Information organization and hypertext

  • 558 views
Uploaded on

A few slides for a lecture for DIKULT104 at UiB on the history of hypertext and information organization.

A few slides for a lecture for DIKULT104 at UiB on the history of hypertext and information organization.

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
558
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Wide dissemination - increased output and altered intake - Ferment engendered by access to more books, Combinatory practices (Simply seeing different texts together engendered comparisons, showed up contradictions, etc etc.)\n2. Standardization\n3. Reorganizing texts and reference guides: rationalizing, codifying and cataloguing data\n4. Data collection - From Corrupted copy to improved edition, Collaboration\n5. Preservation (see Thomas Jefferson: make public to preserve; Anthropologists falsely think handwriting permanent)\n6. Amplification and reinforcement\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Wide dissemination - increased output and altered intake - Ferment engendered by access to more books, Combinatory practices (Simply seeing different texts together engendered comparisons, showed up contradictions, etc etc.)\n2. Standardization\n3. Reorganizing texts and reference guides: rationalizing, codifying and cataloguing data\n4. Data collection - From Corrupted copy to improved edition, Collaboration\n5. Preservation (see Thomas Jefferson: make public to preserve; Anthropologists falsely think handwriting permanent)\n6. Amplification and reinforcement\n
  • “War President” could have been made by an artist and hung in an art gallery, or by a journalist or satirist and printed in a newspaper. But it wasn’t. It was made by a blogger who doesn’t even tell us his whole name. The image was made possible by public access to data that would previously have been public in a strict sense, but that wasn’t truly accessible by the general public. At least not in a manner \n
  • \n
  • Her ser dere et bilde som ble tegnet av Vannevar Bush sin memex. Den ble aldri bygd - men slik var den tenkt. \nDere ser det er to skjermer oppå pulten - her ville du kunne se de sidene fra ditt private bibliotek. Du skulle kunne ta notater som også ville lagres. Når du beveget deg gjennom alt stoffet ditt, ville memexen huske veien du hadde gått, slik at du neste gang lett kunne finne tilbake til de samme assosiasjonene du gjorde første gangen.\nBush så også for seg profesjonelle sti-makere som f.eks. ville lage stier gjennom et leksikon - når du la leksikonet inn i memexen din, ville da disse forhåndslagrede stiene være tilgjengelige for deg som dine egne.\nHvorfor jeg viser dere dette? Fordi Bush beskrev det som i dag er kjernen ved elektronisk tekstualitet: han beskrev hypertekst. Ikke-lineære, ikke-hierarkieske forbindelser mellom tekstbiter.\n
  • This is Jill’s favourite Vannevar quote.\nIt’s time to think about the scaffolding.\nThe links.\nWe can criticise the way this system works. We can reflect upon it, approve of it or try to subvert it. \nWe must not ignore it. \nThis standardisation of links and their value will shape what the future finds. It defines what can be found. \nIt defines knowledge.\n
  • Omtrent samtidig som Ted Nelson beskrev hypertekst gjorde Doug Engelbart og hans forskerteam oppfinnelser som ville gjøre hypertekst praktisk mulig.\nDe oppfant musen, som i dag er så selvsagt. Og de oppfant det grafiske grensesnittet: altså ”desktop’en” som vi bruker i dag, med vinduer, ikoner og menyer.\n
  • Vannevar Bush beskrev hypertekst, men han brukte ikke ordet. Memexen ble aldri laget. Men et par ti-år seinere var virkeligheten en annen, og noen begynte å se at datamaskiner - digitale, ikke analoge - ville være fremtidens arkiv og skriveverksted.\nDette er Ted Nelson - mannen som fant opp ordet hypertekst. Den gang var Ted Nelson en sosiologistudent. En visjonær. Han fortsatte ved å beskrive og prøve å gjennomføre en drøm han kalte Xanadu. En drøm om maskiner knyttet i nettverk over hele verden, med informasjon som deles med alle. Han så for seg Internett, men smartere, med innebygde ordninger for rettigheter, gjenbruk, og alt det som i årevis har fått advokatene til å klø seg i hodet.\nXanadu er fortsatt en drøm.\n
  • \n
  • \n

Transcript

  • 1. Informasjonsorganisering og hypertext DIKULT104 (våren 2011)
  • 2. Major shifts in communication• Writing (early writing existed 2-3000 years B.C.; writing was still controversial to Plato)• Printing press (China, 11 th century, Gutenberg, c. 1439)• Broadcast media (20 th century)• Internet (late 20 th century)
  • 3. Writing will destroy memoryPlato: Phaedrus
  • 4. Plato: Written texts are unresponsive SOCRATES: I cannot help feeling, Phaedrus, that writing is unfortunately like painting; for the creations of the painter have the attitude of life, and yet if you ask them a question they preserve a solemn silence. And the same may be said of speeches. You would imagine that they had intelligence, but if you want to know anything and put a question to one of them, the speaker always gives one unvarying answer. And when they have been once written down they are tumbled about anywhere among those who may or may not understand them, and know not to whom they should reply, to whom not: and, if they are maltreated or abused, they have no parent to protect them; and they cannot protect or defend themselves. PHAEDRUS: That again is most true.Plato: Phaedrus
  • 5. 1450s: The printing press http://encarta.msn.com/media_461532797/Early_Printing_Press.html
  • 6. Qualities of print that led tocultural change: 1. Dissemination 2. Standardisation 3. Reorganisation 4. Data collection 5. Preservation 6. Amplification and Reinforcement
  • 7. The “Wicked Bible” of 1631Typo: printers forgot the word “not” “Thou shalt commit adultery.” (= Du skal bryte ekteskapet.) (standardization)
  • 8. Ortelius: Theatrum orbis mundum (1570-1598) Collaboration, revisions, data collection.
  • 9. Qualities of print that led tocultural change: 1. Dissemination 2. Standardisation 3. Reorganisation 4. Data collection 5. Preservation 6. Amplification and Reinforcement
  • 10. “Freedom of the press is guaranteedonly to those who own one.” Abbott Joseph Liebling, 1960
  • 11. Technological determinism Technology causes our behaviour, our society and our culture to change.Cultural determinism Culture causes us to develop certain technologies.Co-construction Technology and culture develop together – they are mutually dependent.
  • 12. There is a new profession of trailblazers, those who find delight in thetask of establishing useful trails throughthe enormous mass of the commonrecord. The inheritance from the masterbecomes, not only his additions to theworlds record, but for his disciples theentire scaffolding by which they wereerected.Vannevar Bush, ”As We May Think”
  • 13. Hypertext”Well, by”hypertext” Imean non-sequentialwriting – textthat branchesand allowschoices to thereader, bestread at aninteractivescreen.”
  • 14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=En_2T7KH6RA 16