Medical Devices
    Technology
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    In the western world, colorectal cancer is now the third most frequent cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths. In the US nearly 150,000 new cases are being diagnosed each year and more than 56,000 people died from the disease in 2002. In the UK, where a national screening campaign will be implemented across the 20m population over 50, around 15,000 people die from the disease each year.
    Current screening techniques are notoriously inaccurate, leading to many false positives which saturate resources available for follow-up diagnosis. But scientists at Glasgow University have pioneered a new sensor technology, Lab-in-a-Pill, that could have major impact on the cost and effectiveness of bowel cancer treatment.
    At the core of Lab-in-a-Pill is a miniaturised sensor, processing and communications module all enclosed in a chemical-resistant capsule which currently measures around 3cm x 1cm in prototype form.
    The Lab-in-a-Pill module, which would be sent to all individuals being screened, incorporates a multi-sensor array which includes a blood test. The pill is able to detect blood as it travels through the bowel, transmitting the real time measurements to a small external module worn under a patch attached to the body.
    After one, or more pills have been swallowed over the required screening period, the patch is returned for the measured data to be assessed at the screening centre. So the pills themselves do not have to be recovered making the screening process much more acceptable. And because it measures the location of bleeding Lab-in-a-Pill can identify, more effectively, those individuals who are most at risk.
    The Lab-in-a-Pill concept, currently undergoing in-vitro trials, overcomes the critical difficulties with the current screening scheme which is based on individuals collecting stool samples. Major benefits include:
    • improved compliance and screening response rate with elimination of sample collection
    • reduced false positives and improved sensitivity through measurement at the source of bleeding
    So Lab-in-a-Pill reduces the pressure on valuable national resources by eliminating the need for central screening laboratories and ensuring only at-risk patients are referred for colonoscopy.
    IP Status
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    The intellectual property associated with this technology belongs to the University of Glasgow.
    The University of Glasgow is always keen to hear from potential collaborative partners and welcomes interest from genuine parties. If you would like further information about this technology or this area of research please complete the following form and we will get back to you via telephone or email within two working days.
    Enquiry Form
    http://www.innovativelicences.com/index.cfm/page/licensesandtechnologies/technologyid/48
  • http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.htm
    What is a cochlear implant?
    Credit: NIH Medical ArtsEar with Cochlear implant. View larger image.A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing. The implant consists of an external portion that sits behind the ear and a second portion that is surgically placed under the skin (see figure). An implant has the following parts:
    A microphone, which picks up sound from the environment.
    A speech processor, which selects and arranges sounds picked up by the microphone.
    A transmitter and receiver/stimulator, which receive signals from the speech processor and convert them into electric impulses.
    An electrode array, which is a group of electrodes that collects the impulses from the stimulator and sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve.
    An implant does not restore normal hearing. Instead, it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech.
    Top
    How does a cochlear implant work?
    A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids amplify sounds so they may be detected by damaged ears. Cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Signals generated by the implant are sent by way of the auditory nerve to the brain, which recognizes the signals as sound. Hearing through a cochlear implant is different from normal hearing and takes time to learn or relearn. However, it allows many people to recognize warning signals, understand other sounds in the environment, and enjoy a conversation in person or by telephone.
    Top
    Who gets cochlear implants?
    Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Children and adults who are deaf or severely hard-of-hearing can be fitted for cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) 2005 data, nearly 100,000 people worldwide have received implants. In the United States, roughly 22,000 adults and nearly 15,000 children have received them.
    Adults who have lost all or most of their hearing later in life often can benefit from cochlear implants. They often can associate the sounds made through an implant with sounds they remember. This may help them to understand speech without visual cues or systems such as lipreading or sign language.
    Cochlear implants, coupled with intensive postimplantation therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, developmental, and social skills. Most children who receive implants are between two and six years old. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the FDA lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of cochlear implant.
    Top
    How does someone receive a cochlear implant?
    Use of a cochlear implant requires both a surgical procedure and significant therapy to learn or relearn the sense of hearing. Not everyone performs at the same level with this device. The decision to receive an implant should involve discussions with medical specialists, including an experienced cochlear-implant surgeon. The process can be expensive. For example, a person’s health insurance may cover the expense, but not always. Some individuals may choose not to have a cochlear implant for a variety of personal reasons. Surgical implantations are almost always safe, although complications are a risk factor, just as with any kind of surgery. An additional consideration is learning to interpret the sounds created by an implant. This process takes time and practice. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists are frequently involved in this learning process. Prior to implantation, all of these factors need to be considered.
    Top
    What does the future hold for cochlear implants?
    With advancements in technology and continued follow-up studies with people who already have received implants, researchers are evaluating how cochlear implants might be used for other types of hearing loss.
    NIDCD is supporting research to improve upon the benefits provided by cochlear implants. It may be possible to use a shortened electrode array, inserted into a portion of the cochlea, for individuals whose hearing loss is limited to the higher frequencies. Other studies are exploring ways to make a cochlear implant convey the sounds of speech more clearly. Researchers also are looking at the potential benefits of pairing a cochlear implant in one ear with either another cochlear implant or a hearing aid in the other ear.
  • http://www.robotdirectory.org/pics/cakemonster/Nano-Scoop3.jpg
  • We are designing and fabricating an electromechanical device for manipulation and electrical probing of nano-scale objects (Figures 1 and 2). The device consists of micro-scale flexures and actuators that generate nano-scale motion; and nano-scale structure that interact with the nano world. Our device is designed to work in conjunction with the AFM and will be used to image the sample as well.
    Currently there is no versatile, practical experimental tool for use at this scale. Our goal is to have a cheap and consistently reproducible experimental device. Hence, we are designing this device to be completely batch fabricated start to finish. Despite the lack of batch lithography at this scale, we have developed unique processes that allow for nano-scale feature size and single nano-scale pitch using standard microfabrication.
    To ensure consistency between our nano-tweezers, we have developed self compensating devices that can withstand a range of process and subsequent structure variations and still provide the same performance characteristics. This robust design method also has extensive utility in other commercial MEMs applications where repeatability of performance and reliability are essential.
  • ORNL nanoprobe creates world of new possibilities
         ORNL researcher Tuan Vo-Dinh expects big things from the nanoprobe. OAK RIDGE, Tenn., July 14, 2004 — A technology with proven environmental, forensics and medical applications has received a shot in the arm because of an invention by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
    ORNL's nanoprobe, which is based on a light scattering technique, can detect and analyze chemicals, explosives, drugs and more at a theoretical single-molecule level. This capability makes it far more selective and accurate than conventional competing technologies.
    The probe is an optical fiber tapered to a tip measuring 100 nanometers with an extremely thin coating of nanoparticles of silver, which induces the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Normally, when a sample is illuminated by a laser beam, there is a small reflection of light, known as Raman scattering. The light shows vibration energies, which are unique to each compound, and that information allows scientists to identify the substance.
    With the SERS nanoprobe, the laser light creates rapid oscillations of the electrons in the silver nanoparticles, which produce an enormous electromagnetic field that contributes to increase the Raman scattering signal. The ORNL nanoprobe works with any surface to induce the SERS effect.
    "The significance of this work is that we are now able to perform direct analysis of samples -- even dry samples -- with no preparation of the surface," said ORNL's Tuan Vo-Dinh, who leads a team that developed the nanoprobe. "Also, the small scale of the nanoprobe demonstrates the potential for detection in nanoscale environments, such as at the intracellular level."
    Ordinarily, surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of samples on a surface requires modification or treatment of the sample. This may consist of physically removing the sample and diluting it in a liquid containing silver nanoparticles; however, this practice is unnecessary with the ORNL nanoprobe.
    Vo-Dinh and Life Sciences Division colleagues David Stokes and Zhenhuan Chi experimented with nanoprobes made of several materials of varying thickness. They settled on silver-island films because they are easier to reproduce than silver-coated particles and they form only a thin coating, which helps maintain the nanoscale diameter of the tapered tip.
    The development of the SERS nanoprobe could lead to increasing interest in SERS as an ultra-sensitive detection tool, allowing direct analysis of samples for a wide variety of applications, Vo-Dinh said. These applications range from environmental monitoring to intracellular sensing and medical diagnostics.
    ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy. Funding for the project was provided by DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.
    ORNL's nanobiosensor technology gives new access to living cell’s molecular processes
    OAK RIDGE, April 27, 2004 -- Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a nanoscale technology for investigating biomolecular processes in single living cells. The new technology enables researchers to monitor and study cellular signaling networks, including the first observation of programmed cell death in a single live cell. The "nanobiosensor" allows scientists to physically probe inside a living cell without destroying it. As scientists adopt a systems approach to studying biomolecular processes, the nanobiosensor provides a valuable tool for intracellular studies that have applications ranging from medicine to national security to energy production.
    ORNL Corporate Fellow and Life Sciences Division researcher Tuan Vo-Dinh leads a team of researchers who are developing the nanoscale technology. "This research illustrates the integrated 'nano-bio-info' approach to investigating and understanding these complex cell systems," Vo-Dinh said. "There is a need to explore uncharted territory inside a live cell and analyze the molecular processes. This minimally invasive nanotechnology opens the door to explore the inner world of single cells".
    ORNL's work was most recently published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society and has appeared in a feature article of the journal Nature. Members of Vo-Dinh's research team include postdoctoral researchers Paul M. Kasili, Joon Myong Song and research staff biochemist Guy Griffin.
    The group's nanobiosensor is a tiny fiber-optic probe that has been drawn to a tip of only 40 nanometers (nm) across--a billionth of a meter and 1,000 times smaller than a human hair. The probe is small enough to be inserted into a cell.
    Immobilized at the nanotip is a bioreceptor molecule, such as an antibody, DNA or enzyme that can bind to target molecules of interest inside the cell. Video microscopy experiments reveal the minimally invasive nature of the nanoprobe in that it can be inserted into a cell and withdrawn without destroying it.
    Because the 40-nm diameter of the fiber-optic probe is much narrower than the 400-nm wavelength of light, only target molecules bound to the bioreceptors at the tip are exposed to and excited by the evanescent field of a laser signal.
    "We detect only the molecules that we target, without all the other background 'noise' from the myriad other species inside the cell. Only nanoscale fiber-optics technology can provide this capability," said Vo-Dinh.
    ORNL's technology gives molecular biologists an important systems biology approach of studying complex systems through the nano-bio-info route. Conventional analytical methods--electron microscopy or introducing dyes, for example--have the disadvantage of being lethal to the cell.
    "The information obtained from conventional measurements is an average of thousands or millions of cells," said Vo-Dinh. "When you destroy cells to study them, you can't obtain the dynamic information from the whole live cell system. You get only pieces of information. Nanosensor technology provides a means to preserve a cell and study it over time within the entire cell system."
    The ability to work with living cells opens a new path to obtaining basic information critical to understanding the cell's molecular processes. Researchers have a new tool for understanding how toxic agents are transported into cells and how biological pathogens trigger biological responses in the cell.
    Vo-Dinh's team recently detected the biochemical components of a cell-signaling pathway, apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key process in an organism's ability to prevent disease such as cancer. This programmed cell-death mechanism causes cells to self-destruct before they can multiply and introduce disease to the organism.
    "When a cell in our body receives insults such as toxins or inflammation and is damaged, it kills itself. This is nature's way to limit and stop propagation of many diseases such as cancer," said Vo-Dinh. "For the first time we've seen apoptosis occur within a single living cell."
    Apoptosis triggers a host of tell-tale enzyme called caspases. Vo-Dinh's team introduced a light-activated anti-cancer drug into cancer cells. They then inserted the fiberoptic nanoprobe with a biomarker specific for caspase-9 attached to its tip. The presence of caspase-9 caused cleavage of the biomarker from the tip of the nanobiosensor. Changes in the intensity of the biomarker's fluorescence revealed that the light-activated anti-cancer drug had triggered the cell-death machinery.
    "The nanobiosensor has many other applications for looking at how cells react when they are treated with a drug or invaded by a biological pathogen. This has important implications ranging from drug therapy development to national security, environmental protection and a better understanding of molecular biology at a systems level," said Vo-Dinh. "This area of research is truly at the nexus of nanotechnology, biology and information technology."
    The research was supported by ORNL's laboratory-directed research and development program and by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy.
    ###
    NOTE TO EDITORS:
    You may read other press releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory or learn more about the lab at http://www.ornl.gov/news.
    [ Print Article | E-mail Article | Close Window ]  
    News Release
    Media Contact: Bill CabageCommunications and External Relations865.574.4399 ORNL’s nanobiosensor technology gives new access to living cell’s molecular processes
         This image shows a nanoprobe, with a tip 1,000 times finer than a human hair, penetrating a cell. The probe can enter, perform a measurement in situ and be withdrawn without destroying the cell. The nanobiosensor technology provides researchers who study cell systems at the molecular level a valuable tool for monitoring the health of a single cell. OAK RIDGE, Tenn., April 27, 2004 — Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a nanoscale technology for investigating biomolecular processes in single living cells. The new technology enables researchers to monitor and study cellular signaling networks, including the first observation of programmed cell death in a single live cell.
    The "nanobiosensor" allows scientists to physically probe inside a living cell without destroying it. As scientists adopt a systems approach to studying biomolecular processes, the nanobiosensor provides a valuable tool for intracellular studies that have applications ranging from medicine to national security to energy production.
    ORNL Corporate Fellow and Life Sciences Division researcher Tuan Vo-Dinh leads a team of researchers who are developing the nanoscale technology. "This research illustrates the integrated ‘nano-bio-info' approach to investigating and understanding these complex cell systems," Vo-Dinh said. "There is a need to explore uncharted territory inside a live cell and analyze the molecular processes. This minimally invasive nanotechnology opens the door to explore the inner world of single cells".
    ORNL's work was most recently published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society and has appeared in a feature article of the journal Nature. Members of Vo-Dinh's research team include postdoctoral researchers Paul M. Kasili, Joon Myong Song and research staff biochemist Guy Griffin.
    The group's nanobiosensor is a tiny fiber-optic probe that has been drawn to a tip of only 40 nanometers (nm) across—a billionth of a meter and 1,000 times smaller than a human hair. The probe is small enough to be inserted into a cell.
    Immobilized at the nanotip is a bioreceptor molecule, such as an antibody, DNA or enzyme that can bind to target molecules of interest inside the cell. Video microscopy experiments reveal the minimally invasive nature of the nanoprobe in that it can be inserted into a cell and withdrawn without destroying it.
    Because the 40-nm diameter of the fiber-optic probe is much narrower than the 400-nm wavelength of light, only target molecules bound to the bioreceptors at the tip are exposed to and excited by the evanescent field of a laser signal.
    "We detect only the molecules that we target, without all the other background ‘noise' from the myriad other species inside the cell. Only nanoscale fiber-optics technology can provide this capability," said Vo-Dinh.
    ORNL's technology gives molecular biologists an important systems biology approach of studying complex systems through the nano-bio-info route. Conventional analytical methods—electron microscopy or introducing dyes, for example—have the disadvantage of being lethal to the cell.
    "The information obtained from conventional measurements is an average of thousands or millions of cells," said Vo-Dinh. "When you destroy cells to study them, you can't obtain the dynamic information from the whole live cell system. You get only pieces of information. Nanosensor technology provides a means to preserve a cell and study it over time within the entire cell system."
    The ability to work with living cells opens a new path to obtaining basic information critical to understanding the cell's molecular processes. Researchers have a new tool for understanding how toxic agents are transported into cells and how biological pathogens trigger biological responses in the cell.
    Vo-Dinh's team recently detected the biochemical components of a cell-signaling pathway, apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key process in an organism's ability to prevent disease such as cancer. This programmed cell-death mechanism causes cells to self-destruct before they can multiply and introduce disease to the organism.
    "When a cell in our body receives insults such as toxins or inflammation and is damaged, it kills itself. This is nature's way to limit and stop propagation of many diseases such as cancer," said Vo-Dinh. "For the first time we've seen apoptosis occur within a single living cell."
    Apoptosis triggers a host of tell-tale enzyme called caspases. Vo-Dinh's team introduced a light-activated anti-cancer drug into cancer cells. They then inserted the fiberoptic nanoprobe with a biomarker specific for caspase-9 attached to its tip. The presence of caspase-9 caused cleavage of the biomarker from the tip of the nanobiosensor. Changes in the intensity of the biomarker's fluorescence revealed that the light-activated anti-cancer drug had triggered the cell-death machinery.
    "The nanobiosensor has many other applications for looking at how cells react when they are treated with a drug or invaded by a biological pathogen. This has important implications ranging from drug therapy development to national security, environmental protection and a better understanding of molecular biology at a systems level," said Vo-Dinh. "This area of research is truly at the nexus of nanotechnology, biology and information technology."
    The research was supported by ORNL's laboratory-directed research and development program and by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the Office of Science. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy.
  • The Age of Spiritual Machines – When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
    The Singularity Is Near : When Humans Transcend Biology
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • The Invisible Train
    The Invisible Train is the first real multi-user Augmented Reality application for handheld devices (PDAs). Unlike other projects, in which wearable devices were merely used as thin-clients, while powerful (PC-based) servers performed a majority of the computations (such as graphics rendering), our software runs independently on off-the-shelf PDAs - eliminating the need for an expensive infractructure.
     
    The Invisible Train is a mobile, collaborative multi-user Augmented Reality (AR) game, in which players control virtual trains on a real wooden miniature railroad track. These virtual trains are only visible to players through their PDA's video see-through display as they don't exist in the physical world. This type of user interface is commonly called the "magic lens metaphor".
    Players can interact with the game environment by operating track switches and adjusting the speed of their virtual trains. The current state of the game is synchronized between all participants via wireless networking. The common goal of the game is to prevent the virtual trains from colliding.
    The success of the Invisible Train installation illustrates the advantages of our Studierstube software framework, a component-based system architecture that has been designed to accelerate the task of developing and deploying collaborative Augmented Reality applications on handheld devices.
    Why Handheld Augmented Reality?
    Augmented Reality (AR) can naturally complement mobile computing on wearable devices by providing an intuitive interface to a three-dimensional information space embedded within physical reality. However, prior work on mobile Augmented Reality has almost exclusively been undertaken with traditional "backpack"-systems that consist of a notebook computer, an HMD, cameras and additional supporting hardware. Although these systems work well within a constrained laboratory environment, they fail to fulfill several usability criteria to be rapidly deployed to inexperienced users, as they are expensive, cumbersome and require high level of expertise.
    Since the early experiments in Mobile Augmented Reality, a variety of highly portable consumer devices with versatile computing capabilities has emerged. We believe that handheld computers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants have the potential to introduce Augmented Reality to large audiences outside of a constrained laboratory environment. The relative affordability of devices that are capable of running our software framework opens up new possibilities for experimenting with massively multi-user application scenarios - thereby bringing us closer to the goal of "AR anytime, anywhere".
  • The Invisible Train
    The Invisible Train is the first real multi-user Augmented Reality application for handheld devices (PDAs). Unlike other projects, in which wearable devices were merely used as thin-clients, while powerful (PC-based) servers performed a majority of the computations (such as graphics rendering), our software runs independently on off-the-shelf PDAs - eliminating the need for an expensive infractructure.
     
    The Invisible Train is a mobile, collaborative multi-user Augmented Reality (AR) game, in which players control virtual trains on a real wooden miniature railroad track. These virtual trains are only visible to players through their PDA's video see-through display as they don't exist in the physical world. This type of user interface is commonly called the "magic lens metaphor".
    Players can interact with the game environment by operating track switches and adjusting the speed of their virtual trains. The current state of the game is synchronized between all participants via wireless networking. The common goal of the game is to prevent the virtual trains from colliding.
    The success of the Invisible Train installation illustrates the advantages of our Studierstube software framework, a component-based system architecture that has been designed to accelerate the task of developing and deploying collaborative Augmented Reality applications on handheld devices.
    Why Handheld Augmented Reality?
    Augmented Reality (AR) can naturally complement mobile computing on wearable devices by providing an intuitive interface to a three-dimensional information space embedded within physical reality. However, prior work on mobile Augmented Reality has almost exclusively been undertaken with traditional "backpack"-systems that consist of a notebook computer, an HMD, cameras and additional supporting hardware. Although these systems work well within a constrained laboratory environment, they fail to fulfill several usability criteria to be rapidly deployed to inexperienced users, as they are expensive, cumbersome and require high level of expertise.
    Since the early experiments in Mobile Augmented Reality, a variety of highly portable consumer devices with versatile computing capabilities has emerged. We believe that handheld computers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants have the potential to introduce Augmented Reality to large audiences outside of a constrained laboratory environment. The relative affordability of devices that are capable of running our software framework opens up new possibilities for experimenting with massively multi-user application scenarios - thereby bringing us closer to the goal of "AR anytime, anywhere".
  • The Age of Spiritual Machines – When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence
    The Singularity Is Near : When Humans Transcend Biology
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • Whyville has its own system of self governance
  • De ciencia ficcion_a_ciencia_real_tecnologias_emergentes

    1. 1. Jim Brazell jim@ventureramp.com De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes UPOLI 40 Aniversario
    2. 2. Qué es esto?
    3. 3. Hace 10 años, el costo de una supercomputadora Teraflop era de $100M. --Frietas, The Future of Computers
    4. 4. Qué es esto? supercomputadora ~$50M y $800 US
    5. 5. Qué es esto?
    6. 6. Mi hija, Ava Marie
    7. 7. 4a GEN
    8. 8. http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ Berkeley’s Golem Dust 11.7 mm3 total circumscribed volume ~4.8 mm3 total displaced volume Berkeley’s Deputy Dust 6.6 mm3 total circumscribed volume 11.7 mm3 6.6 mm3 4a GEN
    9. 9. MIT Technology Review, January, 2005 4a GEN
    10. 10. MIT Tech Review, 2005 Sensors Físicos Químicos Biológicos http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16 Actuators Físicos Químicos Biológicos PhiloMetron™ 4a GEN
    11. 11. Fuente: The Guardian Fecha: May 2, 2002 Universidad Estatal de Nueva York (Suny) "Mecanismo a Go go : Con un sensor a control remoto conectado a su sistema nervioso, desarrollos como el de la “roborata”, creados en el Centro Médico Estatal SUNY's, pregonan la venida de la era de la biotrónica. 4a GEN
    12. 12. http://www.toyota.com/prius/index.html?s_van=GM_TN_HYBRID_PRIUS Qué es esto?
    13. 13. http://www.toyota.com/prius/index.html?s_van=GM_TN_HYBRID_PRIUS Soy un Robot
    14. 14. Mecatrónica La combinación sinergística de la ingeniería mecánica, la ingeniería eléctrica, la ingeniería de “software”, la ingeniería de sistemas de control. Departamentos de Ingeniería Mecánica, Aeroespacial y Nuclear en RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI
    15. 15. Máquinas Inteligentes
    16. 16. PRIUS+ team: we built the first PRIUS+ conversion Sept 11-22, 2004, starting with a low-cost lead-acid battery pack. Pictured are (L-R) Ron Gremban, Felix Kramer, Marc Geller, Kevin Lyons, Andrew Lawton. See About CalCars for names of those who helped but are not pictured.
    17. 17. http://www.calcars.org/photos.html
    18. 18. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7643818/ Qué es esto?
    19. 19. http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidas_1/content/downloads/adidas_1- wp_02_1280_1024.jpg http://www.adidasprlookbook.com/adidas1/index.asp Soy un Robot caminante.
    20. 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_capsule_endoscopy Video Camera en una Pildora Soy un Robot
    21. 21. http://www.rsc.org/ej/LC/2006/b507312j/b507312j-f2.gif http://www.rsc.org/ejga/LC/2006/b507312j-ga.gif Un Laboratorio En Una Píldora Soy un Robot
    22. 22. https://www.carle.com/Hospital/about/images/Ear%20Diagram3.jpg Bio-Mecatrónica
    23. 23. The goal is to create artificial "biohybrid" limbs that merge man-made components with human tissue -- muscles, skeletal architecture and the neurological system --and work like fully functioning human appendages.
    24. 24. Necesita -mos pensar más allá de éstos v v
    25. 25. Nanobiónica Bacteria Atada Bacterua Nadadora Velocidad de natación ~ 20-30 µm Protones flux/motor ~ 1200 proton/rev Bacteria Atada Eficiencia del Motor ~ 90-100 % Fuerza de Salida ~ 2.9×10-4 pW Torsión en motor parado~ 4600 pN-nm  Nano-motor (45 nm de ancho) Ingeniería Genética E. coli inofensivo Mohamed Al-Fandi, Ph.D. Profesor Asistente Depto. De Ingeniería Mecánica y Biomecánica Universidad de Texas San Antonio
    26. 26. http://web.mit.edu/nanoengineering/research/microfab.shtml Micro-Mecatrónica
    27. 27. ORNL, esta imagen muestra una nanosonda, con una punta 1,000 veces más fina que un cabello humano, penetrando una célula. La sonda puede entrar, llevar a cabo una medición en el lugar y retirarse sin destruir la célula. ww.ornl.gov/info/press_releases/get_press_release.cfm?ReleaseNumber=mr20040714-00 Optica-Mecatrónica
    28. 28. Un glóbulo rojo artificial – el respirocito [41]. Diseñador Robert A. Freitas Jr. ©1999 Forrest Bishop. http://www.imminst.org/freitas.html “Un medio litro de respirocitos… permitiría a una persona retener su respiración en el fondo de una piscina por hasta 4 horas…”
    29. 29. Cómo está cambiando la naturaleza del trabajo esta nueva era?
    30. 30. www.kurzweilai.net/.../ SIN_headshot_highres.html “porque estamos duplicando el ritmo de progreso cada década, veremos un siglo de progreso--al ritmo de hoy-- en sólo 25 años calendario.”
    31. 31. 21st Century Architecture
    32. 32. Informática Biología QuímicaFísica Ingeniería Scientific and Technological Convergence
    33. 33. Que hace Falta?
    34. 34. Educación Humanidades DerechoNegocios Arte Scientific and Technological Convergence
    35. 35. Cual es el papel de los artistas y los filósofos?
    36. 36. Análisis Crítico http://heaven4d.babu.com/CG/
    37. 37. Cómo está cambiando la naturaleza del trabajo esta nueva era?
    38. 38. Era Industrial ERA INFO Cambio-Histórico, Económico & Social Era Cibernética
    39. 39. Nueva era Cambio en el ambiente de trabajo Videos Juegos y Educación Soluciones en Norteamérica De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes
    40. 40. No calificados 80% Calificados 20% Source: Competition in a global economy. The Career Cluster Solution. Debra Mills, CORD Modelo de Trabajo en 1950 en los Estados UnidosTrabajos no calificados: Requieren de un diploma desecundaria o menos. Trabajos Calificados: Requieren de un titulo Universitario o mas.
    41. 41. Trabajos no calificados: Requieren de un diploma de secundaria o menos. Trabajos Calificados: Requiere de un titulo tecnico, pero no necesariamente un grado universitario. Trabajos Profesionales: Requieren de un titulo Universitario o mas De 1985 a la Fecha Trabajos no calificados 15% Trabajos Calificados 65% Trabajos Profesionales 20%
    42. 42. “Los técnicos Automotrices ganan $30K-$36K por año.” “Cada sistema en un carro es monitoreado o controlado por una computadora. Los Técnicos tienen que ser más análiticos y orientados a los procesos.”
    43. 43. Tecnología del Hogar
    44. 44. Los empleos del siglo 21 son incrementalmente transdisciplinarios - existiendo en la intersección de la industria tradicional múltiple y los dominios académicos.
    45. 45. Mecatrónica La combinación sinergística de la ingeniería mecánica, la ingeniería eléctrica, la ingeniería de “software”, la ingeniería de sistemas de control. Departamentos de Ingeniería Mecánica, Aeroespacial y Nuclear en RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI
    46. 46. “En la mayoría de las industrias hay electricistas, mecánicos e IT’s, en realidad, se espera que hagas de todo. Los técnicos en turbinas ganan $28- $40K al año… Muchos técnicos ganan $40K - $80K al año con tiempo extra.” -- Bryan Gregory, Jr. 11.1.2006, TSTC West TX, Sweetwater
    47. 47. Energía-Combinacion de Calor y Electricidad
    48. 48. “We are looking for someone who can look at the mechanical, the electrical and the control and understand these systems. We need people who are capable of crossing over between these various areas.” Don Sheffield Senior Recruiter GlobalSantaFe
    49. 49. TSTC Marshall, Interview, Entergy CHP Plant
    50. 50. Bio-Mecatrónica La combinación sinergística de la Biología, la ingeniería mecánica, la ingeniería eléctrica, la ingeniería de “software”, la ingeniería de sistemas de control. Adapted from Departamentos de Ingeniería Mecánica, Aeroespacial y Nuclear en RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI Biología
    51. 51. De acuerdo a la firma de investigación de mercado Frost & Sullivan, el mercado de salud inalámbrico alcanzó más de $330 millones en el 2003, y se proyecta que alcance $637.3 millones para el 2007. Esto representa un crecimiento anual acumulado de alrededor del 18% por año para este período de tiempo. Las proyecciones incluyen tanto los sistemas en red como aparatos de monitoreo de pacientes. (Frost & Sullivan, 2004, p.1).
    52. 52. Nueva era Cambio en el ambiente de trabajo Videos Juegos y Educación Soluciones en Norteamérica De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes
    53. 53. Qué es esto? supercomputadora $100M y $800 US
    54. 54. Vienna University of Technology Players operate track switches and adjusting the speed of virtual trains to prevent virtual trains from colliding. Researchers Daniel Wagner, Thomas Pintaric and Dieter Schmalstieg
    55. 55. Microvision http://www.mobilemonday.jp/presentations/microvision.ppt
    56. 56. A Target Eyewear Form-Factor
    57. 57. Realidad Física Realidad Virtual Realidad Imaginaria
    58. 58. Improved Target Acquisition System Trainer
    59. 59. “…transfer of the art and technologies of video games to education and learning systems.”
    60. 60. Nueva era Cambio en el ambiente de trabajo Videos Juegos y Educación Soluciones en Norteamérica De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes
    61. 61. Nueva era
    62. 62. www.kurzweilai.net/.../ SIN_headshot_highres.html “porque estamos duplicando el ritmo de progreso cada década, veremos un siglo de progreso--al ritmo de hoy-- en sólo 25 años calendario.”
    63. 63. Transdisciplinarios
    64. 64. Piensa & Haz
    65. 65. Cómo nos organizamos?
    66. 66. Mecatrónica Fusión Educativa Instrumentation Electronics Control SystemsMechanical
    67. 67. Instrumentation Electronics Control SystemsBiotechnology Bio-Instrumentación Fusión Educativa
    68. 68. Energía Alternativa Fuel Cell, Wind Energy, Combined Heat and Power Instrumentation Electronics Control SystemsMechanical Fusión Educativa
    69. 69. Tecnología Doméstica Information Technology Electronics Control SystemsMechanical Fusión Educativa
    70. 70. 21st Century Architecture
    71. 71. Informática Biología QuímicaFísica Ingeniería Scientific and Technological Convergence
    72. 72. Educación Humanidades DerechoNegocios Arte Scientific and Technological Convergence
    73. 73. defenselink.mil/news/Jul2004/n07272004_2004072705.html Video Games?
    74. 74. US Nano Soldier FCS 2020
    75. 75. Informática Biología QuímicaFísica ART & Ingeniería Scientific and Technological Convergence
    76. 76. Cambio en el ambiente de trabajo
    77. 77. Mecatrónica La combinación sinergística de la ingeniería mecánica, la ingeniería eléctrica, la ingeniería de “software”, la ingeniería de sistemas de control. Departamentos de Ingeniería Mecánica, Aeroespacial y Nuclear en RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI
    78. 78. Informática Biología QuímicaFísica Ingeniería Scientific and Technological Convergence
    79. 79. Cerebro del Juego de Video Gameboy Sistema de Visión Actuadores Lego y Bloques de Construcción
    80. 80. Equipos ESPACIALES San Antonio,TX Educación Media
    81. 81. Primaria Equipos ESPACIALES San Antonio,TX Competencia de Robots más exploración profesional y académica e historia de la ciencia y la teconología.
    82. 82. Academia de Verano de los Equipos Espaciales
    83. 83. botball.org
    84. 84. Bio-Mecatrónica La combinación sinergística de la Biología, la ingeniería mecánica, la ingeniería eléctrica, la ingeniería de “software”, la ingeniería de sistemas de control. Adapted from Departamentos de Ingeniería Mecánica, Aeroespacial y Nuclear en RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI Biología
    85. 85. Informática Biología QuímicaFísica Ingeniería Scientific and Technological Convergence
    86. 86. LA LIGA FIRST LEGO® REVELA EL RETO 2006 NANO QUEST Más de 80,000 estudiantes de educación media en 34 países exploran el diminuto pero vasto mundo de la nanotecnología La Universidad de Notre Dame y la Universidad Cornell colaboran con FIRST, retando a los estudiantes
    87. 87. “resolver problemas e inventar cosas nunca antes consideradas posibles” LA LIGA FIRST LEGO® REVELA EL RETO 2006 NANO QUEST
    88. 88. usfirst.org
    89. 89. Videos Juegos y Educacion
    90. 90. GAME TEAMS Los juegos han capturado la imaginación y tiempo de milenios. Apalancar la economía de atención de los juegos para desarrollar la siguiente generación de trabajadores. Necesitamos penetrar el velo del juego y apoyar el aprendizaje constructivista basado en el juego. Lo transdisciplinario es el común denominador. Juegos NANO BIO INFO NEURO Constructor de Juegos = Constructor Atracción Educacional de los EQUIPOS
    91. 91. Game Builders
    92. 92. delta3d.org
    93. 93. ALICE.org
    94. 94. Source: Brazell, IC2 Institute, 2004 Yang Cai, Ingo Snel, Betty Chenga, Suman Bharathi, Clementine Klein d, Judith Klein- Seetharaman; Carnegie Mellon University, University of Frankfurt, Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. www.andrew.cmu.edu/~ycai/biogame.pdf BIOSIM 1.0
    95. 95. http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/apr2006/id20060410_051875.htm Pulse!!
    96. 96. Case study: Emergency Response Training, Pjotr van Schothorst VSTEP BV, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    97. 97. USC ISI and Tactical Language Training (ITSEC 2005)
    98. 98. ©numedeon,inc.2004 SPACE STATION
    99. 99. Whyville.net
    100. 100. Seriousgames.org
    101. 101. Nueva era Cambio en el ambiente de trabajo Videos Juegos y Educación Soluciones en Norteamérica De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes
    102. 102. Qué es esto?
    103. 103. Máquina de Aprendizaje
    104. 104. Maestra del Siglo 21
    105. 105. Puedes realizar el cambio?
    106. 106. Final
    107. 107. Jim Brazell jim@ventureramp.com De Ciencia Ficción a Ciencia Real: Tecnologías Emergentes UPOLI 40 Aniversario

    ×