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Afcea cyber 11.2.2010_v1.0

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  • Defense Secretary Charles Wilson
  • http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8
    October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
    http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
  • http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
    http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
  • http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8
    October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
    http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
  • 200 studenst involved
  • Vitruvian Man
  • Feb 1910 arrival
    March 1910 First Flight
    in charge of the first airplane owned and used in the service of the U.S. Army
    He was the only pilot, navigator, instructor, observer and commander in the heavier-than-air division of the U.S. Army from November 1909 to April 1911.
    Mexican Punitive Expedition: Poncho Villa (March to August 1916)
    Taking part in Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing 1916 Mexican expedition was a learning experience for the U. S. Army's first air arm--mainly in respect to its own deficiencies.
    designed and used the first radio receiving set ever used in a military airplane
    Invented Wheels and Seat belt among other things
    first airplane reconnaissance flight
    He advocated a separate air force and became chief of the Army Air Corps
    Mexican Punitive Expedition (March to August 1916) with General John J. Pershing, the commander of the expedition.
    Foulois was slight of stature, combative, outspoken, often impetuous, and seldom diplomatic. Despite a stormy career centered on the fight for an independent air force, he was appointed Chief of the Air Corps in 1931. Along the way, especially as chief, Foulois' s crusading zeal and intemperance earned him the enmity of President Franklin Roosevelt, some powerful members of Congress, and most of the War Department General Staff. When he retired in December 1935, there was no ceremony, no medal for the pioneer who had done so much for military aviation.
    The Army bought the Wright aircraft; the agreement required the inventors to teach two officers to fly the machine. Benny was slated to be one of the trainees until he made disparaging remarks about the worth of dirigibles that were contrary to the official War Department view. The Army brass decided to put this outspoken little lieutenant in his place. A shocked Foulois received orders to proceed at once to an aeronautical meeting in France.
    This was a heady time for the thirty-year-old lieutenant. He began modifying the plane and experimenting with ways to use it to support ground forces. He substituted wheels for the original skids and installed the first airplane seat belt after nearly being thrown out of the machine while attempting to land in gusty winds. Foulois also demonstrated the airplane's practical use in military operations by doing aerial mapping, photography, and observation of troop movements. When trouble erupted along the Mexican border, he set a cross-country distance record of 1 06 miles on March 3,1911, while on a reconnaissance flight. The same year he designed the first air-to-ground wireless system and demonstrated its practicality. The Army, however, remained unimpressed with military aviation. Its fragile plane spent more time in the repair shop than in the air.
    Among the many firsts Foulois attained during his distinguished career are;
    1908 First flight as a dirigible pilot
    1909 First observer on an aircraft cross-country
    1910 First military man to teach himself to fly
    First and only military test pilot flying Old No. 1
    1911 First to fly more than 100 miles non-stop
    First on an operational reconnaissance flight
    First to test use of radio in flight
    1914 First commander of a tactical air unit (1st Aero Squadron)
    First commander of the first mechanized tactical unit in the U.S. Army (1st Aero Squadron)
    1916 First to use an aircraft in a combat operation (Mexico)
    1918 First chief of Air Service, AEF, 1st Army
    1931 First chief of Air Corps to be a military aviator
    1933 First Air Corps chief to be awarded Mackay Trophy
    1962 First Honorary Staff Member of Air Force Systems Command
    1964 First honorary member of the Aerospace Primus Club
  • Katherine Stinson was the 4th woman in the United States to obtain a pilot's license, July 24, 1912. She learned to fly at Max Lillie's Flying School at Cicero Field, Chicago.     On July 18, 1915, at this same field, she became the first woman in the world to loop-the-loop.
    First night skywriter
    First woman to execute the Loop-the Loop
    First person to execute a snap roll on top of the loop
    First woman to own a flying school anywhere in the world
    First woman to fly U.S. Airmail
    First woman to fly in Japan and China
    First woman to fly alone at night
    Only woman to enlist as a pilot in WWI.Trained WWI fighter pilots from U.S. and Canada
    First nonstop flight from San Diego to San Francisco
    Created the first airport in San Antonio (now known as Stinson Field)
  • 1927
    Clara Bow
    "Buddy" Rogers
    Dick Grace
    Death Squad
    "Wings" stars the glamorous silent film actress Clara Bow (the "It" Girl) and Charles "Buddy" Rogers. Got your trivia hat on? "Wings" was the first Academy Award winner for best picture—that was back in 1927. The movie has some of the most innovative pretalkie special effects in movie making. About two World War I pilots in love with the same woman.
    Dick Grace "Squadron of Death!“ “crack-up engineer."
  • Harold Clark designed Randolph in 1926 and 1927, while assigned as dispatch officer in the Kelly Field motor pool, although the War Department received the land in 1928. Having trained as an architect prior to entering the military, Lieutenant Clark sketched his ideas of a perfect "Air City" on the back of old dispatch sheets. It was, at the time, the largest construction project undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since the Panama Canal.
    Dedication June 20, 1930
    Once the site for the field was selected, a committee decided to name the base after William Millican Randolph, a native of Austin, who, during his 9-year flying career, earned a remarkable record and contributed immeasurably to the progress of aviation. On Feb. 17, 1928, while returning to his duties at Kelly, he crashed his AT-4 on takeoff from Gorman Field, Texas. Ironically, Captain Randolph was serving on the committee to select a name for the new field at the time of his death. Captain Randolph is buried at Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery.
    Randolph Field was dedicated June 20, 1930, with an estimated 15,000 people in attendance and a fly-by of 233 planes, possibly the largest assembly of military aircraft in the world.
    Early in 1931, the School of Aviation Medicine from Brooks Field and the first cadets from the Air Corps Flying School at Duncan Field, then a part of Kelly AFB, began relocating to Randolph.
  • The SwRI staff numbered 2,761
    employees. Of those, 226 hold doctorates,
    428 hold master’s degrees
    and 767 hold bachelor’s degrees.
    The Institute received 39 U.S. patent
    awards, filed 88 invention applications
    and submitted 79 invention
    disclosures. The technical staff
    published 347 papers and gave 348
    presentations.
    President J. Dan Bates, who took office in November 1997. Bates leads more than scientists, engineers, and support personnel in the conduct of almost 1,500 nationally and internationally sponsored projects each year.
    SwRI was founded in 1947 by Thomas Baker Slick Jr., an oilman-rancher-philanthropist who believed that science and technology are the keys to a better world.
    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is an independent, nonprofit applied research and development organization. The staff of specialize in the creation and transfer of technology in engineering and the physical sciences. The Institute occupies 1,200 acres in San Antonio, Texas, and provides nearly two million square feet of laboratories, test facilities, workshops, and offices. The staff performed more than $350 million in contract research in 2003.
    Founder Thomas Baker Slick Jr. - businessman, inventor, oilman, rancher, engineer, philanthropist, peacemaker, adventurer, and visionary.
  • http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
    http://todayinspacehistory.wordpress.com/2007/10/04/october-4-1957-the-russians-launch-sputnik/
    LG SPUT IMAGE
    « October 3, 1962 - Sigma 7 launches into orbit, Mercury-Atlas 8October 5, 1929 - Astronaut Richard Gordon, Jr., is born »October 4, 1957 - the Russian’s launch Sputnik
    Ads by GoogleSputnik
    Huge selection, great deals on
    Sputnik items.
    Yahoo.com3D Earth Screensaver
    Watch Realistic Animated 3D Earth
    On Your Desktop. Free Download!
    www.CrawlerTools.com/3DEarth
    The modern space age was birthed on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet’s launched the first man-made object to orbit the Earth, Sputnik.
    Wikipedia says:
    “Sputnik 1 was launched on October 4, 1957. The satellite was 58 cm (about 23 in) in diameter and weighed approximately 83.6 kg (about 183 lb). Each of its elliptical orbits around the Earth took about 96 minutes. Monitoring of the satellite was done by Amateur radio operators. The first long-range flight of the R-7 booster used to launch it had occurred on August 21 and was described in Aviation Week. Sputnik 1 was not visible from Earth but the casing of the R-7 booster, traveling behind it, was.”
    Quotes:
    “Both countries [Russia and the United States] knew that preeminence in space was a condition of their national security. That conviction gave both countries a powerful incentive to strive and compete. The Soviets accomplished many important firsts, and this gave us a great incentive to try harder.
    The space program also accomplished another vital function in that it kept us out of a hot war. It gave us a way to compete technologically, compete as a matter of national will. It may have even prevented World War III, with all the conflict and fighting focused on getting to the moon first, instead of annihilating each other. There’s no evidence of that, but as eyewitness to those events, I think that’s what happened.”
    - American astronaut Scott Carpenter quoted in Into that Silent Sea (p. 138).
    ___________________
    www.globalsecurity.org/.../imint/u-2_tt.htm
    U-2 Product
    SS-6 / Sputnik Launch Pad, Baikonur
    TOP of LAUNCH
    IMAGE
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    However, another event that occurred in the Soviet Union in 1960 is generally recognized as the single greatest disaster in the history of rocketry. The event was not directly related to manned space flight, but to the development of an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In the early days of space flight, both the US and Soviet space programs were very much intertwined with the development of ICBMs. These vehicles were designed to launch nuclear warheads over great distances, leaving no part of the world safe from the threat of nuclear destruction. However, the technologies pioneered for these weapons of war served a secondary purpose of providing the first generation of rockets for space exploration.
    Sputnik on the launch pad being prepared for liftoff
    In fact, the early flights of Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin in the USSR as well as those of Explorer I and John Glenn in the US were all conducted using modified ballistic missiles. The primary Soviet launch vehicle of the period was the R-7 rocket, modified versions of which are still used even today for most Russian space flights. The R-7 was originally developed as an ICBM under the direction of Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union's pre-eminent rocket designer of the day. The R-7 successfully completed a number of test flights between 1957 and 1959, including launching the first two artificial satellites. While only four examples of the R-7 were ever deployed as ballistic missiles from 1960 to 1968, the same basic design has remained in use throughout the Russian space program. Modern variants of the R-7 continue to launch satellites as well as manned Soyuz flights, and the type had achieved a success rate of nearly 98% in over 1,600 launches by the year 2000.
    _____________
    Apollo 17
    http://www.phys.ncku.edu.tw/~astrolab/mirrors/apod/ap031109.html
    Apollo 17 _ 1
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/GPN-2000-001876.jpg
    Apollo 17 _ 2
    Apollo 17 launch, December 17, 1972:
    http://xpda.com/junkmail/junk162/junk162.htm
    Mars
    http://whyfiles.org/194spa_travel/images/mars.gif
    Moon
    http://www.rc-astro.com/php/phpthumb/cache/phpThumb_cache_rc-astro.com_srcfadbb9057f0dac8e921d1bffc3590ce0_par0ddf367c5f01d9ba090bf356b6761f52_dat1168633826.jpeg
    Kennedy
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.gif
    November 21, 1963
    Dedication Ceremony of the New Facilities of the School of
    Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas
    http://www.historicaldocuments.com/JohnFKennedysLastSpeech.htm
    SPACE TEAMS
    MCD
    KANE
    Toursit
    Russian
    http://science.qj.net/Microsoft-billionaire-joins-ISS-bound-Russian-space-flight/pg/49/aid/88814
    U.S. software mogul Charles Simonyi became the world's fifth space tourist - "space flight participant," as officials call them - to go into orbit. Simonyi, who helped developed Microsoft Word, paid US$ 25M for the opportunity to join the crew of the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-10.
    The 58-year-old Hungary-born billionaire is making a 12-day round trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Joining him on the trip were Russian cosmonauts Fyodor Yurchikhin and Oleg Kotov of the 15th ISS crew. The spacecraft Simonyi and the Russian cosmonauts lifted off from the Bainokur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:31 P.M. local time (1:31 P.M. EDT). They are due to dock with the ISS on Monday.
    Simonyi will be treating the current occupants of the ISS to a gourmet meal three days after arriving at the space station. The meal will be held in honor of Cosmonauts' Day, the Russian holiday commemorating Yuri Gagarin's historic 1961 space flight. Everybody else mentioned who prepared the meal so we won't. Suffice to say, she's famous, knows her way around a house, and looked good in orange.
    In this Associated Press photo: In this image made from NASA-TV, U.S. billionaire Charles Simonyi, front row right, flips upside down during a news conference after he, Fyodor Yurchikhin, left, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kotov, front center, docked at the international space station Monday, April 9, 2007. A Russian-built Soyuz capsule carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word docked at the international space station late Monday, to the earthbound applause of Martha Stewart and others at Mission Control. In the back row, Commander Michael Lopez-Alegria can be seen. (AP Photo/NASA TV)
    ___________
    Tito
    http://cache.viewimages.com/xc/1310822.jpg?v=1&c=ViewImages&k=2&d=17A4AD9FDB9CF1939057D9939C83F106174681002B4CEC415A5397277B4DC33E
    MIR
    http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/people/images/inset-LucidS-5-large.jpg
    http://csatweb.csatolna.hu/tagok/csa/mars/rover.jpg
    RICHS TECHNOLOGY CAMERA - BODY
    HAWKING
    http://gozerog.com/images/Hawking_001.jpg
    Public Domain. Suggested credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration via pingnews.
    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Noted physicist Stephen Hawking (center) enjoys zero gravity during a flight aboard a modified Boeing 727 aircraft owned by Zero Gravity Corp. (Zero G). Hawking, who suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) is being rotated in air by (right) Peter Diamandis, founder of the Zero G Corp., and (left) Byron Lichtenberg, former shuttle payload specialist and now president of Zero G. Kneeling below Hawking is Nicola O'Brien, a nurse practitioner who is Hawking's aide. At the celebration of his 65th birthday on January 8 this year, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight to prepare for a sub-orbital space flight in 2009 on Virgin Galactic's space service. Additional information from source:
    No copyright protection is asserted for this photograph. If a recognizable person appears in this photograph, use for commercial purposes may infringe a right of privacy or publicity. It may not be used to state or imply the endorsement by NASA employees of a commercial product, process or service, or used in any other manner that might mislead. Accordingly, it is requested that if this photograph is used in advertising and other commercial promotion, layout and copy be submitted to NASA prior to release.
    Source Physicist Stephen Hawking in Zero Gravity (NASA)
    Date April 27, 2007 at 22:11
    Zero Gravity's price tag for the daylong tour is $2,950, which includes preflight training and a postflight party.
    From the Go Zero G Website:
    The once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to fly like Superman can now be yours. Train with an expert coach, board our specially modified aircraft, G-FORCE ONE, and experience the unforgettable.
    Experience zero gravity the only way possible without going to space. Parabolic flight is the same method NASA has used to train its astronauts for the last 45 years and the same way Tom Hanks floated in Apollo 13.
    Book a seat on one of our regular flights conveniently based in Las Vegas, Nevada and at the Kennedy Space Center, near Orlando, Florida. The aircraft is also available for charter flights anywhere in the United States for groups, incentive trips, parties or team building.
  • McDermott's Contributions to San Antonio
    http://www.anbhf.org/laureates/mcdermott.html
    In a tribute to Robert McDermott recently, Mayor Henry Cisneros of San Antonio stated that "when the economic history of San Antonio in the 1980s is written, the most influential individual will be him (McDermott)" [4]. After his arrival in San Antonio, McDermott was selected as President of the Greater San Antonio Chamber of Commerce. In this position he initiated the San Antonio Economic Development Council which began a drive to bring business development into San Antonio. When the Hispanic population felt they were not being included, McDermott founded United San Antonio which pulled all the disparate community groups together. In the 1980s he was responsible for getting an undergraduate engineering program at the University of Texas at San Antonio first and later graduate programs in the sciences. With this groundwork laid, he began moving in a formal sense to make San Antonio a biotechnology center for the future. He founded the Texas Research and Technology Foundation, which was established to develop a Texas Research Park. He also helped arrange for the first major gift of $15,000,000 for the park from H. Ross Perot. Today he is regarded as the key influential business leader in San Antonio. In addition to his personal contributions, McDermott believes that USAA should be a corporate good citizen, and it has been so. USAA's Volunteer Corps gave over 30m000 volunteer hours to San Antonio just last year and USA is the city's largest private-sector United Way contributor. Although USAA employees constitute only 2% of San Antonio's work force, they contributed 10% of the total monies collected by United Way.
    Brigadier General Robert F. McDermott and USAA - Service Plus Ethics Equals Success Dreamers and doers rarely come in the same package. The historical record is replete with figures who seem to have extraordinary vision, but who are unable to make their dreams come into reality. On the other hand, there are many who have been able to execute the ideas of others, but who do not seem to be able to think in broad terms bout the future. Recent historical scholarship placed John F. Kennedy in the first category and Lyndon Baines Johnson in the second. Robert F. McDermott, Chairman and CEO of USAA is one of the rare individuals who have brilliant conceptual ideas an who have been able to put them into operation. The First Career Prior to becoming CEO of USAA, McDermott had already demonstrated these traits while serving on active duty in the Air Force as the first permanent Dean of the newly founded USAF Academy. Upon assuming his position, the new Dean wished to make the Academy a premier undergraduate academic institution, as well as developer of professional military officers and leaders. He wished to attract first-rate applicants chosen without regard to political connections and to challenge them to meet their potential. He introduced sweeping innovations by overcoming opposition from the military establishment, particularly at West Point and Annapolis, political insiders in Washington, and those who wanted no change at all. The changes included introducing over 25 academic majors, setting up cooperative Master's degree programs with outstanding institutions, building a first class library, faculty and staff, and introducing the "whole man" admission program with little regard to political connections. All this resulted in McDermott getting the Air Force Academy accredited by the North Central Association prior to its first class graduating. This was an unheard of accomplishment. When he retired in 1968, the other military academies were already changing curriculum and procedures to match the newest of the academies. At a ceremony at West Point in 1989, the Superintendent of the US Air Force Academy, Lt. General Charles Hamm, referred to McDermott as the Sylvanus Thayer of the twentieth century, crediting McDermott with bringing all US service academies "into the twentieth century" [6]. USAA - The McDermott Infrastructure With his outstanding reputation as an insurance scholar developed through his teaching and two published books, his solid academic preparation including an MBA from Harvard, and his national reputation as a visionary, organizer, leader and manager, he came to USAA as an Executive Vice President in July of 1968. Over the next six months he would observe all facets of USAA's operation and begin formulating his visions for the future of USAA. When he assumed the role of President and CEO of USAA on January 1, 1969, the company was in good shape overall. Serving the auto property and casualty insurance needs of active duty officers since 1922, it had a solid reputation and had penetrated 70% of its potential market. It also provided homeowners insurance in some states and had just begun offering a basic life insurance policy. The members (USAA is actually a reciprocal insurance exchange - a member-owned cooperative if you will) were basically happy and contented with their company. On the face of it, it would not seem that a new man could do a great deal better than was already being done, but McDermott had observed much during his six-month orientation. While the small company was doing well and had assets of $200,000,000, it was doing well with increasing difficulty. Although basically solid financially, the Board had accorded the departing President "special recognition" by raising the annual dividend to all the members to a new high. This put the previous president in a rosy glow, but placed USAA in a hazardous cash position. One of McDermott's first acts was to cancel the "extra" dividend which created immediate unrest among the members, but which was necessary if the company were to get through a temporary financial crisis. It did. In the operating levels of USAA, McDermott noted many problems. The approximately 3,000 employees (over 90% women) did not like the work at all, and the annual turnover rate of 43% made this clear. To initiate a new automobile insurance [policy required 55 different steps at 55 different desks. Some of these simple steps were mind deadening, like pulling staples or unsealing envelops. The operation required moving files up and down seven different floors, and claims and underwriting maintained separate records on each member. At each desk were shelves and bins piled high with records requiring some action or awaiting filing. So confusing was the operation and so many records misplaced that a crew of dozens of college students searched for missing records every night in order to return them to where they were needed. Most employees felt that USAA was a good place to start, but few wanted to remain there and a career was unthinkable. The employees had little education and less loyalty to USAA. It was clear to McDermott that if USAA were to be a truly great company, sweeping changes would have to occur. Gathering with him a small number of those he brought on board and a few incumbents, he held a serious long-range planning meeting at the American Management Association's Conference Center in Hamilton, New York to set the future course for USAA. At this meeting and, to a lesser extent, those of the next two years, he began to reveal his goals for the future. On the operational side he challenged USAA to become a "paperless" insurance company, which seemed unreachable at the time. He committed USAA fully to use the newest technology to improve the operation and to make employees' jobs more meaningful. As a result, he was certain productivity would rise. He challenged the company to work through a myriad of state regulations and laws to enable USAA to provide automobile and property insurance to all members in all states. As far as employees were concerned, McDermott wanted sweeping changes to orient employees to provide better and more ethical service to the members. He proposed to accomplish this by developing a "corporate culture" that would provide an ethical, and service-oriented foundation that would permeate the entire company. He instituted the USAA Creed which charged members and employees to serve "each other with integrity and dependability" [25]. The goal in handling auto claims would be not to pay as little as possible and still satisfy the member, but to exercise "the highest standards of ethical and professional conduct while transacting claims business" [24]. Providing timely and responsive service with integrity and ethical conduct would build member faith and strengthen USAA for future growth. Training on ethical conduct became a staple in new employee orientation and all training courses. He even sought a new logo to give the company a more solid and a more modern look. McDermott recognized that a corporate culture in itself would not work without building pride among the employees. He challenged USAA to build new employment incentives including pay and other benefits. He pushed the Board of Directors in the direction of building a new facility to house all of USAA to increase efficiency and to give the employees more pride. Perhaps most important of all, he insisted programs be developed to encourage each employee to grow to his or her maximum potential. During McDermott's first few years, dozens of changes swept over USAA and its employees. The pattern for the larger changes was similar - first the vision, followed by long and short-range plans to accomplish the task. Then specialists, often outside consultants, would help in the development of operational ideas and selection of equipment. At the same time, intelligent, hard-working individuals were placed in charge of the projects and were given latitude to build teams and develop the operation programs. At almost the same juncture, plans were made to train affected employees and to prepare them physically and psychologically for the changes. These efforts tended to bring in innovations more quickly than expected with strong acceptance by the employees themselves. The results were more efficiency, productivity, and pride in a job done better than before. A typical example was the introduction of a computer system designed to produce multi-car policies. Today, all companies issue policies that list all the cars owned by a family. In 1969, each car had its own policy. The administrative work required to produce these policies was labor-intensive and expensive. With the introduction of a multi-car computer software system, all vehicles were listed on one policy. Just this change enabled USAA to increase its productivity enormously, deleting hundreds of manpower spaces in one year. A second benefit of this new system was to spread the auto renewal periods throughout the year. This enabled USAA to level out the workload and make more efficient use of available manpower. Over time, the development of USAA's gigantic information systems continually increased productivity and enabled it to provide better service to the members. At the present time, USAA has the largest IBM facility in the United States in terms of the numbers of transactions completed daily. The statistical growth is shown in Appendix 1, but does not really show what it means to the company today. Whereas issuing a policy in 1969 took 55 steps and an inordinate amount of time, today one Policy Service employee handles the entire transaction using his or her computer screen and the policy is on its way to the member in three days or less. This effort was highlighted recently in the February 13, 1989 issue of Fortune magazine [1]. Today, McDermott's earliest visions of leading-edge technology continue to unfold. Still working toward a "paperless" environment, USAA had been working on the development of imaging techniques. After a short experiment with 3M in 1984, McDermott convinced John Akers, CEO of IBM, to work with USAA in development and execution of the image-processing system. Working as partners, USA and IBM computer specialists and engineers were successful. In late 1988, John Akers came to USAA to cut the ribbon and see the new system in operation. Very simply, a document, such as a police report is given the USAA number and entered into the computer system by a process resembling a data fax to the casual observer. Only in this case the document is stored on an optical disk and is ready for recall at any of USAA's image computer screens in a split second. By the spring of 1989 USAA had all policy service documents on optical disks rendering the millions of pieces of paper expendable. After everything is entered on the optical disks, lost documents and misplaced files will become folklore instead of reality. McDermott's effort in improving his work force and pushing USAA into leading edge technology have combined into what Ed Yourdon called in the February 1989 issue of American Programmer one of the extremely rare "Exemplary Data Processing Organizations" in the country [26]. He pointed out how much "influence an exemplary CEO can have in the creation and motivation of an exemplary data processing organization." Improving the Work Force One of McDermott's earliest visions had been to improve working conditions by developing a new facility able to house all USAA employees under one roof. In 1969 he personally looked over properties. He rejected sites convenient to the city center where most employees lived and selected a site in the undeveloped northwest part of the city. He talked the Board of Directors into authorizing the purchase of 286 acres. He wanted good access for the employees and to build a campus-like setting. He wanted room for growth and did not want others encroaching upon USAA itself or its view. Today, the USAA property sits in the center of the fastest-growing area of the city and the value of the property has escalated like the population of San Antonio. As far as the building itself was concerned, McDermott wanted it to be a place where the employees would be proud and happy to work. He wanted the principal aesthetic costs concentrated on the interior and not the exterior. When completed in 1975, it turned out to be a state-of-the-art building for 1989 and was, and still is, the second largest horizontal office building in the country. All the flooring is "computer flooring" enabling the thousands of miles of computer and telephone wiring to be out of sight and to make internal moves easy and economical. The building has a center spine and on the main floor, three different courtyards where the employees can relax body and mind. Each courtyard has a different theme providing additional aesthetic beauty. The work areas themselves have cubicles including telephones and a computer terminal and are located adjacent to the courtyards for breaks. The building also contains other amenities to increase the comfort of the employees. Included is a company store to purchase sundry items, a ticket counter to purchase discounted tickets to San Antonio attractions, a contract post office, a health clinic, exercise gymnasium and outstanding cafeterias. Getting good employees to come to USAA was only one step. Retention of good employees was the next. To assist in both these tasks, McDermott introduced programs to improve the physical well being and health of the employees and to help them develop to achieve their individual potential as well. Building and maintaining the physical well being of the USAA employees has been a multi-faceted program. In 1972, McDermott convinced the USAA Board of Directors to incorporate a physical fitness center into the new building. The resultant 9,700 square foot center houses lockers, saunas, steam rooms, cardiovascular treadmills and exercise bicycles, a Nordic skier and rowing machines. Two professional exercise physiologists monitor the individual exercise programs. Almost 2,000 employees participate in the center's programs. Outside the building are 35 acres devoted to fitness activity areas which include five miles of jogging trails winding through the trees, a multi-purpose soccer field, softball fields, basketball and volleyball courts, and tennis courts. All are equipped with lights for evening use. This year almost 3,000 employees participated in various intramural sports leagues. The fitness and athletic program is balanced by a first-class health service staff and program. Its eight registered nurses provide a complete health-oriented program for employees. Among the programs conducted are brown-bag health seminars, free allergy and flue immunizations, on-site mammograms, free diabetes, hypertension and cholesterol testing and an annual Health Fair. The Health Services staff also provides smoking cessation training which was of significant help when McDermott phased in a "no smoking" policy in all USAA buildings. At the present time, smoking is authorized in only a few lounges and a small section of the cafeterias, with the goal to eliminate all smoking by the end of 1990. Free comprehensive physical examinations are provided to employees over 50 years of age. Confidential employee counseling is also provided. In 1980 alone, the counselors served over 3,000 employees. Part of the counseling service also includes information on area childcare facilities. Other wellness incentives include low-priced "Treat Yourself Right" menus in the cafeteria which encourage good eating habits and a full-time safety director who insures employees have safe working areas and equipment. One result of the employees perceiving that USAA cares for them and that USAA is actually making things healthier and safer for them, is USAA's absentee rate which is 45% below the national average. Helping individuals meet their potential have been the highly successful USAA education and training programs. Soon after McDermott arrived at USAA, he decided to centralize training and education and brought on board a professional educator to do it. McDermott's programs had two great impacts. First, there was visible improvem
    But there are many ways insurers' costs can be reduced through more efficient operation, and through more effective advocacy of health and safety programs. Some companies, like USAA in San Antonio, operate much more efficiently than the industry average. According to NICO (National Insurance Consumer Organization -a Nader group) auto insurance rates would drop by an average of 17% nationally if all companies were as efficient as USAA. And USAA provides a 14% dividend to its cooperative owners [11].
    In testimony before the same committee, Harvey Rosenfield, the author of California's Proposition 103 also had positive words for USAA in contrast to other insurers:
    Moreover, a huge portion of the premium dollar goes to waste and inefficiency on a massive level. For example, according to Best Aggregates and Averages (1988) 23 cents of every dollar of auto insurance Fireman's Fund wrote in 1987 went to claims adjustments and defense lawyers' fees and 28.9 cents went to agent's commissions, executive salaries and other overhead expenses. Contrast that with USAA, a company which itself does exceptionally well in the insurance business and is appreciated by its customers for its excellent service. It paid 12.3 cents per premium dollar to its lawyers, and 6.9 cents per dollar to overhead [15].
    USAA has continued to provide service to its members with integrity and distinction, but also has consistently made profits to protect the members' interests and to keep products at a level as inexpensive as possible. In Appendix 1 is a chart which dramatizes the tremendous growth in USAA under General McDermott from the end of 1968 to 1988. As this article goes into publications, the dramatic growth has continued in all the areas noted. For example, USAA's owned and managed assets now exceed 16 billion dollars and USAA has almost 13,000 employees. A National Leader for Automobile Safety McDermott has long been a proponent of vehicle safety. For over a decade he has worked with automobile manufacturers, insurance institutes, private sector businesses, local and national politicians, and the media to secure improved automobile safety equipment and better safety legislation for the country. To this end, he has also initiated two separate safety campaigns, one in 1982 and one in 1988. These addressed the problem of deaths, injuries and property damage incurred through unsafe driving and inadequate safety technology. General McDermott held a national press conference on safety in Washington, D.C. on January 5, 1982.. He also made an appearance on the McNeil-Lehrer Report on the next night. During the interview, he further touted the use of passive restraints and called for prompt governmental acceptance of more rigid safety standards for automobiles. During the 1982 safety campaign, McDermott made history by making USAA the first insurance company to publish a comprehensive report on the comparative safety of domestic and foreign automobiles. The report, produced in conjunction with the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (HHS), showed the statistical results of actual automobile crashes involving injuries and deaths. It listed which automobiles were most "crashworthy," and which were more likely to cause injury or death in a crash [10]. Another aspect of the first safety campaign was General McDermott's testimony at the November 28, 1983, Department of Transportation Hearing in Los Angeles, California. The thrust of his testimony was to point out the indecisiveness and ambivalence with which the government has treated auto safety by not mandating better passive restraint technology - air bangs in particular -- to automobile manufacturers. As not only an insurance company executive, but also a father and grandfather, he implored haste in implementing improved safety legislation and recommended "a pragmatic, action-oriented approach to get passive restraint technology into existing cars and built into the net generation of automobiles" [9]. An even more extensive and far-reaching safety campaign known as DRIVE SMART was sanctioned by General McDermott in 1988. At the campaign kickoff on Wednesday, March 30, 1988 at a press conference in Washington, D.C., General McDermott announced that USAA would imitate the most extensive package of auto insurance discounts and incentives ever offered [3]. These incentives and discounts were recognized by then-Secretary of Transportation Jim Burnley as bellwether actions in corporate leadership. He stated in a message at the press conference, "I am delighted to say that General Robert F. McDermott, Chairman of the United Services Automobile Association, has accepted the challenge and in turn is setting the standard for the insurance industry. This is not only a fine example of private sector initiative, but of the leadership industry can provide and credibility it can lend in developing public support for new safety technology. " Ralph Nader also stated that "USAA was setting the pace for Allstate, State Farm, Travelers and others" [12]. Included in USAA's program were an Air Bag Safety Bonus and Air Bag Replacement Guarantee, an Air Bag Premium Discount, a Child Safety Seat Discount, an Anti-Lock Brake Discount and other incentives as well. The DRIVE SMART campaign began in San Antonio, Texas, in early April and will continue through 1989 and beyond. In the campaign, USAA spearheads a group of 35 business, community, educational and religious organizations pledging to commit time and resources to reduce traffic injuries and fatalities on American roads. The purpose of the campaign is multi-dimensional, informing people on the four general topics including responsible driving, the use of restraints, proper vehicle maintenance, and buying "smart cars" - cars with the latest safety features. To this end, General McDermott authorized USAA's development of a variety of materials and services to support the campaign. These included billboards, bench ads, taxi and bus ad boards, safety-related videotapes, dozens of public service announcements (PSAs) for radio and television, posters, brochures, bumper stickers, decals and safety displays. Many of the materials were produced in English and Spanish to widen their audience appeal. These materials were also made available without USAA logos so that organizations could use their own logos or message. USAA made these available at no cost to any organization willing to promote the idea of automobile safety. Soon the campaign took on a statewide and nationwide focus. The Texas Highway Department adopted the theme and expanded it to DRIVE SMART TEXAS, placing DRIVE SMART TEXAS signs near entrances and exits of high-traffic areas in the state. Through the cooperation of some business sector participants (e.g. Taco Bell and 7-Eleven), the campaign entered regional and national markets through television advertising and distribution of USAA-produced DRIVE SMART materials at their locations. Public service ads in magazines were then focused toward both military and civilian communities throughout the country. McDermott carried the safety message personally to a national audience in September 1988 when he keynoted the second National Injury Control Conference. The conference was sponsored by the U.S. Center for Disease Control, and about 500 physicians, researchers and educators attended. Additionally, a USAA-sponsored DRIVE SMART AMERICA display appeared at both the National Conference of State Legislatures in Reno, Nevada, and the U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce 1988 National Convention in Washington, D.C. for the purpose of enhancing political interest on safety issues. In all, a total of over 6.5 billion nationwide media impressions for DRIVE SMART were made in 1988. In January of 1989, Diane Stead, Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration wrote a letter to McDermott. In it she said she wished "to personally commend you on the actions taken by USAA throughout the year to increase the safety of our nation's motoring public" [22]. McDermott's Contributions to San Antonio In a tribute to Robert McDermott recently, Mayor Henry Cisneros of San Antonio stated that "when the economic history of San Antonio in the 1980s is written, the most influential individual will be him (McDermott)" [4]. After his arrival in San Antonio, McDermott was selected as President of the Greater San Antonio Chamber of Commerce. In this position he initiated the San Antonio Economic Development Council which began a drive to bring business development into San Antonio. When the Hispanic population felt they were not being included, McDermott founded United San Antonio which pulled all the disparate community groups together. In the 1980s he was responsible for getting an undergraduate engineering program at the University of Texas at San Antonio first and later graduate programs in the sciences. With this groundwork laid, he began moving in a formal sense to make San Antonio a biotechnology center for the future. He founded the Texas Research and Technology Foundation, which was established to develop a Texas Research Park. He also helped arrange for the first major gift of $15,000,000 for the park from H. Ross Perot. Today he is regarded as the key influential business leader in San Antonio. In addition to his personal contributions, McDermott believes that USAA should be a corporate good citizen, and it has been so. USAA's Volunteer Corps gave over 30m000 volunteer hours to San Antonio just last year and USA is the city's largest private-sector United Way contributor. Although USAA employees constitute only 2% of San Antonio's work force, they contributed 10% of the total monies collected by United Way. Promulgating Ethical Ideals In addition to what McDermott has done to instill a system of corporate ethics and to integrate it into normal business activity, he has made two other major contributions as well. He is the Chairman of the International Leadership Center Foundation in Dallas. This Foundation supports Leadership America, recognized as the premier off-campus leadership training program for college students in the country. The mission of the Foundation has four principal parts: -Providing ideas, advice and personal involvement to aid the Center in broadening the vision of current and emerging leaders by improving their leadership capabilities; -Formulating policies that insure excellence in all Center activities; -Promulgating high traditional American moral and ethical values that underlie successful leadership through all Foundation and Center activities; -Designing, developing and implementing plans that insure the financial stability and growth of the International Leadership Center. Participating students have all agreed that the Leadership America Program ahs had a major impact upon them because it shows the importance of ethics and values as a foundation for leadership. As a second major action, USAA is underwriting a series of four nationally-televised programs under the title "Raising Good Kids in Bad Times." Produced by Emmy Award-winning producer Arnold Shapiro, the first program, "See Dick and Jane Lie, Cheat and Steal: Teaching Morality to Kids," will air on U.S. Commercial stations in April. Tom Selleck will host the program. Other films will include "The Truth About Teaching," hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, "The American Dream Contest," hosted by Michael Landon, "New & Improved Kids," with Loni Anderson, and James Garner holding the reins on "Take Me to your Leaders." The series has already been contracted by over 98% of the national television market. Robert F. McDermott's achievements in his chosen careers and his efforts on behalf of the insurance and financial services industry, his community and our society and nation resulted in his selection to the American National Business Hall of Fame in 1989. His achievements underline that personal ethical conduct, integrity and respect for God and country provide a foundation for success when carried into the world of business. *This article by Paul T. Ringenbach was originally published in The Journal of Business Leadership, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1990. *Copyright 1990. The American National Business Hall of Fame. All rights reserved. No portion of ANBHF may be duplicated, redistributed or manipulated without the expressed permission of the ANBHF. REFERENCES 1. Alster, Norm. (1989, February 13). What flexible workers can do. Fortune, p. 64.2. Best's Insurance Reports. (1989). USAA received an A+ (Superior) rating in Best's Property-Casualty (p. 2625) and Life-Health (p. 2264). Oldwich, NJ: AM Best Company.3. Burnley, James. (Secretary of Transportation). (1988, March 30). [Remarks at a press conference to announce the beginning of the DRIVE SMART safety campaign.] Washington, D.C.4. Cisneros, Henry. (Mayor of San Antonio). (1988, October 6). [Remarks given at the dedication of USAA Towers]. San Antonio, Texas.5. Elkind, Peter. (1987, Spring). McDermott's mission. Best of Business, p. 8-15.6. Hamm, Lt. General Charles R. (Superintendent of the U.S> Air Force Academy). (1988, November 4). {Remarks at the dedication of Arnold Auditorium, United States Military Academy]. West Point, New York.7. IDC Financial Publications, Inc. (1989, February). S&L - Savings Bank Financial Quarterly, p. 82.8. Mack, Toni. (1988, July 25). They have faith in us. Forbes, p. 82.9. McDermott, Robert F. (Chairman USAA). (1983, November 28). [Testimony before the California Department of Transportation]. Los Angeles, California.10. McDermott, Robert F. (1982, January 19). Americans are dying for better gas mileage. Wall Street Journal, p. 13.11. Nader, Ralph. (Founder of Public Interest Research Group). (1988, December 6). [Testimony before the Commerce, Consumer Protection and Competitiveness Sub-Committee, U.S. House of Representatives]. Washington, D.C.12. Nader, Ralph. (Founder of the Center for Auto Safety). (1988, March 20). [Response to the announcement of USAA safety incentives]. Washington, D.C.13. Nussbaum, Bruce, et. Al. (1985, January 21). The new corporate elite. Business Week, p. 63.14. Reich, Kenneth (1988, June 7). USAA again ranks first in satisfaction on auto insurance. Los Angeles Times, p. 3.15. Rosenfield Harvey. (Architect of California's Proposition 103). (1988, December 6). [Testimony before the Commerce, Consumer Protection and Competitiveness Sub-Committee, U.S. House of Representatives]. Washington, D.C.16. Staff. (1970, June). Consumer Reports, p. 433.17. Staff. (1977, June). Consumer Reports, p. 377.18. Staff. (1980, September). Consumer Reports, p. 543.19. Staff. (1984, September). Consumer Reports, p. 508.20. Staff. (1988, October). Which companies offer better service? Consumer Reports, p. 628.21. Staff. (1989, February/March). Twenty-first century mail communications system on-line at insurance concern. Mail: The Journal of Mail Distribution, p. 16-17.15.22. Stead, Diane. (Administrator of the National Highway Safety Administration). (1989, January). [Letter to Robert F. McDermott, USAA]. San Antonio, Texas.23. Turco, Frank. (1988, March 24). Ratio of complaints against 19 insurers stirs state scrutiny. Arizona Republic, p. c7.24. USAA Public Affairs Department. (1985). A mission of trust: USAA Corporate culture. (San Antonio, Texas: USAA Publishing Services.25. USAA Strategic Planning and Analysis. (1988). Strategic planning guidance document. (San Antonio, Texas: USAA Publishing Services.26. Yourdon, Ed. (1989, February 2). Exemplary data processing organizations. American Programmer, p. 26.27. Zemke, Ron, Shaaf, Dick (1989). The service edge. (Foreword by Tom Peters). New York: New American Library.
    nt in the service USAA could provide to its members because of the improved education and training the employees received. Second, was the great morale factor it proved to be. McDermott began off-duty educational programs offered in USAA facilities and paid 100% tuition reimbursement for employees attending colleges and university courses. It did not stop there. He also paid for professional development courses leading to professional designations such as CLU (Chartered Life Underwriter) and CPCU (Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter). McDermott's centralized training concept has provided USAA with a broad diversity of training from entry-level training for claims and policy service personnel to management development courses to make technical personnel ready to assume supervisory positions. The Management Information Seminar provides senior managers a forum to learn about other divisions of the company and to mingle with other senior USAA executives and senior managers. The result is a free flow of ideas across divisions to help all the diverse elements be of maximum benefit to each other. USAA Growth and Diversification In the first long-range planning meeting at Hamilton, New York, McDermott had set out his vision of growth for USAA. The first order of business was to strengthen and expand the Property and Casualty business which was the heart of the company. Developing the ethical and service policy and strengthening the employees were critical parts of the foundation for growth as was development of computer systems to support the growth and improved service. USAA expansion in the Property and Casualty area had two parts - expanding the geographical area in which USAA could sell insurance and capturing a larger portion of the targeted market. When McDermott arrived, USAA could sell auto insurance in 48 of 50 states, but was able to sell homeowner policies in only 31 of 50 states. As a reciprocal insurance exchange that sold only to military officers this was a problem. When officers were ordered to states where USAA could not sell, membership suffered. McDermott established a corporate legal staff and charged it with getting USAA licensed for both lines in all states. With this underway, he initiated USAA's first corporate marketing staff and charged it with bringing in more members. The combination of the two initiatives resulted in USAA being licensed for auto and homeowner policies in all states, and as of the end of 1988, the penetration of the active duty officer market had reached 97%. When one eliminates those who can not be insured, such as those stationed in Warsaw Pact countries, and those without cars, USAA has close to 100% of those active-duty officers it is willing to insure. Today USAA is the 6th largest private automobile and homeowners insurer in the United States. From the beginning, McDermott combined his own sixth sense with those of members' desires to diversify USAA and add lines he believed could be supported. One of the key innovations was his decision to offer automobile and homeowners insurance to children of members through a new USAA subsidiary. With USAA Board of Directors' support, the program went into full swing and is now the fastest growing portion of the Property and Casualty business at USAA. At the end of 1968, USAA had only a small life insurance program in addition to the property and casualty insurance. As result of formal and informal surveys of members, McDermott wished to expand USAA offerings. Under the original bylaws, this was prohibited and so he had to convince the USAA Board of directors to change them to permit diversification. By virtue of his own persuasion and the desires of the membership, the Board reluctantly agreed. Its reluctance stemmed from the tradition-bound mind-set of those wishing to sell property and casualty insurance only. In 1968, USAA stood 504th among American life insurance companies in terms of life insurance in force, but that was soon to change. At that time, USAA offered only whole life insurance policies. Over the years other products were added to the line, and the life insurance ranking climbed slowly at first and then with increasing intensity. Now the USAA Life Insurance Company offers a full range of life insurance products an has added a number of health insurance products as well. In 1976, a line of annuities was also added. Today USAA stands 55th in national raking based on the dollars of ordinary life insurance in force. Success in life insurance led to further entries into the financial services area. Under the USAA Investment Management Company (IMCO), begun in 1983, 12 no-load mutual funds were added over time, each tailored to different member desires and needs. Some of them include money market, growth, tax-exempt, international and precious metals funds. Today, USAA stands 34th in national mutual fund group ranking. In addition to the mutual funds, a real estate division has offered Real Estate Limited Partnerships. Among the youngest of the financial services offerings, the Real Estate Division turned a profit in 1988 and has great future promise. USAA also added a Discount Brokerage, which now numbers 38,000 active accounts and handles stock transfers for IMCO, cutting USAA costs. Almost from his arrival at USAA, McDermott had wanted to open a bank, but various rules and regulations prohibited insurance companies from doing so. In the early 1980s, deregulation of financial institutions and other legal and regulatory provisions made it seem possible for USAA to open a savings and loan institution. In October of 1983, a window of opportunity opened and McDermott moved quickly. On December 30, 1983, USAA capitalized its new savings and loan with $20,000,000 and opened in a renovated trailer building on the USAA property. USAA members joined at a rapid rate. One pundit at the time pointed out that USAA members felt very strongly about the integrity of USAA and its backing of the savings and loan since they sent money to a trailer pointed at the Mexican border. Today, only six years later, the USAA Federal Savings Bank has over $1 billion in assets and has received top marks from independent raters [7]. Another sign of USAA members' strong faith in USAA and what it backs is the USAA Federal Savings Bank's experience with the MasterCard. USAA sent 240,000 pre-approved credit card applications to members. Industry experts predicted that 10-12% might be a reasonable return based on USAA reputation. In the first couple of months, USAA members returned applications to establish a return rate of over 50%. Today over 1 million USAA MasterCards are in use, and USAA's national standing is fifth in sales volume for all institutions issuing a MasterCard. USAA purchased another financial institution in Utah in 1988 and opened the FDIC-insured USAA Federal Savings Association with a gold MasterCard following shortly thereafter. In 1988, in another McDermott innovation, USAA opened the USAA Towers, a luxury retirement center in San Antonio. The 23-story, $75,000,000 building has won high ratings from the retired community and the retirement industry. Many of the strides McDermott has made in the financial services area have produced accolades from members and have received praise from a variety of respected financial institutions. In 1987, the Nilson Report and NBC's Today Show proclaimed the USAA MasterCard as the number one buy in the country. Many of the mutual funds have been praised as excellent investments in national publications such as Fortune and Money. The USAA Federal Savings Bank was given ICD Financial Publishing's first-ever "perfect" rating for an institution with assets of over $50,000,000[7]. USAA Life Insurance Company has received A.M. Best A+ rating since 1975 and the Property and Casualty Division for much longer [2]. The success of all of these USAA programs has been due to the excellent relationship of mutual trust and confidence built up between USAA and its members based on the ethical conduct and integrity of the customers and the company itself. "Service to the Member" is the watchword continually espoused in USAA and is the clearest expression of USAA's positive relationship with its members. That "Service to the Member" philosophy implanted by McDermott has continued during USAA's rapid growth, and a key element of that service is member contact. As a direct-writer, USAA relies primarily on telephone and postal communication with its members. Over the years, McDermott has guided the staff to a communications status - technologically and from the standpoint of efficiency - that ensures members have fast and direct contact with USAA. In 1969, about 99% of USAA's member contact was by mail. Today USAA relies more on the immediacy of telephone contact. Its employees receive about 17.8 million calls a year, and average daily phone volume is about 65,000 calls. With over 1,000 lines, USAA is the largest single point of termination for WATS lines in the country. Still, USAA continues to rely heavily on use of the mail. It is the nation's largest direct mailer in terms of sales volume and fifth largest internationally. A staff of more than 450, full- and part-time, handle approximately 27 million incoming and 73 million outgoing pieces of mail annually. Technology, combined with employee morale and esprit de corps, ensures USAA members receive the best possible communications service [21]. How well USAA is doing in providing service to its members can be measured in a number of ways. The steady growth of USAA and success of its diversification efforts are surely one measure. Another are surveys USAA administers to members which show great member satisfaction. It would be easy to write off USAA's surveys of its own members, but the findings have been confirmed in a number of other places by different institutions. For example, the October 1988 issue of Consumer Reports picked USAA as one of the best three companies in the nation in terms of service. The other two were much smaller firms [20]. This was the 4th such judgment by Consumer Reports over the past 20 years [16, 17, 18, 19]. USAA had the best record in the state for both homeowners and private auto insurance in terms of the fewest number of complaints per one thousand policyholders [14]. The Arizona Insurance Department had the same findings for USAA personal lines insurance [23]. In an industry categorized as a "service Industry", USAA is clearly one of the national leaders due to the leadership of Robert McDermott. In its January 21, 1985 issue, Business Week selected 50 leaders who were representative of the new corporate elite. Of the 9 selected in the "service Gurus" category, McDermott was the only CEO of an insurance firm selected [13]. In the July 25, 1988, Forbes, McDermott said in an interview with Toni Mack that , "if you put service number one, everything else will follow," and so it has [8]. Most recently USAA was among 101 companies singled out in the 1989 book The Service Edge by Ron Zemke with Dick Schaaf [27]. In his foreword to the book, Tom Peters said that the 101 companies described will hopefully have "good management at the top, and throughout any firm, to appreciate just what an unstinting dedication to service can amount to - and to challenge each and every one of us about making such a commitment in our own outfits" [27]. It is clear that providing great service to its own members, USAA has caught national attention as well. McDermott's leadership qualities, within and outside the insurance industry, and his concern for community and country were also reflected in a Best of Business Quarterly interview that appeared in the journal's Spring 1987 issue [5]. Fiscal Management Providing great service has not been done without consideration of the bottom line. USAA has consistently maintained the lowest cost/expense ratio in the insurance industry and has paid dividends to members every year. In the aftermath of the insurance revolt in California in the November 1988 election, consumer advocate Ralph Nader testified before the House Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness Subcommittee on December 6, 1988.Although Nader excoriated the insurance industry, he had positive testimony for USAA. He stated:
  • Defense Secretary Charles Wilson
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    --John F. Kennedy,
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    Shortly after its creation in 1958, NASA was greatly in need of medical expertise relating to the effects of the space environment on man. With the School of Aviation Medicine (SAM) [later School of Aerospace Medicine (SAM)] moving to Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in 1959, NASA hired SAM to perform research and experiments relating to medical issues for manned spaceflight. At this time, the Department of Space Medicine at SAM was focused on a set of ambitious research goals relating to the protection of astronauts from the harsh space environment. Initially on a contract basis, SAM performed three projects for NASA.
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    During the third revolution, he carried out the first extra vehicular activity in the United States manned space flight program. He was outside Gemini 4 for 21 minutes, and became the first man to control himself in space during EVA with a maneuvering unit.
    he was named as one of the pilots of the AS-204 mission, the first 3-man Apollo flight.
    Lieutenant Colonel White died on January 26, 1967, in the Apollo spacecraft flash fire during a launch pad test at Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
  • Gordon Peterson wrote ARC' innovate network operating system.
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  • http://www.perftech.com/Bios.html
    For over 25 years, PerfTech's core management group has worked together, producing innovative technology, creating industry standards, inventing new applications, and filing dozens of patents among the senior management team.  The PerfTech team has consistently identified  the needs and services vital to successful technology applications.  Their scope and depth of experience allow customers to gain the best of both worlds:  innovation and expertise.
     
    Rod Frey, President and Acting CFO: Rod has 23 years of Information Systems, Finance, Product Management, Operations, and General Management experiences. He started his career with a multi-national/high-technology corporation, Raychem, where he held positions in IS management, business planning, Group Controller and in his final three years as General Manager of a 300 employee offshore subsidiary. He joined Performance Technology in early 1993 where he became responsible for Finance, Operations, HR and Administration. Once Performance Technology was acquired by Bay/Nortel Networks, Rod became the San Antonio site’s General Manager and also took on Product Management directorship for other Nortel Networks products/locations. Rod holds BS degrees in Computer Science and Finance from the University of California, Berkeley and at California State University, Hayward.
     
    Lewis Donzis, Vice-President, Chief Technical Officer: Lewis Donzis, a founding member of Performance Technology in 1985, has been a key figure in the varied history of the team. Beginning his career as an Advanced Product Development engineer at Datapoint Corp. in 1977, Lewis went on to serve as a lead developer at Performance Technology, inventing and developing the products that have made this team so successful. Lewis’ prescience in identifying the Internet phenomenon in 1991 and subsequent education of the team in Internet technology led to the definition of the product that produced the successful acquisition of the company by Nortel/Bay Networks in 1996. At PT and subsequently Bay Networks and Nortel Networks, Lewis led a team of senior engineers who produced cutting-edge, industry-leading products that won recognition from many industry publications including over 8 PC Magazine Editors' Choice awards and is an inventor on ten patents related to that technology.
     
    Jonathan Schmidt, Executive Vice-President, Business Development: Jonathan has enjoyed a prolific career in the technology industry. He began developing state-of-the-art data and image communications systems as a senior engineer at Frederick Electronics (Plantronics) Corporation in 1966. He later became Vice President of Advanced Product Development at Datapoint Corporation (1969-1985), where his core product development group created the industry's first commercial LAN (ARCNET) and network operating systems and supported a business with 10,000 employees worldwide. Jonathan became the first Datapoint officer to travel internationally, helping the company develop relationships that later contributed more than half of the firm's global revenue. As co-founder of Performance Technology in 1985, his technical leadership earned a number of industry accolades that included Inc. Magazine's "Entrepreneur of the Year Award." Jonathan defined and played a key role in the design of Performance Technology's products, and established a number of lucrative distribution channels in Europe. After the acquisition of Performance Technology by Bay Networks/Nortel in 1996, Jonathan served as a senior strategist at both Bay Networks and Nortel Networks. Over the course of his impressive career, Jonathan has lived and worked in various countries around the world, has learned several foreign languages, has long served on the boards of innovative high-tech companies in the US and abroad, and has authored numerous patents for technology products and services. Jonathan holds both a BA and MA in Mathematics from the University of Michigan.
     
    Shellie Rosser, Sales Consultant: Founder and president of SR Consulting, Shellie Rosser brings more than 20 years experience in the cable television technology business, where she has been instrumental in the successful introduction of new technologies for the leading suppliers in the cable industry. Shellie's corporate background includes start-up Narad Networks, where she served as VP Market Development and VP Marketing, developing demand-creation programs and managing all aspects of the company’s marketing department. As Senior VP Sales for ICTV, she led that company’s rollout of interactive television technology. At Antec (now Arris Interactive), she helped establish the company’s leadership in fiber optics in her roles as VP Marketing and VP Communications. She also managed Antec’s activities in terminal devices as VP Subscriber Systems and VP New Business Development. Her cable television career began in sales, where she was Account Executive for General Instrument (now Motorola), and later, Director of Corporate Accounts for Pioneer Communications of America. Shellie has served on numerous cable association foundations, boards and committees throughout her career, including Women In Cable and Telecommunications, CTPAA, CTAM, NCTA, and the FCC Advisory Committee on Advanced Television. In 1995 Shellie was recognized for her contributions to the cable industry with the prestigious NCTA Vanguard Award for Young Leadership. A long time member of the SCTE, she was inducted in the Cable Pioneers Club in 2002. Shellie earned her BBA at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, and Executive Management Program certification at the Kellogg School of Northwestern University.
     
    John Murphy, Senior Engineer: John has a wide range of experience, having worked at Motorola, Telex, and Singer, before joining Datapoint Corporation in the mid-1970s. John is known throughout the industry as the inventor of ARCNET, the world’s first commercial Local Area Network (LAN) topology, and has been honored by NASA for its use on the Space Shuttle. He also developed the Associated Index Method allowing high-speed ad hoc database searches, the first multi-user LAN-connected spreadsheet, high-performance, high-reliability server software, local area networking operating systems including their LAN communications protocols, and the firmware and BIOS for the first production Instant Internet for which he was awarded multiple patents. John holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Notre Dame.
     
    Henry Donzis, Senior Engineer: Henry joined Datapoint in 1974 and invented the first Local Area Network to be implemented on a broadband medium. He holds a patent on the facet-to-axis correction of the first LAN-connected laser printer and he also participated in the development of the first LAN optical link. Joining the initial Performance Technology team in 1985, he was responsible for producing tape backup systems, data conversion utilities, the first 16-bit ARCNET hardware, and an emulator for UNIX to be used by all Ford dealers in the UK. He developed the prototype and holds a patent for both the client and server of the first LAN-to-Internet gateway (Instant Internet), and his hardware expertise and development of automated manufacturing systems were critical to the success of the Instant Internet product line. Henry holds a BS degree in Electrical Engineering from Texas A&M University and an MS in Computer Science and System Design from the University of Texas at San Antonio.
     
    Peter Baron, Graphical Design Engineer: Peter joined PT in 1988 after starting his professional career with Citibank of Canada, where he was system administrator of their Datapoint systems. After joining PT Peter spent several years programming on various products and quickly gravitated toward designing user interfaces, and has become the team’s lead GUI designer. Peter holds a BS degree in Mathematics from the University of Waterloo.
     
    Rhonda Grimm, Marketing/Product Manager: Rhonda joined the PT team in 1985 as a technical writer and has accumulated 16 years of experience in product marketing, sales, and product management. Rhonda was instrumental in developing marketing materials and executing successful product launches for a number of PT product lines as well as developing and managing focused inside-sales organizations. At Bay Networks and Nortel Networks she became a core team leader in product introductions/product management and has had extensive experience in developing close relationships with key/lead customers. She holds a BA in Literature from Tulane University and an MBA from the University of Texas at San Antonio.
     
    Maria Johnson, Administrative Office Manager: Maria joined PT in 1990 after many years in the customer service industry. She has developed a very broad background involving many activities within the company and continues to support the team with valuable administrative services. Maria develops and maintains relationships with a number of key service vendors providing the company a very flexible growth model. 
  • Lung-on-a-chip points to alternative to animal tests
    19:00 24 June 2010 by Duncan Graham-Rowe
    A living, breathing lung-on-a-chip has been developed that can mimic the boundary between the lung's air sacs and its capillaries.
    It's at this boundary that inhaled pathogens and potentially harmful nanoparticles pass into the bloodstream. Reproducing those processes on a chip could one day provide an alternative to animal testing for drug development and toxicity screening.
    The coin-sized lung-on-a-chip consists of a simple network of microfluidic channels etched into a rubbery, transparent polymer called polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The central channel contains two layers of human cells, separated by a porous membrane (see image).
    In the upper layer the cells come from alveoli, the cavities deep inside the lung where gases pass between the lungs and the bloodstream. The lower layer contains endothelium cells from the capillaries that carry oxygen-rich blood away.
    Breathe in…
    As well as mimicking the cellular structure of the lung, the chip copies its behaviour too: it can "breathe". As air pressure in two channels flanking the main channel is periodically reduced and increased, the central membrane is widened, stretching the cells as it does to, before they contract once more as the pressure is increased, says Donald Ingber, director of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, and leader of the lung-on-a-chip team.
    Because the device is transparent, it's possible to make real-time measurements of the inflammatory response that occurs when pathogens or silica nanoparticles are introduced into the airflow chamber. The measurements are made using high-resolution fluorescence microscopy. The extent to which these particles pass into the simulated bloodstream can also be recorded, Ingber says.
    These measurements show that the "breathing" mechanism appears to encourage the uptake of silica nanoparticles – a result that the team found also occurs when they introduced the same nanoparticles into a mouse lung connected to a ventilator.
    Lifelike response
    The fact that the lung-on-a-chip behaves so much like the real mouse lung is an encouraging sign that ethically acceptable and cheaper alternatives to animal testing may be on the way. Cell-culture techniques, which are also being investigated as an option, cannot take into account important mechanical influences that help regulate the organs, such as the stretching of lung tissue caused by breathing. "This is something that has been missing from almost all in vitro models," Ingber says.
    Anthony Holmes, of the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research in London, agrees. "There's lot of evidence that the normal functions of organs require certain physical stimulations," he says. The lungs are one example but it applies equally to bone, cartilage and other tissues. "It's a nice model and an interesting approach."
    "It's wonderful that it breathes, and definitely a step in the right direction," says Kelly BéruBé, a cell biologist at Cardiff University, UK, who acts as scientific adviser to the UK's Safer Medicines Trust. But she warns that the immortalised cell lines used in the lung-on-a-chip tend not to have the same properties as "primary" cells taken from patients. "Unless they can get primary cells, they are not going to be able to replace animal tests."
    Journal reference: Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.1188302
  • Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. The term cybernetics stems from the Greek kybernetes (meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder). Cybernetics is the discipline that studies communication and control in living beings and in the machines built by humans.
    A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1958 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics in the 1930s, considers cybernetics as "the art of assuring efficiency of action" (see external links for reference).
  • http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.htm
    What is a cochlear implant?
    Credit: NIH Medical ArtsEar with Cochlear implant. View larger image.A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing. The implant consists of an external portion that sits behind the ear and a second portion that is surgically placed under the skin (see figure). An implant has the following parts:
    A microphone, which picks up sound from the environment.
    A speech processor, which selects and arranges sounds picked up by the microphone.
    A transmitter and receiver/stimulator, which receive signals from the speech processor and convert them into electric impulses.
    An electrode array, which is a group of electrodes that collects the impulses from the stimulator and sends them to different regions of the auditory nerve.
    An implant does not restore normal hearing. Instead, it can give a deaf person a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech.
    Top
    How does a cochlear implant work?
    A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids amplify sounds so they may be detected by damaged ears. Cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. Signals generated by the implant are sent by way of the auditory nerve to the brain, which recognizes the signals as sound. Hearing through a cochlear implant is different from normal hearing and takes time to learn or relearn. However, it allows many people to recognize warning signals, understand other sounds in the environment, and enjoy a conversation in person or by telephone.
    Top
    Who gets cochlear implants?
    Credit: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    Children and adults who are deaf or severely hard-of-hearing can be fitted for cochlear implants. According to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) 2005 data, nearly 100,000 people worldwide have received implants. In the United States, roughly 22,000 adults and nearly 15,000 children have received them.
    Adults who have lost all or most of their hearing later in life often can benefit from cochlear implants. They often can associate the sounds made through an implant with sounds they remember. This may help them to understand speech without visual cues or systems such as lipreading or sign language.
    Cochlear implants, coupled with intensive postimplantation therapy, can help young children to acquire speech, language, developmental, and social skills. Most children who receive implants are between two and six years old. Early implantation provides exposure to sounds that can be helpful during the critical period when children learn speech and language skills. In 2000, the FDA lowered the age of eligibility to 12 months for one type of cochlear implant.
    Top
    How does someone receive a cochlear implant?
    Use of a cochlear implant requires both a surgical procedure and significant therapy to learn or relearn the sense of hearing. Not everyone performs at the same level with this device. The decision to receive an implant should involve discussions with medical specialists, including an experienced cochlear-implant surgeon. The process can be expensive. For example, a person’s health insurance may cover the expense, but not always. Some individuals may choose not to have a cochlear implant for a variety of personal reasons. Surgical implantations are almost always safe, although complications are a risk factor, just as with any kind of surgery. An additional consideration is learning to interpret the sounds created by an implant. This process takes time and practice. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists are frequently involved in this learning process. Prior to implantation, all of these factors need to be considered.
    Top
    What does the future hold for cochlear implants?
    With advancements in technology and continued follow-up studies with people who already have received implants, researchers are evaluating how cochlear implants might be used for other types of hearing loss.
    NIDCD is supporting research to improve upon the benefits provided by cochlear implants. It may be possible to use a shortened electrode array, inserted into a portion of the cochlea, for individuals whose hearing loss is limited to the higher frequencies. Other studies are exploring ways to make a cochlear implant convey the sounds of speech more clearly. Researchers also are looking at the potential benefits of pairing a cochlear implant in one ear with either another cochlear implant or a hearing aid in the other ear.
  • Cybernetics is a theory of the communication and control of regulatory feedback. The term cybernetics stems from the Greek kybernetes (meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder). Cybernetics is the discipline that studies communication and control in living beings and in the machines built by humans.
    A more philosophical definition, suggested in 1958 by Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics in the 1930s, considers cybernetics as "the art of assuring efficiency of action" (see external links for reference).
    Taylorism
    F. W. Taylor & Scientific Management
    Mr. Bill's Preface: In October 1995, there was an extended and at times intense discussion in the Quality E-Mail forum on "Scientific Management" and Frederick W. Taylor. At one point Vincenzo Sandrone submitted a post on the subject that the forum moderator deemed appropriate to the discussion, but to long to be posted to the list. What he did was post a notice to the list that the paper was available from Mr. Sandrone via private E-Mail. What follows is that paper posted on this site with permission of the author. The paper will form part of an undergraduate thesis entitled "Total Quality Engineering - A Holistic Approach to Engineering Management" to be submitted in 1996 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a BE in Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mr. Sandrone's source for quotes is:
    Taylor Frederick W., 1964, Scientific Management - Comprising Shop Management, The principles of Scientific Management and Testimony before the Special House Committee, Harper and Row All the quotes are from 'Scientific Management' this needs to be highlighted as the edition restarted page numbers for each separate section. That is, page numbers are not unique. Please address any comments or critique to Mr. Sandrone.
    Regards, Mr. Bill
    ================================================================== With all the discussion of Taylorism on the list and arguments that both sides did not have the facts, I have decided I may be able to provide some information. I have included a copy of the section on Taylorism from my in process Undergraduate Thesis. I hope that it may help put some facts into the discussion. Looking over the section I have realized that it contained the highest density of direct quotes in my thesis. I feel this was my subconscious way of fighting the, what I considered, misinformation that I had received about Taylorism. Unfortunately I could not find a "definition" of science as applied in Scientific method. However, I would like to make two points: 1) Taylor did not call his original paper "Scientific management" and by the time he published it the name had stuck and his publisher changed the name. (I cannot recall the name of his original paper.) 2) He sort of defines "Scientific Management" by saying what it is not - It is not "Rule of Thumb" when you consider that piece work based on arbitrary quotas ( and heavily biased to the employer) was normal practice. The use of work study/measurement to determine a fair quota was a step forward for both management and the workers. Vincenzo Sandrone QA Engineer GEC Marconi Systems Meadowbank (Sydney), Australia vxsand@gecms.com.au ============================================================== Taylorism Under Taylor's management system, factories are managed through scientific methods rather than by use of the empirical "rule of thumb" so widely prevalent in the days of the late nineteenth century when F. W. Taylor devised his system and published "Scientific Management" in 1911. The main elements of the Scientific Management are [1] : "Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate Planning function Management by exception principle The use of "slide-rules and similar time-saving devices" Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The use of the 'differential rate' Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern costing system etc. etc. " Taylor called these elements "merely the elements or details of the mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management.[2] 1. The development of a true science 2. The scientific selection of the workman 3. The scientific education and development of the workman 4. Intimate and friendly cooperation between the management and the men. Taylor warned [3] of the risks managers make in attempting to make change in what would presently be called, the culture, of the organization. He stated the importance of management commitment and the need for gradual implementation and education. He described "the really great problem" involved in the change "consists of the complete revolution in the mental attitude and the habits of all those engaged in the management, as well of the workmen." [4] Taylor taught that there was one and only one method of work that maximized efficiency. "And this one best method and best implementation can only be discovered or developed through scientific study and analysis... This involves the gradual substitution of science for 'rule of thumb' throughout the mechanical arts." [5] "Scientific management requires first, a careful investigation of each of the many modifications of the same implement, developed under rule of thumb; and second, after time and motion study has been made of the speed attainable with each of these implements, that the good points of several of them shall be unified in a single standard implementation, which will enable the workman to work faster and with greater easy than he could before. This one implement, then is the adopted as standard in place of the many different kinds before in use and it remains standard for all workmen to use until superseded by an implement which has been shown, through motion and time study, to be still better." [6] An important barrier to use of scientific management was the limited education of the lower level of supervision and of the work force. A large part of the factory population was composed of recent immigrants who lacked literacy in English. In Taylor's view, supervisors and workers with such low levels of education were not qualified to plan how work should be done. Taylor's solution was to separate planning from execution. "In almost all the mechanic arts the science which underlies each act of each workman is so great and amounts to so much that the workman who is best suited to actually doing the work is incapable of fully understanding this science.." [7] To apply his solution, Taylor created planning departments, staffed them with engineers, and gave them the responsibility to: Develop scientific methods for doing work. Establish goals for productivity. Establish systems of rewards for meeting the goals. Train the personnel in how to use the methods and thereby meet the goals. Perhaps the key idea of Scientific management and the one which has drawn the most criticism was the concept of task allocation. Task allocation [8] is the concept that breaking task into smaller and smaller tasks allows the determination of the optimum solution to the task. "The man in the planning room, whose specialty is planning ahead, invariably finds that the work can be done more economically by subdivision of the labour; each act of each mechanic, for example, should be preceded by various preparatory acts done by other men." [9] The main argument against Taylor is this reductionist approach to work dehumanizes the worker. The allocation of work "specifying not only what is to be done but how it is to done and the exact time allowed for doing it" [10] is seen as leaving no scope for the individual worker to excel or think. This argument is mainly due to later writing rather than Taylor's work as Taylor stated "The task is always so regulated that the man who is well suited to his job will thrive while working at this rate during a long term of years and grow happier and more prosperous, instead of being overworked." [11] Taylor's concept of motivation left something to be desired when compared to later ideas. He methods of motivation started and finished at monetary incentives. While critical of the then prevailing distinction of "us "and "them" between the workforce and employers he tried to find a common ground between the working and managing classes. "Scientific Management has for its foundation the firm conviction that the true interests of the two are one and the same; that prosperity for the employer cannot exist a long term of years unless it is accompanied by prosperity for the employee [sic], and vice versa .." [12] However, this emphasis on monetary rewards was only part of the story. Rivalry between the Bethlehem and Pittsburgh Steel plants led to the offer from Pittsburgh of 4.9 cents per ton against Bethlehem's rate of 3.2 cents per day to the ore loaders. The ore loaders were spoken to individually and their value to the company reinforced and offers to re-hire them at any time were made. The majority of the ore loaders took up the Pittsburgh offers. Most had returned after less than six weeks. [13] The rates at Pittsburgh were determined by gang rates. Peer pressure from the Pittsburgh employees to not work hard meant that the Bethlehem workers actually received less pay than at Bethlehem. Two of the Bethlehem workers requested to be placed in a separate gang, this was rejected by management for the extra work required by management to keep separate record for each worker. Taylor places the blame squarely on management and their inability "to do their share of the work in cooperating with the workmen." [14] Taylor's attitudes towards workers were laden with negative bias "in the majority of cases this man deliberately plans to do as little as he safely can." [15] The methods that Taylor adopted were directed solely towards the uneducated. "When he tells you to pick up a pig and walk, you pick it up and walk, and when he tells you to sit down and rest, you sit down. You do that right through the day. And what's more, no back talk". This type of behaviour towards workers appears barbaric in the extreme to the modern reader, however, Taylor used the example of Schmidt at the Bethlehem Steel Company to test his theories. Taylor admits "This seems rather rough talk. And indeed it would be if applied to an educated mechanic, or even an intelligent labourer." [17] The fact that Taylor took the effort to firstly know the workers name and to cite it is some indication that he empathized with the workforce. This study improved the workrate of Schmidt from 12.5 tons to 47.5 tons per day showing the worth of Scientific Management. The greatest abuse of Scientific Management has come from applying the techniques without the philosophy behind them. It is obvious from Taylor's own observations that the above discussion would be misplaced in other workers. Taylor acknowledged the potential for abuse in his methods. "The knowledge obtained from accurate time study, for example, is a powerful implement, and can be used, in one case to promote harmony between workmen and the management, by gradually educating, training, and leading the workmen into new and better methods of doing the work, or in the other case, it may be used more or less as a club to drive the workmen into doing a larger day's work for approximately the same pay that they received in the past." [17] Scientific Study and standardization were important parts of the Scientific Management. One example, was the study undertaken to determine the optimum shovel load for workers. The figure of 21 pounds [18] was arrived at by the study. To ensure that this shovel load was adhered to, a series of different shovels were purchased for different types of material. Each shovel was designed to ensure that only 21 pounds could be lifted. This stopped the situation where "each shoveller owned his own shovel, that he would frequently go from shoveling ore, with a load of about 30 pounds per shovel, to handling rice coal, with a load on the same shovel of less than 4 pounds. In the one case, he was so overloaded that it was impossible for him to do a full day's work, and in the other case he was so ridiculously under-loaded that it was manifestly impossible to even approximate a day's work." [19] Taylor spent a considerable amount of his books in describing "soldiering" the act of 'loafing' both at an individual level and "systematic soldiering". He described the main reasons that workers were not performing their work at the optimum. Though worded in a patronizing way the essence of the descriptions are still valid. [20] The belief that increased output would lead to less workers. Inefficiencies within the management control system such as poorly designed incentive schemes and hourly pay rates not linked to productivity Poor design of the performance of the work by rule-of-thumb The fear of redundancies within the workforce was a valid argument during the previous style of management. Taylor not only countered this argument by using economic arguments of increased demand due to decreased pricing but put forward the idea of sharing the gains with the workforce. Taylor saw the weaknesses of piece work in the workers reactions to gradual decreases in the piece rate as the worker produced more pieces by working harder and/or smarter. The worker then is determined to have no more reduction in rate by "soldiering". This deception leads to an antagonistic view of management and a general deterioration of the worker/management relationship. Taylor also was a strong advocate of worker development. It follows that the most important object of both the workman and the establishment should be the training and development of each individual in the establishment, so that he can do ( at his fastest pace and with the maximum of efficiency) the highest class of work for which his natural abilities for him." [21] Taylor's ideas on management and workers speaks of justice for both parties. "It (the public) will no longer tolerate the type of employer who has his eyes only on dividends alone, who refuses to do his share of the work and who merely cracks the whip over the heads of his workmen and attempts to drive them harder work for low pay. No more will it tolerate tyranny on the part of labour which demands one increase after another in pay and shorter hours while at the same time it becomes less instead of more efficient."[22] Taylor's system was widely adopted in the United States and the world. Although the Taylor system originated in the factory production departments, the concept of separating planning from execution was universal in nature and, hence, had potential application to other areas: production support services offices operations service industries. Management's new responsibilities were extended to include: [23] Replacing the old rule-of-thumb with scientific management Scientifically select and train, teach and develop the workman "Heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure[sic] all the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed" Take over the work for which they are "better fitted" than the workmen. Relationship between Taylorism and TQM Taylor's more general summary of the principles of Scientific Management are better suited for inclusion into the TQM methodology, than the narrow definitions. "It is no single element , but rather the this whole combination, that constitutes Scientific Management, which may be summarized as: Science, not rule of thumb Harmony, not discord Cooperation, not individualism Maximum output in place of restricted output The development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity" [24] Much has happened, since Taylor developed his method of Scientific Management, to make obsolete the premises on which he based his concepts: Lack of education is no longer reason enough to separate the planning function The balance of power between managers and the work force has changed. Where in Taylor's time it was heavily weighted against the workers. Unionism (or the threat of it) has profoundly changed that balance. Changes in the climate of social thinking. Revolts against the "dehumanizing" of work. A basic tenet of Scientific management was that employees were not highly educated and thus were unable to perform any but the simplest tasks. Modern thought is that all employees have intimate knowledge of job conditions and are therefore able to make useful contributions. Rather than dehumanizing the work and breaking the work down into smaller and smaller units to maximize efficiency without giving thought to the job satisfaction of the working. Encouragement of work based teams in which all workers may contribute. Such contributions increase worker morale, provide a sense of ownership, and improve management-worker relations generally. References 1. Scientific Management, pg 129-130 2. Scientific Management, pg 130 3. Scientific Management, pg 131 4. Scientific Management, pg 131 5. Scientific Management, pg 25 6. Scientific Management, pg 119 7. Scientific Management, pp 25-25 8. Scientific Management, pg 39 9. Scientific Management, pg 38 10. Scientific Management, pg 39 11. Scientific Management, pg 39 12. Scientific Management, pg 10 13. Scientific Management, pg 75 14. Scientific Management, pg 77 15. Scientific Management, pg 13 16. Scientific Management, pg 46 17. Scientific Management, pp 133-134 18. Scientific Management, pg 66 19. Scientific Management, pg 67 20. Scientific Management, pg 23 21. Scientific Management, pg 12 22. Scientific Management, pg 139 23. Scientific Management, pg 36 24. Scientific Management, pg 140 Vincenzo Sandrone QA Engineer GEC Marconi Systems Meadowbank (Sydney), Australia vxsand@gecms.com.au An mr_bill@grfn.org Internet publication. December 10, 1995
  • We have a lot of competition
    DCI is not unique in this mission. There are many strong competitors out there. Descriptions of some of the strengths of these regions available in DCI report available on line.
  • Korean “Information Society” development date back to the 1980’s, however, Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) use and production in the past has been associated with equipment, rather than knowledge-intensive production and services such as software, biotechnology, new media and information services (Hwang, Hur and Choi, 2004, p.11) (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (Wong, 2004, p.1). A new phase of public-private partnership including programs such as “Cyber Korea 21”, “e-Korea Vision 2006”, and “Broadband IT KOREA VISION 2007” aims to make Korea the leading exporter of knowledge-intensive production in the world (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (The Korea Times in Swiss Talents, 2004, p.1). This new phase is marked by a transition to integrating convergent information services into the fabric of society, industry, government and education; pioneering the development of technologies, products, services and knowledge-based exports; and supporting the formation and development of new convergence companies.
  • Defense, Aerospace, Homeland Security, Information Technology, Microelectronics, Modeling, Simulation and Training, Video Games, Optics/Photonics, New Media/Film and Medical Technologies5
  • LATIN RENISSANCE – George Cisneros
  • Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition
    College level cyber competition
    Sponsored by industry and academic partners
    2010 participation: 86 schools, over 600 students
    Multi-stage competition with finals in San Antonio
    Defensive in nature
    for more info
  • Transcript

    • 1. Meeting STEM National Security Workforce Challenges for the Art of Cyber Innovation Armed Forces Communications Electronics Association (CYBER) San Antonio, TX November 4, 2010 Jim Brazell Jim.brazell@radicalplatypus.com
    • 2. General Bernard Schriever Feb. 19, 1957 Inaugural Air Force Office of Scientific Research Astronautics Symposium in San Diego. Commander of Western Development Division Headquarters Charles Wilson
    • 3. Skill Mergers ? "Now, where does all this lead? My thought is that the evolution of space vehicles will be a gradual step-by-step process, with the first step beyond ballistic missiles being unmanned, artificial Earth-satellites and then perhaps unmanned exploratory flights to the moon or Mars…”
    • 4. Project Forecast
    • 5. STEM Knowledge Mergers Skill Mergers ?
    • 6. May 25, 2008 Phoenix Mars Probe
    • 7. Globalization STEM Demography
    • 8. SURVIVAL QUALITY LIFE WEALTHJOBS INNOVATION The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation?
    • 9. “The artificial combination of sulphur, nitre and charcoal, has revolutionized the customs and the arts of war, and even in military life, has given the mind the advantages over the body… Discovery is the process of science; invention is the work of art.” –Jacob Bigelow, M.D., Elements of Technology 1829
    • 10. October 30, 2010, Denton High School Automotive Technology Program students set a new world record of a 1/8 mile in 9.93 seconds at the National Electric Drag Racing Association’s class DR/H 72 volt Dragsters. The previous record stood at 10.49 seconds in the 1/8 mile since 2002. --Denton Record Chronicle http://www.dentonrc.com/sharedcontent/utilities/clickedimage/index.html
    • 11. http://www.philisoft.com/personal/misc/davinci/davinci-1600x1200.jpg Da Vinci Minds
    • 12. Dr. David Thornburg, Center for Professional Development. “Design and Arts,” adapted by Jim Brazell, 2008. ARTS TEAMS
    • 13. Character Leadership Health Physical ED AcademicsCTE ARTS Design The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation?
    • 14. San Antonio Current Operating Environment Strategy of Technology Emerging CYBER Regions
    • 15. 1910-2010-2110 Lt. Benjamin D. Foulois What is San Antonio’s art of war?
    • 16. 1912
    • 17. School of Aviation Medicine 1926
    • 18. 1927
    • 19. “Air City” Harold Clark -Largest construction project undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers since the Panama Canal.1930
    • 20. 1947 “Science City”
    • 21. 1948, Col. Harry Armstrong, “Aeromedical Problems of Space Travel”
    • 22. . The United States Air Force Security Service 1948
    • 23. BrigadierGeneralRobertF.McDermott FoundingDean,USAirForceAcademy 1954
    • 24. Character Leadership Health Physical ED AcademicsCTE ARTS Design The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation?
    • 25. General Bernard Schriever, Father of the U.S. Air Force space and missile program Feb. 19, 1957 Inaugural Air Force Office of Scientific Research Astronautics Symposium in San Diego. Commander of Western Development Division Headquarters
    • 26. John F. Kennedy, Nov 21, 1963 Man-In- Space Program
    • 27. Lt. Colonel Edward White 1965
    • 28. Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White January 26, 1967
    • 29. 1972 PC Architecture 1977 LAN ARCNET 1968 Chris Fox
    • 30. WheelGroup Network Securi Cisco Extends Leadership in End- To End Network Security Products SAN JOSE, Calif. February 18, 1998 Cisco Systems, Inc. today announced it has signed a definitive agreement to acquire privately-held WheelGroup Corporation of San Antonio, Texas. Under the terms of the acquisition, between 1.8 and 2.0 million shares of Cisco common stock will be exchanged for the outstanding shares and options of WheelGroup. Based upon Ciscos February 18 closing price of $65.50 the stock exchanged would have a value of approximately $124 million. 1995 - 1998
    • 31. The Cassini spacecraft, launched in Oct. 1997 for an 11-year mission to the Saturn system
    • 32. Richard V. Butler, Ph.D. Mary E. Stefl, Ph.D. Trinity University SFBR is home to the world's largest computer cluster devoted to statistical genetic analysis. Home of military medicine. 2005
    • 33. http://www.thenewnewinternet.com/wp-content/uploads/24th-air-force.jpg 2009 – Activation of 24th Air Force Home of Air Force Cyber
    • 34. CACI Northrop Grumman Lockheed Martin General Electric Pratt & Whitney Chromalloy Proxtronics Veridian Mitre Telcordia OnBoard Soft Secure INFO dNovus Frontline Systems Karta Secure LOGIX Titan Adtech Diligent Denim Group 21102010
    • 35. San Antonio Current Operating Environment Strategy of Technology Emerging CYBER Regions
    • 36. …170 quadrillion computer chips… The total number of transistors… is approximately the same as the number neurons in your brain. And the number of links among files in this network is about equal to the number of synapses in your brain… It has 3 billion artificial eyes plugged in, it processes searches at the humming rate of 14 kilohertz and it is so large a contraption that it now consumes 5 percent of the world’s electricity. –Kevin Kelly, 2010, What Technology Wants
    • 37. CELL PHONE BOMB http://www.weblogsinc.com/common/images/2522954530774841.JPG?0.7474910150383662 LAND
    • 38. AIR
    • 39. SEA – OCEAN IT
    • 40. Skill Mergers ? Space
    • 41. 5th World
    • 42. Sea Land SpaceAir Cyberspace The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation?
    • 43. 5th World “The cyber domain is the only domain not created by god.” –Shaun Amini, C5i, 11.4.2010
    • 44. The first time in history our toys are also our weapons.
    • 45. 1. Sensors of temperature, pressure, humidity, illumination, presence, gases… 2. Actuators mirrors, motors, smart surf., micro-robots (Krishnamurthy, 2003) 3. Location services for humans, animals, vehicles, products, property… 4. Remote control and/or management of simple machines and complex systems 5. Transaction support functions including identity management, DRM, authentication… 6. Remote monitoring for life, health, property and employee efficiency (Adapted from M2M Europe) (In Networks @Home, Carbonara and Korpi, Baylor) (In Networks @Home, Carbonara and Korpi, Baylor) Applications
    • 46. Technology Trends 1. New Class of Computing - Convergence of computers, communications, software, sensing and power technologies 2. Evolution to platforms technologies from specific segment solutions 3. Increased complexity of internetworking M2M networks, devices and data with enterprise networks, devices and data 4. Internet-based open standards replace proprietary bus architectures 5. Digital wireless replaces analog. Faster transmission coupled with dropping rates (FocalPoint Group, 2003). 6. Power to the edge! Shift of control to human or machine actors at the edge of the network. http://www.dodccrp.org/publications/pdf/Alberts_Power.pdf
    • 47. 1. Surge of start-up companies, attributable to the legacy telecom slowness to innovate. 2. Cross appropriation of industrial control processes to DoD, homeland security, transportation and consumer electronics 3. Cross appropriation of transportation- based telematics to human, property and livestock tracking 4. Convergent sciences (nano-bio-info- cogno-enviro) expand the applications of M2M, decrease the cost, open up direct manipulation of chemical and biological processes. Innovation Trends http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/11/20/MN62513.DTL&type=science
    • 48. “Every 15 seconds a new life form is released on the Internet.” --Dr. Fred Chang, University of Texas San Antonio
    • 49. Source: Harbor Research, 2003 85% of CI controlled by industry. –General Webber
    • 50. http://www.thenewnewinternet.com/wp-content/uploads/24th-air-force.jpg “How do we operate efficiently and proactively… at network speed in cyberspace?” Robert Butler, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Cyber and Space Policy, OSD, DoD
    • 51. 5th World Land 320 BC (Alexander the Great) Sea 1492 (Columbus) ~1800 Air 1903 (Wright Brothers) ~400 Space 1957 (Russia’s Sputnik) ~53 Cyber 1973 (Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn) ~38
    • 52. San Antonio Current Operating Environment Strategy of Technology Emerging CYBER Regions
    • 53. Electronics Machines SoftwareComputer Strategy of Technology Dr. (Col.) Francis X. Kane (USAF, ret.) The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation?
    • 54. Knowledge Organizations Industries Markets Technology Human Capital
    • 55. Structure of Technology (C-STEM) Michael Sekora, Ph.D., Eliza Evans, Ph.D., Jim Brazell, et al., 2005, Digital Convergence Initiative
    • 56. Structure of Technology (C-STEM)
    • 57. MIT Tech Review, 2005 Sensors Physical Chemical Biological http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16 Actuators Physical Chemical Biological PhiloMetron™
    • 58. 4th generation computing is a class of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) that combines computer, communication and power technologies to enable remote human and machine interaction with physical, chemical, biological and neurological systems, processes and environments. --M2M: The Wireless Revolution Emergence of a new class of computing
    • 59. A living, breathing lung-on-a-chip has been developed. As well as mimicking the cellular structure of the lung, the chip copies its behavior too: it can "breathe.“About the size of a rubber eraser, the device was developed by a team from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, Harvard Medical School and Children's Hospital Boston. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19085-lungonachip-points-to- alternative-to-animal-tests.html
    • 60. Electronics Machines SoftwareComputer The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation? Security Competitiveness Innovation Coordination
    • 61. FIRST LEGO® LEAGUE Over 80,000 middle- school students in 34 countries participate in the Nano Quest Challenge. 2006 NANO QUEST CHALLENGE Elementary
    • 62. Networking physical, biological, neurological and chemical processes and systems. Computing & Com. Shift Networking humans, machines and business transaction systems.
    • 63. https://www.carle.com/Hospital/about/images/Ear%20Diagram3.jpg Cochlear Ear Implant
    • 64. http://www.heartonline.org/images/defibrillator1.jpg
    • 65. http://www.scribd.com/doc/20950196/PaceMaker-HAcking#
    • 66. http://www.thenewnewinternet.com/wp-content/uploads/24th-air-force.jpg “The 5th pillar is innovation – How do we leverage the tech base… and build a culture of cyber... enabling freedom of action while denying or enemies?” Major General Richard E. Webber, Commander 24th Air Force
    • 67. “We are in a new age—the age of cyberspace--where the fight is happening in the space between physical and simulated worlds. We are not just on the planet, we are operating in space and it is up to the speed of light generation to define the creative arts and philosophy of cyberspace to see us through to the next phase of the operation.” Col. (Dr.) Francis X. Kane (USAF, ret.), October 31, 2010
    • 68. ?
    • 69. Cybernetics is the discipline that studies communication and control in living organisms and in the machines built by humans. Greek kybernetes (meaning steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder).
    • 70. Industrial Age Scientific Management, Training, Planning and Task Allocation F.W. Taylor, 1911, Principles of Scientific Management Cybernetic Age Cybernetics "the art of assuring efficiency of action" 1958 by Louis Couffignal. Communication and control of living organisms and machines through manipulation of physical, chemical, biological and neurological processes, systems and environments. Economic, Historic & Philosophical Shift Notion of Information Age
    • 71. San Antonio Current Operating Environment Strategy of Technology Emerging CYBER Regions
    • 72. Economic Development Arts- Culture EducationWorkforce The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation? Security Competitiveness Innovation Coordination
    • 73. STEM, IT, Arts Integration Leaders US Digital Convergence Centers • New York City • Washington DC MSA • Central Florida • San Francisco/Silicon Valley • Los Angeles • San Diego MSA • Phoenix • Denver • Las Vegas • San Antonio-Austin- Waco, TX Global Digital Convergence Centers • South Korea • Finland • China • Taiwan • Sweden • Denmark • Germany • UK • Israel • Malaysia • Japan Evans, Eliza, Michael Sekora, Alexander Cavalli, Kinman Chan, Jeeyoung Heo Kenneth Kan, Yue Kuang, Prakash Mohandas, Xiaoxiang Zhang, and Jim Brazell. Digital Convergence Initiative: Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Texas. San Marcos, Texas: Greater Austin- San Antonio Corridor Council, 2005. Full Report: http://www.dcitexas.org/DCI_report.pdf
    • 74. Source: Brazell, Jim, Nicholaus Kim, Honoria Starbuck, Eliza Evans, and Michael Bettersworth. Gaming: A Technology Forecast, Implications for Texas Community and Technical Colleges Austin, Texas: Texas State Technical College System and IC2 Institute, University of Texas Austin, 2004. ISBN 0978677358 Table of Contents: http://www.system.tstc.edu/forecasting/reports/dgames.asp
    • 75. Citizens’ initiative pavilion in Expo 2010
    • 76. daVinci The West Imagination Creativity
    • 77. transitioning from a manufacturing to an innovation economy http://mit.edu/cre/research/ncc/proceedings/ncc-casestudies.pdf
    • 78. p://www.flickr.com/photos/rosrusspix/3537368960/sizes/o/in/photostream/
    • 79. Today, Finland’s progressive strategy includes: multi- disciplinary and multi-industry collaboration to integrate nano science-, bio science-, information science- and cognitive science-based research and development (Tieke , 2005, p.9); converging design, art and science in the contexts of education and human development (Tahkokallio and Koivusilta, 2004, p.1); national R&D policy and urban-rural development establishing connected regional centers of innovation; partnering with global high tech markets and industries (Embassy of Switzerland, Beijing, 2005, p.12); and leading the world in “Public-Private Partnership” (with efforts dating back to the year of their independence, 1917) (Tieke, 2005, p.12- 15).
    • 80. Aerospace, Defense & Security Electronics & Telecom Medical Tech-Life Science Optics/ Photonics Edtech & MS&T Film/ New Media San Diego County DCI MST&G
    • 81. RD&C Art CHEM BIO INFO NEURO Calit2
    • 82. “…newer programs like Pre- engineering, Biomedical Sciences, Manufacturing Engineering Technologies, and Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness are attracting more and more students.” Maryland Classroom: CTE: Educating Tomorrow’s Workforce Today, April 2008
    • 83. Maryland Classroom: CTE: Educating Tomorrow’s Workforce Today, April 2008
    • 84. INFO UP BIO NANO COGNO SCIENCE ARTS “Roughly 100 million jobs… cross-disciplinary fields.” NII, Business Week, 10.11.2004 UTSA & UTHSC “Latin Rennisance” George Cisneros “$83M Integrated Sciences and Engineering Facility”
    • 85. ITSA
    • 86. Elementary spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Robot competition plus career and academic exploration and history of science and technology.
    • 87. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Middle School
    • 88. US First-EISD Andrew Schuetze San Antonio,TX High School
    • 89. Source, DIAC, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR), Pattern Languages for the 21st Century, Brazell and Monroe, 2003
    • 90. Holmes High School and San Antonio Cyber Initiative
    • 91. How CyberPatriot works • Multi-round competition – Qualifying rounds are virtual and teams compete simultaneously – Teams download VMware images and attempt to secure them over a given period of time – Teams connected to centralized scoring platform – Teams graded against known solution sets • Finals held in Orlando and Washington DC Cyber Patriot highschoolcdc.com
    • 92. nationalccdc.org
    • 93. Dominating the fight in the 5th World
    • 94. San Antonio Current Operating Environment Strategy of Technology Emerging CYBER Regions
    • 95. Electronics Machines SoftwareComputer The fundamental question of the 21st century is how do we organize and produce innovation? Security Competitiveness Innovation Coordination
    • 96. “Center piece of our effort is people… Cyber training must be central.” --Major General Rhett A. Hernandez, Commanding Officer, Army Forces Cyber Command
    • 97. Meeting STEM National Security Workforce Challenges for the Art of Cyber Innovation Armed Forces Communications Electronics Association (CYBER) San Antonio, TX November 4, 2010 Jim Brazell Jim.brazell@radicalplatypus.com
    • 98. MeetingSTEMNationalSecurity WorkforceChallengesforMaterials ScienceandtheCurrentOperating Environment October26-28,2010–DefenseScienceandTechnology Reliance21,3rd PershConference,WorkforceDevelopment MeetingMaterialScienceandEngineeringNeedsforthe 21st Century
    • 99. Design Scale Systems Thinking Materials STEM Systems are the Key Missing Literacy of the 21st Century-- Transdisciplinarity. Security Competitiveness Innovation Cooperation TEAMS Processes Systems
    • 100. The appropriate mathematics to analyze computing seems to be systems approach with information theory, which will provide a unifying principle for physics, chemistry, biology, and neuro science. Brazell and Tanik, October 17, 2010
    • 101. During 1995 Dr. George Kozmetsky in collaboration with Dr. Murat M. Tanik (was at UT at the time), Dr. David Gibson, Dr. Raymond T. Yeh, Dr. C. V. Ramamoorty, and Dr. Herbert Simon, spearheaded the establishment of the Society for Design and Process Science (www.sdpsnet.org) and the Transactions for the society, as an archival journal, covering issues “transcending disciplinary boundaries.”