“ Volenti non fit injuria”: cannot expect redress if you consent to an act likely to result in injury or loss
Cutler v United dairies (1933) Cutler failed to recover damages after being injured trying to restrain a bolting horse: it was held he consented to the risk
Haynes v Harwood (1935) A policeman was able to recover damages after being injured restraining as bolting horse: he had a legal duty to protect life & property and was not held to have consented willingly to the action
Management of H&S at Work * Workplace Health, Safety & Welfare * Working time * Provision & Use of Work Equipment * Personal Protective Equipment at Work * Display Screen Equipment * Manual Handling Operations * Safety Signs & Signals * Pressure Systems * Electricity at Work * First Aid at Work * Control of Substances Hazardous to Health * Control of Asbestos at Work * Genetic Modification (Contained Use) Regulations * Dangerous Substances & Explosive Atmospheres * Ionising Radiations * Genetic Modification * Reporting of Accidents, Incidents & Dangerous Occurrences
Some risks we accept as part of normal living. Most would consider such conditions to be “safe”.
Other risks we tolerate because we consider the benefits outweigh the risks (e.g. driving a car). Conditions should also be relatively safe, provided risks are reduced as low as is reasonably practicable ( ALARP ).
Some risks are considered intolerable and most would consider conditions “unsafe”
Special risks (pregnant women, young or inexperienced persons, lone workers, people with disabilities etc)
Risk = Harm x likelihood Low frequency Moderate frequency High frequency Minor injury Very low risk Low risk Moderate risk Serious injury Low/ Moderate Moderate risk High risk Major injury Moderate/ high risk High risk Very high risk
Fire extinguishers may go unused for many years, but they must be maintained in a state of readiness. For this reason, periodic inspection and servicing are required, and that responsibility rests with the owner. Local Authority Fire department inspectors check at periodic intervals to see that extinguishers are present where required by law and that they have been serviced within the specified time period.
Class A fire extinguishers are usually water based. Water provides a heat-absorbing (cooling) effect on the burning material to extinguish the fire. Stored-pressure extinguishers use air under pressure to expel water.
Carbon dioxide is a compressed gas agent that prevents combustion by displacing the oxygen in the air surrounding the fire. (CAUTION, DO NOT TOUCH THE HORN OR BASE OF THE EXTINGUISHER DURING DISCHARGE AS THEY BECOME EXTREMELY COLD)
The extinguishing agent in a class C fire extinguisher must be electrically non-conductive. Both carbon dioxide and dry chemicals can be used in electrical fires. An advantage of carbon dioxide is that it leaves no residue after the fire is extinguished. When electrical equipment is not energized, extinguishers for class A or B fires may be used.
A heat-absorbing extinguishing medium is needed for fires in combustible metals. Also, the extinguishing medium must not react with the burning metal. The extinguishing agents, known as dry powders, cover the burning metal and provide a smothering blanket.