Active ShooterA look at the characteristics of and response to potential active shooters and scenarios By: SSgt James Bane
Outline Define Active Shooter Historic Shooters Characteristics of Active Shooters Phases of Active Shooters Potential Responses to Shooter situations
When individuals come to the point of being an active shooter, in most cases they are not afraid of death and may have no feelings for the people they may be shooting….
What is an Active Shooter? …an individual actively engaged in killingpeople in a confined and populated area with notypical pattern or method to their selection ofvictims.
Historic Active Shooters Hasan Akbar, SGT, U.S. Army Camp Pennsylvania Shooter Nidal Hasan, MAJ, U.S. Army Ft. Hood Shooter Seung-hui Cho, VA Tech. Student Virginia Tech Shooter James E. Holmes, U. of Co. Student CO. Movie Theater ShooterRetrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079) and WTPV.com (2010).
“Typical” Active Shooter Primary Purpose: Mass Homicide Victims are “dehumanized” in the shooter’s mind Often acts of vengeance for a perceived injustice Many active shooter’s commit suicide Fanatics may fight to the death Often times are Males
Profiling Active Shooters Difficult to pinpoint Common characteristics among non-shooters Different personalities and motivations Relationship problems & history of rejection "They have no social outlets…" Being viewed as a "real man" is important to young men "His classmates reported that he was bullied and made fun of him for his shyness and how he walked,” said Gasper in reference to Cho, the Virginia Tech shooter.Information retrieved from Psychology 101:The mind of a shooter, 2007, by Amanda Phillips with Joseph Gasper, Sociologist with Johns Hopkins University
Characteristics of Active Shooters An otherwise normal person, no matter how stressed, doesn’t just suddenly “snap” and go on a killing spree. In virtually all of the cases that have been studied by behavioral scientists, there has emerged a predictable pattern in the evolution of most mass violence incidents. --Dr. Laurence Miller, clinical and forensic psychologist and law enforcement educatorInformation retrieved from Mass violence:Why do they do it?What can we do about it?, 2007, By Laurence Miller, Ph.D.
Characteristics of Active Shooters Anti-American statements asserting that U.S. policy and authority is illegitimate Aggression or threats toward coworkers Presence of unauthorized weapons Attempts to communicate with U.S. enemies Unfounded allegations of U.S. persecution or prejudice against a minority group or religion Abnormal mood swings or depression, withdrawn behavior, decrease in hygiene, suicidal remarks, paranoia Flashbacks to prior traumatic events Abuse of alcohol or drugs If you notice questionable behavior, Repeated violation of policies tell your supervisor. Talk of domestic/financial problems. If you perceive an immediate threat, alert unit security.Retrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079)
Similarities Among Historic Shooters Exaggerated need for attention and respect Rejection and isolation by peers Feelings of alienation, bullying and persecution Antisocial tendencies Poor coping skills Anger management issues Relationship and discipline issues History of making violent threats Depression Attempted suicide Access to parents weaponsInformation retrieved from Psychology 101:The mind of a shooter, 2007, by Amanda Phillips
Five Phases of Active Shooters 1. Fantasy 2. Planning The most importance phases for Prevention! 3. Preparation 4. Approach 5. Implementation If anyone observes behaviors, notify security personnel or other authority figures for action. -Immediate supervisor -Unit/Area Security Officer -First Sergeant -CC or DO -Security Forces
Potential Responses Evacuation Lockdown Taking action against shooter (Recommended Last Resort) Cooperating with first responders An active shooter situation may be over within 15 minutes. In the meantime…Retrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079); Auburn University, 2007
Evacuate Be sure to: Have an escape route and plan in mind Evacuate regardless of whether others agree to follow you Leave your belongings behind Help others to escape, if possible Prevent others from entering an area where the active shooter may be located Do not attempt to move wounded people Call 911 when you are safe …Get Out!Force Protection (ZZ133079)—Force protection slides were retrieved from ADLS. Retrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079)
Lockdown If evacuation is not possible, you should consider the following… Find a place where the active shooter is less likely to find you. Places you choose should: Be out of the shooter’s view Provide protection if shots are fired. Not trap you. Have locks on the door. Have furniture to blockade the door. …Hide and Barricade!Retrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079)
Take Action (Last Resort/Imminent Threat) Acting aggressively against him or her YouTube Training Session Throwing items and improvising weapons Yelling Committing to your actions …Take Action!Information retrieved from YouTube video Last Resort Active Shooter Survival Measures, 2010, by Alon Stivi
Cooperate w/ 1st Responders Provide the following information: When first responders arrive: Location of the active shooter Remain calm and follow instructions Number of shooters Put down any items in your hands Physical description of the shooter Raise your hands and spread your fingers Number and type of weapons held by Keep your hands visible the shooter Avoid quick movements Number of potential victims Do not cling to emergency personnel Avoid pointing or screaming Avoid asking first responders for help when evacuating Evacuate in the direction first responders are entering …Cooperate!Retrieved from ADLS Force Protection (ZZ133079)
QuestionsIf anyone has questions regarding the material in this briefing,feel free to contact: SSgt James Bane, email@example.comIf you would like to discuss anything further regarding activeshooter or concerns regarding personnel safety, please contact: Your supervisor The First Sergeant Your unit safety representatives Security forces
References ADLS. n.d. Force Protection (CBT). Retrieved from https://golearn.csd.disa.mil/kc/main/kc_frame.asp Marcou, D. n.d. 5 Phases of the "Active Shooter“. Retrieved from http://www.school- training.com/newsletter/articles/submitted/active-shooter.shtml. Miller, L. December 10, 2007. Mass violence:Why do they do it?What can we do about it?. Retrieved from http://www.policeone.com/active-shooter/articles/1637969-Mass-violence-Why-do-they-do-it-What-can-we-do-about-it/. Phillips, A. June 15, 2007. Psychology 101:The mind of a shooter. Retrieved from http://www.officer.com/article/10249728/psychology-101-the-mind-of-a-shooter Stivi, A. June 18, 2010. Last Resort Active Shooter Survival Measures. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2tIeRUbRHw Texas School Safety Center, Texas State University-San Marcos. May 31, 2012. Prevention and Response to Active Shooter/Killer: ICJS SBLE Instructor. Retrieved from http://txsbleconference.com/downloads/resources/Ramirez-Prevention-Mitigation-Response-to-an- Active-Shooter.pdf. University of California Police Department. May 24, 2007. Safety Tips & Guidelines regarding potential “Active Shooter” incidents occurring on Campus. Retrieved from http://ucpd.ucla.edu/070402CP.pdf WTPV.com. 20 July 2012. Aurora, Colorado, Century Movie Theater Dark Knight Rises shooting: 14 confirmed dead. Retrieved from http://www.wptv.com/dpp/news/national/aurora-colorado-century-movie-theater-dark-knight-rises-shooting-at-least-39- people-shot
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