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  • Every 10 years?
  • Cooper first cellular mobile phone in 1973
    In simple terms, Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors that can be packed on an integrated electronic circuit doubles approximately every 2 years
    (ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf
    ) enabling a size: price: performance ratio of smaller, cheaper and more powerful micro electronics. Law of Disruption states that “social, political, and economic systems change incrementally, but technology changes exponentially
    Metcalfe’s Law Value of a network increases proportionally with the square of the number of connections
  • http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/
    This brief introduction outlines personalities and organizations involved in the history of the transistor. For a richer picture, please follow the links throughout this web site.
    Bell Laboratories, one of the world's largest industrial laboratories, was the research arm of the giant telephone company American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T). In 1945, Bell Labs was beginning to look for a solution to a long-standing problem.
    1907 - The Problem
    AT&T brought its former president, Theodore Vail, out of retirement to help it fight off competition erupting from the expiration of Alexander Graham Bell's telephone patents. Vail's solution: transcontinental telephone service.
    In 1906, the eccentric American inventor Lee De Forest developed a triode in a vacuum tube. It was a device that could amplify signals, including, it was hoped, signals on telephone lines as they were transferred across the country from one switch box to another. AT&T bought De Forest's patent and vastly improved the tube. It allowed the signal to be amplified regularly along the line, meaning that a telephone conversation could go on across any distance as long as there were amplifiers along the way.
    But the vacuum tubes that made that amplification possible were extremely unreliable, used too much power and produced too much heat. In the 1930s, Bell Lab's director of research, Mervin Kelly, recognized that a better device was needed for the telephone business to continue to grow. He felt that the answer might lie in a strange class of materials called semiconductors.
    1945 - The Solution
    After the end of World War II, Kelly put together a team of scientists to develop a solid-state semiconductor switch to replace the problematic vacuum tube. The team would use some of the advances in semiconductor research during the war that had made radar possible. A young, brilliant theoretician, Bill Shockley, was selected as the team leader. (See Shockley, Brattain and Bardeen—the team and the teammates)  
    Shockley drafted Bell Lab's Walter Brattain, an experimental physicist who could build or fix just about anything, and hired theoretical physicist John Bardeen from the University of Minnesota. Shockley filled out his team with an eclectic mix of physicists, chemists and engineers. The group was diverse, yet close knit. Walter Brown, a physicist who joined the group in 1951, recalls hearing about exuberant parties and good lunches. Betty Sparks, Shockley's secretary, recalled the group's high spirits at her wedding to Morgan Sparks. They called their lab "Hell's Bells Laboratory."
    In the spring of 1945, Shockley designed what he hoped would be the first semiconductor amplifier, relying on something called the "field effect." His device was a small cylinder coated thinly with silicon, mounted close to a small, metal plate. It was, as University of Illinois Electrical Engineer Nick Holonyak said, a crazy idea. Indeed, the device didn't work, and Shockley assigned Bardeen and Brattain to find out why. According to author Joel Shurkin, the two largely worked unsupervised; Shockley spent most of his time working alone at home.
    Ensconced in Bell Labs' Murray Hill facilities, Bardeen and Brattain began a great partnership. Bardeen, the theoretician, suggested experiments and interpreted the results, while Brattain built and ran the experiments. Technician Phil Foy recalls that as time went on with little success, tensions began to build within the lab group.
    In the fall of 1947, author Lillian Hoddeson says, Brattain decided to try dunking the entire apparatus into a tub of water. Surprisingly, it worked... a little bit. 
    Brattain began to experiment with gold on germanium, eliminating the liquid layer on the theory that it was slowing down the device. It didn't work, but the team kept experimenting using that design as a starting point. 
  • Need source
  • Need source
  • Need source
  • The Invisible Train
    The Invisible Train is the first real multi-user Augmented Reality application for handheld devices (PDAs). Unlike other projects, in which wearable devices were merely used as thin-clients, while powerful (PC-based) servers performed a majority of the computations (such as graphics rendering), our software runs independently on off-the-shelf PDAs - eliminating the need for an expensive infractructure.
     
    The Invisible Train is a mobile, collaborative multi-user Augmented Reality (AR) game, in which players control virtual trains on a real wooden miniature railroad track. These virtual trains are only visible to players through their PDA's video see-through display as they don't exist in the physical world. This type of user interface is commonly called the "magic lens metaphor".
    Players can interact with the game environment by operating track switches and adjusting the speed of their virtual trains. The current state of the game is synchronized between all participants via wireless networking. The common goal of the game is to prevent the virtual trains from colliding.
    The success of the Invisible Train installation illustrates the advantages of our Studierstube software framework, a component-based system architecture that has been designed to accelerate the task of developing and deploying collaborative Augmented Reality applications on handheld devices.
    Why Handheld Augmented Reality?
    Augmented Reality (AR) can naturally complement mobile computing on wearable devices by providing an intuitive interface to a three-dimensional information space embedded within physical reality. However, prior work on mobile Augmented Reality has almost exclusively been undertaken with traditional "backpack"-systems that consist of a notebook computer, an HMD, cameras and additional supporting hardware. Although these systems work well within a constrained laboratory environment, they fail to fulfill several usability criteria to be rapidly deployed to inexperienced users, as they are expensive, cumbersome and require high level of expertise.
    Since the early experiments in Mobile Augmented Reality, a variety of highly portable consumer devices with versatile computing capabilities has emerged. We believe that handheld computers, mobile phones and personal digital assistants have the potential to introduce Augmented Reality to large audiences outside of a constrained laboratory environment. The relative affordability of devices that are capable of running our software framework opens up new possibilities for experimenting with massively multi-user application scenarios - thereby bringing us closer to the goal of "AR anytime, anywhere".
  • Cooper first cellular mobile phone in 1973
    In simple terms, Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors that can be packed on an integrated electronic circuit doubles approximately every 2 years
    (ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf
    ) enabling a size: price: performance ratio of smaller, cheaper and more powerful micro electronics. Law of Disruption states that “social, political, and economic systems change incrementally, but technology changes exponentially
    Metcalfe’s Law Value of a network increases proportionally with the square of the number of connections
  • The goal of the Smart Dust project is to build a self-contained, millimeter-scale sensing and communication platform for a massively distributed sensor network.  This device will be around the size of a grain of sand and will contain sensors, computational ability, bi-directional wireless communications, and a power supply, while being inexpensive enough to deploy by the hundreds.  The science and engineering goal of the project is to build a complete, complex system in a tiny volume using state-of-the art technologies (as opposed to futuristic technologies), which will require evolutionary and revolutionary advances in integration, miniaturization, and energy management.  We forsee many applications for this technology:
    Weather/seismological monitoring on Mars
    Internal spacecraft monitoring
    Land/space comm. networks
    Chemical/biological sensors
    Weapons stockpile monitoring
    Defense-related sensor networks
    Inventory Control
    Product quality monitoring
    Smart office spaces
    Sports - sailing, balls
    For more information, see the main Smart Dust page at http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust and read our publications (see navigation button above).
    Brief description of the operation of the mote:
    The Smart Dust mote is run by a microcontroller that not only determines the tasks performed by the mote, but controls power to the various components of the system to conserve energy. Periodically the microcontroller gets a reading from one of the sensors, which measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure, processes the data, and stores it in memory. It also occasionally turns on the optical receiver to see if anyone is trying to communicate with it. This communication may include new programs or messages from other motes. In response to a message or upon its own initiative the microcontroller will use the corner cube retroreflector or laser to transmit sensor data or a message to a base station or another mote.
    Longer description of the operation of the mote:
    The primary constraint in the design of the Smart Dust motes is volume, which in turn puts a severe constraint on energy since we do not have much room for batteries or large solar cells. Thus, the motes must operate efficiently and conserve energy whenever possible. Most of the time, the majority of the mote is powered off with only a clock and a few timers running. When a timer expires, it powers up a part of the mote to carry out a job, then powers off. A few of the timers control the sensors that measure one of a number of physical or chemical stimuli such as temperature, ambient light, vibration, acceleration, or air pressure. When one of these timers expires, it powers up the corresponding sensor, takes a sample, and converts it to a digital word. If the data is interesting, it may either be stored directly in the SRAM or the microcontroller is powered up to perform more complex operations with it. When this task is complete, everything is again powered down and the timer begins counting again.
    Another timer controls the receiver. When that timer expires, the receiver powers up and looks for an incoming packet. If it doesn't see one after a certain length of time, it is powered down again. The mote can receive several types of packets, including ones that are new program code that is stored in the program memory. This allows the user to change the behavior of the mote remotely. Packets may also include messages from the base station or other motes. When one of these is received, the microcontroller is powered up and used to interpret the contents of the message. The message may tell the mote to do something in particular, or it may be a message that is just being passed from one mote to another on its way to a particular destination. In response to a message or to another timer expiring, the microcontroller will assemble a packet containing sensor data or a message and transmit it using either the corner cube retroreflector or the laser diode, depending on which it has. The corner cube retroreflector transmits information just by moving a mirror and thus changing the reflection of a laser beam from the base station. This technique is substantially more energy efficient than actually generating some radiation. With the laser diode and a set of beam scanning mirrors, we can transmit data in any direction desired, allowing the mote to communicate with other Smart Dust motes.
  • M2M is a category of Information and Computing Technology (ICT) that combines network, computer, software, sensor and power technologies to enable remote human and machine interaction with physical, chemical and biological systems and processes. M2M has many synonyms including “pervasive computing”, “hidden computing”, “invisible computing” and “ubiquitous computing.”
    Reach out and touch someone or squeeze someone or…An accelerometer on the wrist-worn device allows rough detection of hand orientation, gesture measurement, and tapping. In the near future researchers will examine simple activity detection as well, such as sitting, walking, and standing.
    As in the bus stop example, a person wearing the device can sense simple touching. This sensation is enabled through force-sensing resistors that provide pressure detection over a high-resolution surface array on the top of the device.
    A person can also detect rich signals sent from a partner whirling a finger along the surface of his or her device. Researchers provided this effect by time stamping the sensed data.
    Motes, such as the one amongst the candy corn above, are at the heart of several Intel research projects. 
    Not only might a wearer experience the simulated touch of a friend, she might also feel the device grow warm to her skin. Using a Peltier Junction, the device can create a subtle heating or cooling on the wearer’s skin.
    “The mapping between the inputs and outputs of paired devices is not literal,” says Paulos. “This is an important part of the design. In the same way people developed a language of numbers around early pagers when they sent messages we believe a similar vocabulary will emerge around physical cues.”
    For example, to some wearers a gentle warming on the skin might convey a message of friendship. Others might choose to send good vibes by…well by sending good vibes, literally. Intel researchers used simple flat pancake vibration motors to cause wearers to easily and privately feel vibrations though skin contact. Various vibration patterns and duty cycles provide a number of output possibilities for the device.
    And for those times when good vibes just aren’t enough, a wearer of the device can send the equivalent of a wireless handhold, an electronic squeeze.
    Through the use of Flexinol, a user can feel a little squeeze that mimics the grasp of a hand as the filament in the wrist-worn device contracts when electrically powered. Flexinol is a simple variant of Nitinol, which is often used in robotic applications and commonly referred to as “muscle wire” for its ability to exert force and return to its original shape.
    For all the pleasant thoughts and human analogies there may be a dark side to this device. “Imagine someone incessantly tapping, tapping, tapping. You’d probably feel really annoyed,” says Paulos. “It could be your friend trying to get in touch with you. Or perhaps you’re on the receiving end of a lovers’ quarrel.”
    “Yea,” says Paulos, “there is an eerie side to this device. I don’t think anyone want to know what spam feels like.”
  • http://www.robotdirectory.org/pics/cakemonster/Nano-Scoop3.jpg
  • America No. 1? America by the numbers by Michael Ventura 02/03/05 "ICH"  - - No concept lies more firmly embedded in our national character than the notion that the USA is "No. 1," "the greatest." Our broadcast media are, in essence, continuous advertisements for the brand name "America Is No. 1." Any office seeker saying otherwise would be committing political suicide. In fact, anyone saying otherwise will be labeled "un-American." We're an "empire," ain't we? Sure we are. An empire without a manufacturing base. An empire that must borrow $2 billion a day from its competitors in order to function. Yet the delusion is ineradicable. We're No. 1. Well...this is the country you really live in: * The United States is 49th in the world in literacy (the New York Times, Dec. 12, 2004). * The United States ranked 28th out of 40 countries in mathematical literacy (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Twenty percent of Americans think the sun orbits the earth. Seventeen percent believe the earth revolves around the sun once a day (The Week, Jan. 7, 2005). * "The International Adult Literacy Survey...found that Americans with less than nine years of education 'score worse than virtually all of the other countries'" (Jeremy Rifkin's superbly documented book The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream, p.78). * Our workers are so ignorant and lack so many basic skills that American businesses spend $30 billion a year on remedial training (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). No wonder they relocate elsewhere! * "The European Union leads the U.S. in...the number of science and engineering graduates; public research and development (R&D) expenditures; and new capital raised" (The European Dream, p.70). * "Europe surpassed the United States in the mid-1990s as the largest producer of scientific literature" (The European Dream, p.70). * Nevertheless, Congress cut funds to the National Science Foundation. The agency will issue 1,000 fewer research grants this year (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). * Foreign applications to U.S. grad schools declined 28 percent last year. Foreign student enrollment on all levels fell for the first time in three decades, but increased greatly in Europe and China. Last year Chinese grad-school graduates in the U.S. dropped 56 percent, Indians 51 percent, South Koreans 28 percent (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). We're not the place to be anymore. * The World Health Organization "ranked the countries of the world in terms of overall health performance, and the U.S. [was]...37th." In the fairness of health care, we're 54th. "The irony is that the United States spends more per capita for health care than any other nation in the world" (The European Dream, pp.79-80). Pay more, get lots, lots less. * "The U.S. and South Africa are the only two developed countries in the world that do not provide health care for all their citizens" (The European Dream, p.80). Excuse me, but since when is South Africa a "developed" country? Anyway, that's the company we're keeping. * Lack of health insurance coverage causes 18,000 unnecessary American deaths a year. (That's six times the number of people killed on 9/11.) (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005.) * "U.S. childhood poverty now ranks 22nd, or second to last, among the developed nations. Only Mexico scores lower" (The European Dream, p.81). Been to Mexico lately? Does it look "developed" to you? Yet it's the only "developed" country to score lower in childhood poverty. * Twelve million American families--more than 10 percent of all U.S. households--"continue to struggle, and not always successfully, to feed themselves." Families that "had members who actually went hungry at some point last year" numbered 3.9 million (NYT, Nov. 22, 2004). * The United States is 41st in the world in infant mortality. Cuba scores higher (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * Women are 70 percent more likely to die in childbirth in America than in Europe (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * The leading cause of death of pregnant women in this country is murder (CNN, Dec. 14, 2004). * "Of the 20 most developed countries in the world, the U.S. was dead last in the growth rate of total compensation to its workforce in the 1980s.... In the 1990s, the U.S. average compensation growth rate grew only slightly, at an annual rate of about 0.1 percent" (The European Dream, p.39). Yet Americans work longer hours per year than any other industrialized country, and get less vacation time. * "Sixty-one of the 140 biggest companies on the Global Fortune 500 rankings are European, while only 50 are U.S. companies" (The European Dream, p.66). "In a recent survey of the world's 50 best companies, conducted by Global Finance, all but one were European" (The European Dream, p.69). * "Fourteen of the 20 largest commercial banks in the world today are European.... In the chemical industry, the European company BASF is the world's leader, and three of the top six players are European. In engineering and construction, three of the top five companies are European.... The two others are Japanese. Not a single American engineering and construction company is included among the world's top nine competitors. In food and consumer products, Nestlé and Unilever, two European giants, rank first and second, respectively, in the world. In the food and drugstore retail trade, two European companies...are first and second, and European companies make up five of the top ten. Only four U.S. companies are on the list" (The European Dream, p.68). * The United States has lost 1.3 million jobs to China in the last decade (CNN, Jan. 12, 2005). * U.S. employers eliminated 1 million jobs in 2004 (The Week, Jan. 14, 2005). * Three million six hundred thousand Americans ran out of unemployment insurance last year; 1.8 million--one in five--unemployed workers are jobless for more than six months (NYT, Jan. 9, 2005). * Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea hold 40 percent of our government debt. (That's why we talk nice to them.) "By helping keep mortgage rates from rising, China has come to play an enormous and little-noticed role in sustaining the American housing boom" (NYT, Dec. 4, 2004). Read that twice. We owe our housing boom to China, because they want us to keep buying all that stuff they manufacture. * Sometime in the next 10 years Brazil will probably pass the U.S. as the world's largest agricultural producer. Brazil is now the world's largest exporter of chickens, orange juice, sugar, coffee, and tobacco. Last year, Brazil passed the U.S. as the world's largest beef producer. (Hear that, you poor deluded cowboys?) As a result, while we bear record trade deficits, Brazil boasts a $30 billion trade surplus (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * As of last June, the U.S. imported more food than it exported (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Bush: 62,027,582 votes. Kerry: 59,026,003 votes. Number of eligible voters who didn't show up: 79,279,000 (NYT, Dec. 26, 2004). That's more than a third. Way more. If more than a third of Iraqis don't show for their election, no country in the world will think that election legitimate. * One-third of all U.S. children are born out of wedlock. One-half of all U.S. children will live in a one-parent house (CNN, Dec. 10, 2004). * "Americans are now spending more money on gambling than on movies, videos, DVDs, music, and books combined" (The European Dream, p.28). * "Nearly one out of four Americans [believe] that using violence to get what they want is acceptable" (The European Dream, p.32). * Forty-three percent of Americans think torture is sometimes justified, according to a PEW Poll (Associated Press, Aug. 19, 2004). * "Nearly 900,000 children were abused or neglected in 2002, the last year for which such data are available" (USA Today, Dec. 21, 2004). * "The International Association of Chiefs of Police said that cuts by the [Bush] administration in federal aid to local police agencies have left the nation more vulnerable than ever" (USA Today, Nov. 17, 2004). No. 1? In most important categories we're not even in the Top 10 anymore. Not even close. The USA is "No. 1" in nothing but weaponry, consumer spending, debt, and delusion. Reprinted from the Austin Chronicle. www.citypages.com/databank/26/1264/article12985.asp
  • ., all integrated through the design process. The key to success in mechatronics is: modeling, analysis, experimentation & hardware-implementation skills.
  • Rice and U of Susses (Kroto)
  • <number>
  • America No. 1? America by the numbers by Michael Ventura 02/03/05 "ICH"  - - No concept lies more firmly embedded in our national character than the notion that the USA is "No. 1," "the greatest." Our broadcast media are, in essence, continuous advertisements for the brand name "America Is No. 1." Any office seeker saying otherwise would be committing political suicide. In fact, anyone saying otherwise will be labeled "un-American." We're an "empire," ain't we? Sure we are. An empire without a manufacturing base. An empire that must borrow $2 billion a day from its competitors in order to function. Yet the delusion is ineradicable. We're No. 1. Well...this is the country you really live in: * The United States is 49th in the world in literacy (the New York Times, Dec. 12, 2004). * The United States ranked 28th out of 40 countries in mathematical literacy (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Twenty percent of Americans think the sun orbits the earth. Seventeen percent believe the earth revolves around the sun once a day (The Week, Jan. 7, 2005). * "The International Adult Literacy Survey...found that Americans with less than nine years of education 'score worse than virtually all of the other countries'" (Jeremy Rifkin's superbly documented book The European Dream: How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream, p.78). * Our workers are so ignorant and lack so many basic skills that American businesses spend $30 billion a year on remedial training (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). No wonder they relocate elsewhere! * "The European Union leads the U.S. in...the number of science and engineering graduates; public research and development (R&D) expenditures; and new capital raised" (The European Dream, p.70). * "Europe surpassed the United States in the mid-1990s as the largest producer of scientific literature" (The European Dream, p.70). * Nevertheless, Congress cut funds to the National Science Foundation. The agency will issue 1,000 fewer research grants this year (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). * Foreign applications to U.S. grad schools declined 28 percent last year. Foreign student enrollment on all levels fell for the first time in three decades, but increased greatly in Europe and China. Last year Chinese grad-school graduates in the U.S. dropped 56 percent, Indians 51 percent, South Koreans 28 percent (NYT, Dec. 21, 2004). We're not the place to be anymore. * The World Health Organization "ranked the countries of the world in terms of overall health performance, and the U.S. [was]...37th." In the fairness of health care, we're 54th. "The irony is that the United States spends more per capita for health care than any other nation in the world" (The European Dream, pp.79-80). Pay more, get lots, lots less. * "The U.S. and South Africa are the only two developed countries in the world that do not provide health care for all their citizens" (The European Dream, p.80). Excuse me, but since when is South Africa a "developed" country? Anyway, that's the company we're keeping. * Lack of health insurance coverage causes 18,000 unnecessary American deaths a year. (That's six times the number of people killed on 9/11.) (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005.) * "U.S. childhood poverty now ranks 22nd, or second to last, among the developed nations. Only Mexico scores lower" (The European Dream, p.81). Been to Mexico lately? Does it look "developed" to you? Yet it's the only "developed" country to score lower in childhood poverty. * Twelve million American families--more than 10 percent of all U.S. households--"continue to struggle, and not always successfully, to feed themselves." Families that "had members who actually went hungry at some point last year" numbered 3.9 million (NYT, Nov. 22, 2004). * The United States is 41st in the world in infant mortality. Cuba scores higher (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * Women are 70 percent more likely to die in childbirth in America than in Europe (NYT, Jan. 12, 2005). * The leading cause of death of pregnant women in this country is murder (CNN, Dec. 14, 2004). * "Of the 20 most developed countries in the world, the U.S. was dead last in the growth rate of total compensation to its workforce in the 1980s.... In the 1990s, the U.S. average compensation growth rate grew only slightly, at an annual rate of about 0.1 percent" (The European Dream, p.39). Yet Americans work longer hours per year than any other industrialized country, and get less vacation time. * "Sixty-one of the 140 biggest companies on the Global Fortune 500 rankings are European, while only 50 are U.S. companies" (The European Dream, p.66). "In a recent survey of the world's 50 best companies, conducted by Global Finance, all but one were European" (The European Dream, p.69). * "Fourteen of the 20 largest commercial banks in the world today are European.... In the chemical industry, the European company BASF is the world's leader, and three of the top six players are European. In engineering and construction, three of the top five companies are European.... The two others are Japanese. Not a single American engineering and construction company is included among the world's top nine competitors. In food and consumer products, Nestlé and Unilever, two European giants, rank first and second, respectively, in the world. In the food and drugstore retail trade, two European companies...are first and second, and European companies make up five of the top ten. Only four U.S. companies are on the list" (The European Dream, p.68). * The United States has lost 1.3 million jobs to China in the last decade (CNN, Jan. 12, 2005). * U.S. employers eliminated 1 million jobs in 2004 (The Week, Jan. 14, 2005). * Three million six hundred thousand Americans ran out of unemployment insurance last year; 1.8 million--one in five--unemployed workers are jobless for more than six months (NYT, Jan. 9, 2005). * Japan, China, Taiwan, and South Korea hold 40 percent of our government debt. (That's why we talk nice to them.) "By helping keep mortgage rates from rising, China has come to play an enormous and little-noticed role in sustaining the American housing boom" (NYT, Dec. 4, 2004). Read that twice. We owe our housing boom to China, because they want us to keep buying all that stuff they manufacture. * Sometime in the next 10 years Brazil will probably pass the U.S. as the world's largest agricultural producer. Brazil is now the world's largest exporter of chickens, orange juice, sugar, coffee, and tobacco. Last year, Brazil passed the U.S. as the world's largest beef producer. (Hear that, you poor deluded cowboys?) As a result, while we bear record trade deficits, Brazil boasts a $30 billion trade surplus (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * As of last June, the U.S. imported more food than it exported (NYT, Dec. 12, 2004). * Bush: 62,027,582 votes. Kerry: 59,026,003 votes. Number of eligible voters who didn't show up: 79,279,000 (NYT, Dec. 26, 2004). That's more than a third. Way more. If more than a third of Iraqis don't show for their election, no country in the world will think that election legitimate. * One-third of all U.S. children are born out of wedlock. One-half of all U.S. children will live in a one-parent house (CNN, Dec. 10, 2004). * "Americans are now spending more money on gambling than on movies, videos, DVDs, music, and books combined" (The European Dream, p.28). * "Nearly one out of four Americans [believe] that using violence to get what they want is acceptable" (The European Dream, p.32). * Forty-three percent of Americans think torture is sometimes justified, according to a PEW Poll (Associated Press, Aug. 19, 2004). * "Nearly 900,000 children were abused or neglected in 2002, the last year for which such data are available" (USA Today, Dec. 21, 2004). * "The International Association of Chiefs of Police said that cuts by the [Bush] administration in federal aid to local police agencies have left the nation more vulnerable than ever" (USA Today, Nov. 17, 2004). No. 1? In most important categories we're not even in the Top 10 anymore. Not even close. The USA is "No. 1" in nothing but weaponry, consumer spending, debt, and delusion. Reprinted from the Austin Chronicle. www.citypages.com/databank/26/1264/article12985.asp
  • Korean “Information Society” development date back to the 1980’s, however, Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) use and production in the past has been associated with equipment, rather than knowledge-intensive production and services such as software, biotechnology, new media and information services (Hwang, Hur and Choi, 2004, p.11) (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (Wong, 2004, p.1). A new phase of public-private partnership including programs such as “Cyber Korea 21”, “e-Korea Vision 2006”, and “Broadband IT KOREA VISION 2007” aims to make Korea the leading exporter of knowledge-intensive production in the world (Korea National Computerization Agency, 2004, p.7) (The Korea Times in Swiss Talents, 2004, p.1). This new phase is marked by a transition to integrating convergent information services into the fabric of society, industry, government and education; pioneering the development of technologies, products, services and knowledge-based exports; and supporting the formation and development of new convergence companies.
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    The most important thing to understand about Whyville really, is that it’s a place full of kids. It’s a virtual city that belongs to the kids who come from all over the world to have fun. The kids consider this their own town, and they call themselves Whyvillians.
    To become a Whyvillian, you create a Whyville persona. In this screen, and every other screen you’ve already seen, for example, each face is a Whyville citizen. To become a Whyville citizen, you create a persona, the most important aspect of which is your face.
    You can see here that the faces are varied and very creative. Here’s an amoeba. Here’s someone driving a car. Here is someone wearing a style known as ‘Goth’. The ungliest citizens you see around are in fact us, the city workers.
  • <number>
    Whyville has its own system of self governance
  • <number>
    Whyville has its own system of self governance
  • <number>
    As a result, Whyville has become one of the most used educational sites on the Internet
  • <number>
  • <number>

Transcript

  • 1. TSTC Emerging Technologies & The 5th World Michael A. Bettersworth Associate Vice Chancellor Technology Advancement Texas State Technical College michael.bettersworth@tstc.edu Texas Industry Cluster Initiative Meeting December 14th 2005 Jim Brazell Consulting Analyst Digital Media Collaboratory, North West Vista College & the Schriever Institute jim@ventureramp.com
  • 2. Kurzweil’s Countdown to Singularity “The Paradigm Shift Rate is now doubling every decade.” Source: Ray Kurzweil, KurzweilAI.net TimetoNextEvent(years) Time Before Present (years) www.tstc.edu
  • 3. Kurzweil’s Exponential Pace of Innovation Keystone Events The pace of technological change “advances (at least) exponentially”. –Ray Kurzweil www.tstc.edu
  • 4. Ray Kurzweil An analysis of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense "intuitive linear" view. “So we won't experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century -- it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today's rate).”
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  • 6. http://www.arraycomm.com/pcct/coopers_law.htm Cooper’s Law Martin Cooper’s Law - the no. of conversations (voice and data) conducted over a given area, in all of the useful radio spectrum has doubled every 21/2 years for the last 105 years since Marconi, 1895.
  • 7. 2
  • 8. Moore’s Law - Shrink volume by 1011 increase Power by 1011
  • 9. http://www.pong-story.com/odyssey.htm#P1 1972 “Ready or not, computers are coming to the people.” Stewart Brand, Rolling Stone December, 1972
  • 10. Ready or not, “SUPER COMPUTERS” are coming to the people!
  • 11. USC ISI and Tactical Language Training (ITSEC 2005)
  • 12. NETC – 24 Blue (ITSEC 2005)
  • 13. ADMS (ITSEC 2005)
  • 14. New HCI
  • 15. NOSE
  • 16. Vienna University of Technology Players operate track switches and adjusting the speed of virtual trains to prevent virtual trains from colliding. Researchers Daniel Wagner, Thomas
  • 17. Through mixing realities, research is expanding the potential of embedded training in the field and in battle labs to provide integrated training anytime, anywhere. Advancements are being transferred across industries from business prototypes to hospitality training. Integrated research in tracking, registration, rendering, display, and scenario delivery are expanding the possibilities of CONSTRUCTIVE simulation as well as after action review, and command and control visualizations.
  • 18. Improved Target Acquisition System Trainer First Person & Fidelity
  • 19. First Person & Fidelity
  • 20. Time to Market
  • 21. 3
  • 22. 1st Gen  Mainframe 2nd Gen Mini 3rd Gen PC 4th Gen Sys on Chip
  • 23. http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ Berkeley’s Golem Dust 11.7 mm3 total circumscribed volume ~4.8 mm3 total displaced volume Berkeley’s Deputy Dust 6.6 mm3 total circumscribed volume 4th Gen 11.7 mm3 6.6 mm3
  • 24. My daughter’s first computer at age 1 hour.
  • 25. http://shino8.eng.uci.edu/Pdf/Tomo_MIT_Mems.pdfintel-research.net/ berkeley/features/tiny_db.asp Berkeley Motes/berkeley.intel-research.net/paulos/research/connexus/ www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/archive/users/warneke-brett/SmartDust/ 6 Pack for $120 on the web from xbow.com Time to Market
  • 26. Integrates sensors, batteries, a control chip, and an RF transmitter in a 35mm-long housing. Lab-in-a-Pill http://www.olympus.co.jp/en/news/2004b/nr041130capsle.cfm University of Glasgow Capsule Endoscope Examine the lining of the middle part of your gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum).
  • 27. MIT Tech Review, 2005 Sensors Physical Chemical Biological http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16 Actuators Physical Chemical Biological PhiloMetron™
  • 28. “Robots at same stage as 1978 PCs.” --Baylor University, Carbonara and Korpi Machine Actors v v
  • 29. MIT Tech Review, 2005 This is a ROBOT http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/events/bbl/03102801.pdf , page 16
  • 30. What is fueling progress?
  • 31. Adapted from Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO
  • 32. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO S&T Convergence
  • 33. S&T Convergence refers to the synergistic combination of four major provinces of science and technology, each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate: (a) nanoscience and nanotechnology (b) bioscience and genetic engineering (c) info technology and communications (d) cognitive science and neuroscience (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002)
  • 34. Mechatronics The synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, control systems and computers. Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Departments at RPI All Contents Copyright(C) 2001 Mechatronics Lab at RPI
  • 35. http://www.adidas.com/campaigns/adidas_1/content/downloads/adidas_1- wp_02_1280_1024.jpg http://www.adidasprlookbook.com/adidas1/index.asp • 1,000th of a second sensor measures gap between heel and a magnet • 20-MHz microcontroller measures changes in compression • Motor spins at 4000 rpm turns a screw loosens cable • Environmentally and operator adaptive shoe sole
  • 36. Micro-robotics team and biologists at Tsukuba University Source: The Guardian Date: 2 May 2002 State University of New York (Suny) Biotronics "Go go gadget: With a remote control sensor hotwired to its central nervous system, developments like the "roborat," created at SUNY's Downstate Medical Center, herald the coming of the biotronic age.
  • 37. Richard E. Smalley, Robert Curl and Harold Kroto won 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of a structure of carbon atoms known as a “buckyball”. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=04-85 Nano
  • 38. http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/PR_display.asp?prID=04-85 Pins can be added to a buckball to form an X, Y, Z coordinate system to DNA—a symmetry between fullerenes and DNA. Nano-Bio
  • 39. Technical applications of biological molecules including protein-based materials, DNA-based materials, biomineralization, cellular systems and bioelectronics. http://www.nanobionics3.de/ NanoBionics
  • 40. 1. S&T convergence is transforming technologies, industries, markets, economies and geographies of innovation. 2. S&T Convergence has a high probability of providing a level of competitive advantage and wealth creation to nations, regions, industries and companies equal or greater than that which was provided in the past by the emergence of the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. 3. S&T convergence will even surpass the levels of economic and social prosperity created by these industries because convergence is now the platform for innovation in virtually all industries and all human endeavors. 4. The organizations, cities, regions, states, and/or countries able to capture a controlling position within the realms of S&T will have an unprecedented competitive advantage on the world stage for many years. 5. Economic and security competitiveness are at stake!
  • 41. Preview • How does S&T Convergence impact workforce education? • What is TSTC doing about it? • Who are the S&T Economic Development leaders? • What K-12 interventions hold promise? • What can industry do?
  • 42. How does S&T convergence impact workforce education?
  • 43. 100 million jobs are going to be created in a lot of these cross- disciplinary fields Council on Competitiveness: National Innovation Initiative Samuel Palmisano (CEO, IBM): Business Week: 10.11.2004
  • 44. Identifying New Technology Programs Future Workforce Trends Technology Trends Futurist Predictions Anticipated New Programs Scientific Research Economic Development Efforts New Programs/Courses Program Revisions Expressed Need Associate Degrees Local Needs Advanced Technology Certificates Special Topics Certificates
  • 45. Identifying New Technology Programs Future Workforce Trends Technology Trends Futurist Predictions Anticipated New Programs Scientific Research Economic Development Efforts New Programs/Courses Program Revisions Expressed Need Associate Degrees Local Needs Advanced Technology Certificates Special Topics Certificates t
  • 46. “Innovate or Abdicate!” “Over the next ten years, 26 of the top 30 fastest growing jobs will require some post-secondary education or training...The demand for skilled workers is outpacing supply, resulting in attractive, high- paying jobs going unfilled. ” Emily Stover De Rocco Assistant Secretary of Labor for Education and Training
  • 47. What is TSTC doing about it?
  • 48. Texas Cluster Initiative 1. Advanced Technologies and Manufacturing a) Nanotechnology and Materials b) Micro-electromechanical Systems c) Semiconductor Manufacturing d) Automotive Manufacturing 2. Aerospace and Defense 3. Biotechnology and Life Sciences(Excluding Medical Services) 4. Information and Computer Technology a) Communications Equipment b) Computing Equipment Semiconductors c) Information Technology 5. Petroleum Refining and Chemical Products 6. Energy a) Oil and Gas Production b) Power Generation and Transmission c) Manufactured Energy Systems
  • 49. TSTC Emerging Technology Publications Nanotechnology Fuel Cells Digital Games Homeland Security ADM, Hybrid, MEMS, Computer Forensics Wireless: M2M
  • 50. Texas Cluster Initiative 1. Advanced Technologies and Manufacturing a) Nanotechnology and Materials b) Micro-electromechanical Systems c) Semiconductor Manufacturing d) Automotive Manufacturing 2. Aerospace and Defense 3. Biotechnology and Life Sciences(Excluding Medical Services) 4. Information and Computer Technology a) Communications Equipment b) Computing Equipment Semiconductors c) Information Technology 5. Petroleum Refining and Chemical Products 6. Energy a) Oil and Gas Production b) Power Generation and Transmission c) Manufactured Energy Systems
  • 51. The number of jobs requiring technical training is growing at five times the rate of other occupations. Innovate America, U.S. Council on Competitiveness “Innovate or Abdicate!”
  • 52. PET Criteria for Selecting Technology Topics 1. Employment Opportunities a) Total number of technicians that will be required statewide. b) How long it will take for the projected jobs to materialize. 2. Economic Impact a) Anticipated economic impact for the State. b) Potential to create wealth and prosperity. 3. Curriculum Compatibility a) Ease with which currently available curricula can be modified or expanded to provide appropriate KSAs. b) Consider specialized equipment and faculty requirements. 4. Career Attractiveness a) Ability of a technology to provide challenging work and upward career mobility.
  • 53. TSTC Emerging Tech Publication
  • 54. Computer Forensics Legal Issues • Following Legal Procedures • Preserving Integrity of Evidence • Following Rules of Evidence • Expert Interpretation Applications • Law Enforcement • Corporate Sector • Data Recovery • Consulting/Private Investigations
  • 55. Hybrid Vehicles U.S. Hybrid Vehicle Releases • Ford Escape SUV • Chevy Silverado Pickup • Lexus RX400 SUV • Toyota Highlander • Nissan Altima Sedan • Saturn VUE SUV • Chevy Malibu Technologies • Combustion Engine • Transmission • Electric Motor • Generator • Batteries • High Voltage Circuitry • Energy Management Sys
  • 56. TSTC Emerging Tech Publication
  • 57. Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Applications • Stationary • Mobile • Portable
  • 58. 2005 Texas Fuel Cell Curriculum Members •Alamo Community College District •Dallas County Community College District •Del Mar College •Houston Community College District •Lamar Institute of Technology •Lee College •Midland Community College •North Harris Montgomery Community College District •Southwest Texas Junior College •St. Phillips College •Tarrant County Community College District •Texas State Technical College Harlingen •Texas State Technical College Waco •Wharton County Junior College
  • 59. TSTC Emerging Tech Publication
  • 60. Doug Whatley Breakaway Games Source: Jim Brazell, Ventureramp
  • 61. www.tstc.edu
  • 62. www.tstc.eduSource: Jim Brazell, Ventureramp
  • 63. www.tstc.edu Ethan McKinnon Xarism and Northrop San Antonio, TX From: Jim Brazell, Ventureramp
  • 64. 2001 2006 % CHANGE Console Software $9.64B $18.34B 90 Console Hardware $9.19B $14.29B 55 PC Software $7.12B $8.33B 17 Handheld Software $2.89B $3.76B 30 Handheld Hardware $2.73B $3.4B 25 Rental $3.14B $4.14B 32 Online $0.57B $5.65B 891 Interactive TV $0.08B $6.15B 7,584 Mobile $0.76B $11.01B 1,354 Arcades $13.86B $10.66B -23 TOTAL $49.99B $85.71B 71% Global Gaming Market Projections Source: IGDA
  • 65. Sample of Texas Gaming CTC Programs TSTC Waco • AAS Graphics, Gaming and Simulation Programming • ATC 3-D Virtual Reality San Jacinto Community College • CERT1 Multimedia Game Programming TSTC Harlingen • AAS Game and Simulation Programming Collin County Community College • CERT1 Gaming Graphics and Animation Hill College • AAS Programming/Game Development •CERT1 Programming/Game Development Houston Community College Southwest • AAS & CERT Digital Gaming & Simulation for Artists • AAS & CERT Digital Gaming & Simulation for Programmers
  • 66. www.forecasting.tstc.edu
  • 67. Who are the S&T economic development leaders?
  • 68. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures NEURO NANO BIOINFO What differentiates convergence technopolei? ?
  • 69. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures Innovation Network Alignment Human Development Art + STEM Public-Private Convergence Technopolei Fusion S. Korea Finland Japan DC MSA Central Florida San Diego County
  • 70. transitioning from a manufacturing to an innovation economy http://mit.edu/cre/research/ncc/proceedings/ncc-casestudies.pdf Hallowing of microelectronic manufacturing? Value shift…
  • 71. What K-12 educational solutions exist today?
  • 72. Transdisciplinarity
  • 73. Source: Brazell, IC2 Institute, 2004 Yang Cai, Ingo Snel, Betty Chenga, Suman Bharathi, Clementine Klein d, Judith Klein- Seetharaman; Carnegie Mellon University, University of Frankfurt, Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. www.andrew.cmu.edu/~ycai/biogame.pdf BIOSIM 1.0
  • 74. 1985 - 2001 Professor of Biology, CALTECH & Caltech Precollege Science Initiative in Support of Inquiry Learning 2002 - Present Professor of Computational Neuroscience, UTHSC and UTSA James M. Bower, Ph.D. 1985 - 2001 Computers in Support of Inquiry Learning
  • 75. Population: 1.4MM Growth: 1200/day Educational Sites 3 - 5 minutes EA online games 9 minutes AOL Entertainment 10 minutes Whyville.net 59 minutes Yahoo! Games 78 minutes MEAN TIME PER USER LOGIN Discovery.com: 96 million Whyville.net: 58.4 million BigChalk: 11 million Time for Kids: 8 million New York Times Learning Net: 1.2 million Cosmogirl: 425,000 PAGE VIEWS ©numedeon,inc.2003 The average time per log in July was 3.8 hours making it second to Neopets.
  • 76. FREE
  • 77. ©numedeon,inc.2004
  • 78. ©numedeon,inc.2004 SPACE STATION
  • 79. © numedeon, inc. 2004
  • 80. Feb. 14- March 13, 2002 3,000 BBS postings
  • 81. ITSA Greg White, UTSA: ”K-PhD”
  • 82. Elementary spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Robot competition plus career and academic exploration and history of science and technology.
  • 83. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures Math Engineering TechScience ART/ Design INNOVATION
  • 84. Charles Ostman Senior Fellow Institute for Global Futures Math Engineering TechScience TEAMS INNOVATION
  • 85. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Middle School
  • 86. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX Middle School Like football or volleyball but academic.
  • 87. spaceTEAMS San Antonio,TX High School
  • 88. ITSA Greg White, UTSA: ”K-PhD” PipelineStartyounger! TEAMS Northwest Vista College, San Antonio
  • 89. What can Industry Do?
  • 90. “Innovate or Abdicate!” “For the past 25 years, we have optimized our organizations for efficiency and quality. Over the next quarter century, we must optimize our entire society for innovation. ” Innovate America, U.S. Council on Competitiveness
  • 91. • Communicate Workforce Needs to Colleges • Partner with Colleges on Grants – Skills Development Fund, Perkins State Leadership, President’s High Growth Jobs Initiatives • Donate CURRENT Equipment • Serve on Program Advisory Committees • Provide Adjunct Faculty • Support Student & Faculty Co-Cooperatives • Sponsor Department Chairs • Sponsor Student Scholarships • Donate to College Foundations “Innovate or Abdicate!”
  • 92. • Single point of contact for both public and private training requests made of TSTC statewide. • TSTC will assesses training needs, develop customized training plans, and perform corporate training consulting services. • Deliver the training programs at any of TSTC’s locations across the state, or at the company’s facility using the company’s actual equipment. • Assistance to business and industry for new and incumbent workforce development. Contact: TSTC Corporate College Mike Harder, President (254) 867.3940 mike.harder@tstc.edu New TSTC Corporate College
  • 93. What is your NEW workforce need? Your NEW Workforce Need Here.