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A  Part 14 Environment
 

A Part 14 Environment

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Health and Safety Course, Environment

Health and Safety Course, Environment

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    A  Part 14 Environment A Part 14 Environment Presentation Transcript

    • Environmental Pollution Classification of Wastes Practical Waste Management Waste Disposal Legal Regimes Applicable
    • Environmental Pollution  Accidental release of toxic wastes is usually result of design or planning failure, bad engineering or incompetent management  Intended release may be unregulated (the cowboy option) or condoned by public authorities (best practicable means)
    • Environmental Pollution  Hazardous wastes contaminate the atmosphere in the form of solids, liquids or gases  Discharge in rivers, lakes or at sea can be widely dispersed by water currents  Land dumping can contaminate soils and groundwater  Buried wastes often react chemically to produce more mobile substances (e.g. landfill gas)  Leachate may seep into unexpected places
    • Environmental Pollution  At the lowest level are small spillages in a workplace;  Then we have disposal of unwanted by-products from some operation;  At higher levels there are the problems of storage, transportation and disposal of large quantities of waste produced by major plants and public utilities
    • Integrated Pollution Control  Recognises the combined effects of air, land and water pollution - based on a holistic approach  Established by Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990  Part I of EPA provides for certain processes or substances to be prescribed under regulations  About 5000 processes or substances which are considered to be most polluting in UK are prescribed in schedules to the Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991  Known as Part A processes, as they are on A list
    • Integrated Pollution Controlair)  Requires that discharges to all media (land, water and are considered and that the Best Practicable Environment Option (BPEO) is chosen to minimise harm to the environment as a whole  An authorisation will require that Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATNEEC) are used as a standard  BATNEEC guidance notes are produced by DETR and BATNEEC reviews must be undertaken every 4 years in order to keep the process up-to-date and seek continual improvement
    • Integrated Pollution Control  Application to operate prescribed process must be made to the enforcing authority and a fee paid  Once authorisation to operate the plant is given, it is the duty of operator to ensure that quality and quantity of discharges is kept within the limits
    • Integrated Pollution Control Discharge of contaminants to air Acid rain from air pollution Land used for land-fill sites; water affected by leachates from contaminated land
    • Waste Classification Waste Controlled Non-Controlled Household Industrial Commercial Agriculture/Mines/Quarries/ Explosives/Radioactive Hazardous Inert Non-Hazardous (Special)
    • Special Waste  Controlled by Special Waste Regulations 1996  Defined in the EC Hazardous Waste List  Categories are mirrored in the CHIP and COSHH Regulations and broadly include:  Explosive, flammable and oxidising substances  Irritants and corrosives  Biohazards (infectious, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic)  Ecotoxics
    • Clinical Waste  Should be segregated from general waste  Separate bins, signage and training should be provided  Sharps should go into special sharps containers
    • Duty of Care  Established by Regs and ACOP issued under EPA on anyone who may import, produce, transport, store, treat or dispose of waste - any such person becomes a waste holder  Duty requires that waste holder must keep waste safe, must act to prevent waste from deteriorating and escaping into the environment
    • Duty of Care  The waste holder must:  Protect the waste while they have it;  Ensure that it reaches the next holder intact  Segregate incompatible wastes  Ensure security  Waste left for collection should be adequately secured and left for a minimum of time  Waste should be labelled where appropriate and in accordance with the CHIP Regulations
    • Waste Carriers  Anyone who holds waste may transfer it to a waste carrier who must be registered with a Waste Regulation Authority  However, it is part of the waste holder’s duty to ensure that carriers are suitable to handle and dispose of the waste  Thus the duty holder ultimately remains responsible for the fate of the waste
    • Waste Transfer Waste Transfer Notes Note  System operates by Controlled Waste Transfer Notes which describe the parties to the transfer and the waste itself  Copies must be kept for minimum of 2 years  Under the Special Waste Regulations 1996 a Special Waste Transfer Note must be used for special waste, detailing the hazardous components and their concentrations, and the processes they originated from. These Regs also require:  Pre-notification of any movements of such wastes (by consignment note to EA)  Registers of movements of special waste consignments, and records of sites where such waste has finally been tipped  No mixing, by carriers and consignees, of special and non-special, and different categories of special wastes, unless it be for safe disposal  Regular inspections of special waste producers by regulators
    • Waste Disposal  Hierarchy of waste management: a.) Waste reduction: Not making it in the first place, by process change and optimising efficiency b.) Re-use: e.g. of glass bottles and other containers c.) Recovery of waste. Options include: - Recycling (e.g. glass, metal, paper) - Incineration with energy recovery - Composting d.) Physical/chemical treatment to reduce bulk and make hazardous waste safe e.) Disposal - generally to landfill  Currently about 70% of controlled waste goes to landfill and there is an increasing shortage of suitable landfill sites
    • Incineration  Waste burnt at very high temperature and combustion gas passes through series of filters to draw off toxic and particulate materials  Waste-to-energy plants produce steam used to heat buildings directly or to drive turbines to generate electricity
    • Landfill  Site must be geologically suitable  Environmental Impact Assessment under EPA is needed before license is granted  Nuisances come from noise, odours, dust, litter and vermin  Leachate has to be tightly controlled and drained off to prevent contaminating water courses  Landfill gas is normally collected in pipes laid within the waste and is either flared off or collected and used as fuel
    • Composting  Biodegradable fraction of waste can be broken down by bacterial decomposition  Produces compost, a fibrous residue which is used as a soil conditioner, organic fertiliser, mulch and potting medium  In the UK home composting is encouraged with subsidised or even free issue of small household units
    • Environmental Protection Act 1990  Established:  Duty of care with respect to pollution  Code of practice for compliance  Requirement to complete transfer notes recording details of waste transfers  Proper documentation and provision of information to licensed carriers, enforcing agencies etc.  Principles established by the Act include:  Application for consent to discharge waste  Polluter pays (consent fees, enforcement penalties, clean-up costs)  Use of BATNEEC and BPEO as control strategies for schedule substances and processes under IPC
    • Environmental Protection Act 1990  EPA also controls various statutory nuisances - emission of smoke, fumes, gases, dust, steam, smells, other effluvia and noise at a level which is judged to be prejudicial to health or a nuisance to the community or anyone living in it  This has implications for both industrial plant and waste disposal sites
    • Previous Exam Questions  Explain, with the aid of diagrams where appropriate, the concept of “integrated pollution control” (IPC). (10 marks)  Section 34 of the EPA places a duty of care on persons concerned with controlled waste: i.) explain the meaning of the term “controlled waste” ii.) Identify the categories of persons on whom the duty is placed, and those who are exempt from such a duty (10 marks)