Public-Private Partnerships for Tourism Management in Protected Areas Jim BarborakDirector, Center for Protected Area Management and Training Colorado State University Member, IUCN/WCPA Tourism Working Group
Cantareira State Park, Sao Paolo, Brazil: An example of the challenges we face
Background Success in conservation requires public and political support and people support what they know and love Governments, NGOs, and communities often lack entrepreneurial know-how, tourism know-how and capital needed to successfully manage PA tourism There is pressure by communities, businesses, and governments for PAs to generate more economic benefits and more revenue to fund PA management Many PAs, particularly in developing regions, do not fulfill tourism’s potential to generate employment and income and build public awareness and support Number of national and international tourists to PAs and economic importance of the sector increasing
Institutional Options for PA management PAs managed/owned by regional, local governments, intergovernmental authorities PAs managed/owned by local, regional, natl, intl. NGOs PAs managed/owned by indigenous tribes PAs managed/owned by communities PAs managed/owned by private businesses/companies PAs managed or owned by universities, research centers Global tendency: hybrid and comanagement approaches! Ownership, management authority, service provider, and management category are separate but related concepts!
Partnerships: Key to PA success• Larger, more complex PAs increasingly use a wide range of institutional options, including permits, contracts, concessions, cooperative agreements and co-management accords• Partnerships can lead to investments in PA tourism infrastructure and programs• Successful partnerships can stimulate more public support for conservation, financial benefits for PA agencies and economies, and improved livelihoods for local communities• Successful partnerships can privatize costs and risks but socialize benefits of tourism in PAs
Values of Tourism Public-Private Partnerships Long Recognized!• Tourism concessions in US parks for +/- a century!• Partnerships was a theme as long ago as the 1992 World Parks Congress (Venezuela)• The tourism sessions at the Last World Parks Congress agreed that more work on the subject is warranted• Major donors (IFC in Mozambique, Indonesia), IDB in Brazil, World Bank, GEF, UNDP, USAID, interested in topic and increasing investment• CBD specific has more equitable distribution of costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation as a goal and poverty alleviation is a global development priority• CBD partnering with Semeia Institute of Brazil for a global study on the subject and a workshop at the CBD COP in Hyderabad• Tourism to PAs is growing in many parts of the world• Demand for PAs to generate revenue for their own budgets and to produce more tangible economic benefits locally and nationally is growing
Some challenges Local actors often lack the entrepreneurial expertise and capital to successfully participate in co-management such as concessions There is no substitute for strong government institutions; they help guarantee success of innovative private and community conservation There is widespread distrust of the private sector, NGOs and among key actors and stakeholders— building trust difficult and time-consuming
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica: Private-Private Partnerships! Owned/managed by NGO Nearly 100K visitors/yr Endowment and robust business plan Restaurant managed by local restaurateur Guiding managed by local guide association Gift shop generates much revenue—NGO now manages gift shops at several national parks!
Results of Ongoing Studies on Concessions Identified key components to ensure success in tourism concessions and agreements in protected areas: Qualifications of bidders Legal responsibilities of responsible entities Financial responsibilities of entities Environmental responsibilities of entities Social responsibilities of organizations Ongoing monitoring and evaluation
Moving towards best practices in tourism PPPs in PAsQualifications What type of legal entity is created or involved: a private company, consortium, trust, individual, etc.? How can you ensure that the potential concessionaire/permitee has sufficient experience and capital?Legal aspects? Who owns the land and the infrastructure? Who retains control and stakes in improvements ? How are risks and unforeseen events managed? Who is responsible in case of complaints/ accidents? How are transactions controlled and audited? What are the consequences of rescinding agreements?
Financial/legal aspects How long does the agreement last? Can it be amended/extended? What payment does the partner make? Based on income, # users? If there is competitive bidding how do we ensure that the best offer wins? How do we ensure that the partner fulfills the terms of the agreement? What are the consequences of environmental damage caused by the concessionaire or lack of fulfillment of key clauses in the agreement? Under what conditions can agreements be rescinded?Environmental Aspects How to ensure that infrastructure and its operation comply with environmental standards? What are the consequences when this does not happen? Who monitors what when where why and how?Social Aspects and Equity How can we ensure benefits for local communities? How can we ensure that initial benefits are maintained and expanded and monitor this?
Some key lessons learned to date Partnerships can encourage capital investment , improve visitor services and generate increased revenue flows to PA agencies and economies PPP can expand tourism and recreation opportunities for national and international visitors leading to greater public and decision maker support for PAs and more environmental awareness Partnerships between concessionaires and local communities can lead to gradual transfer of ownership, build local capacity and responsibility and reduce PA-community conflict PAs with greater public use and expanded stakeholder base and public tend to resist threats better than areas off the “mental map” of the public, press and decision makers
What have we achieved since Barcelona four years ago?– Global Review published (Wyman et al)– Creation of a PA Tourism Partnerships Bibliography: laws, policies, tenders, case studies– Global workshop in California sponsored by USNPS and CSU with IUCN/WCPA and UNESCO- WH support– Regional workshop Southern Africa (Maputo)– Brazil workshops Sao Paolo and Curitiba– New policies, laws and tenders in many nations (Costa Rica, Brazil, Chile)
Looking forward• Best practices manual on PA tourism published• Best practice manual on PPPs for IUCN WCPA published• More regional training and best practice workshops• Use major conferences to discuss progress, challenges World Wilderness Congress Spain 2013 World Parks Congress Australia 2014 National and regional PA conferences
• Promotion in Europe by PanParks• Technical assistance missions (USNPS, USFS, south-south)• Incorporate training materials in PA training centers and online• Implement pilot projects funded by major NGOs, bilateral and multilateral development banks, tourism enterprises• Work with UNESCO, other partners to incorporate strengthen PPS at WH sites• Produce and disseminate case studies, best practice documents, bibliographies• Key area of activity for IUCN WCPA Tourism Working Group