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# Statistics lecture 11 (chapter 11)

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### Statistics lecture 11 (chapter 11)

1. 1. 1
2. 2. • Analyze the relationship among two quantitative variables• Correlation determines the strength and direction between the variables• Regression determines a mathematical equation to explain the relation• Equation can be used for prediction 2
3. 3. • Regression Analysis – X → independent variable – Y → dependent variable – Independent variable influence depended variable – Sample consists of n pairs of observations – Ascertain if a relation exists – Examine the nature of the relation – Obtain an equation that relates Y to X – The magnitude in change of one variable due to change in another variable can be evaluated – Predict value of Y on different values of X 3
4. 4. • Regression Analysis – scatter plot – Effective way to display the relationship – X variable on horizontal axis – Y variable on vertical axis – Plot a dot for each pair of observations – Can determine the • Form – Linear or nonlinear • Direction – Positive or negative • Strength – Dots scattered close – strong relation – Large scatter – weak relation 4
5. 5. • Regression Analysis – scatter Number Cost per Units (x) unit (y) plot 10 R10,00 – Example 20 8,80 Relation between units produced – Two variables production and cost of 30 7,90 • 12.00 of producing units Cost 50 6,20 Cost per unit (R) • 10.00 Number of units produced 60 5,00 8.00 80 4,00 – Cost is depending on number of 6.00 100 3,50 units 4.00 2.00 120 2,00 0.00 0 30 60 90 120 150 From theof unitsit seems there is a negative Number graph relation between number of units and cost – more units then decrease in cost 5
6. 6. • Simple linear regression analysis – Which line fits the data best? Relation between units produced and cost of production 12.00 Cost per unit (R) 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0 30 60 90 120 150 Number of units 6
7. 7. • Simple linear regression analysis – Which line fits the data best? – Method of least squares –y=a+bx • b → slope • a → y intercept – ∑ei = 0 – ∑ei2 measures size of set of errors – Least squares method • Sum squares of errors the smallest 7
8. 8. • Least squares regression model – Population regression model • Y = α + βx + ε • ε random error – Sample regression model •ŷ=a+bx • b → change in y due to change in x • a → value of y when x = 0 8
9. 9. • Least squares Number Units (x) Cost per unit (y) regression model 10 R10,00 –ŷ = a + b x 20 8,80 S xy 30 7,90b and a  y  bx 50 6,20 S xx 60 5,00where, 80 4,00  x 100 3,50Sxx =  x  2 1 2 n 120 2,00  y ∑x = 470 ∑y = 47,4S yy =  y 2 1 2 n ∑x2 = 38300 ∑y2 = 335,54Sxy =  xy  1 n   x   y  x  58,75 y  5,925 ∑xy = 2033 9
10. 10. Number Cost per unit• Least squares Units (x) (y) regression model 10 R10,00 ŷ=a+bx 20 8,80 30 7,90 S xyb and a  y  bx 50 6,20 S xx 60 5,00where, 80 4,00Sxx =  x   x 2 1 2 n 100 3,50S yy =  y   y 2 1 2 n 120 2,00Sxy =  xy  1 n   x   y  ∑x = ? ∑y = ? ∑x2 = ? ∑y2 = ?Calculate Sxx, Syy, Sxy ∑xy = ? 10
11. 11. Number Cost per unit• Least squares Units (x) (y) regression model 10 R10,00 –ŷ = a + b x 20 8,80 30 7,90 S xy b and a  y  bx 50 6,20 S xx 60 5,00 Sxx =38300  1 (470) 2  10687,5 8 80 4,00 100 3,50 S yy =335.54  (47, 4)  54, 695 1 8 2 120 2,00 Sxy =2033  1 (470)  47, 4  8 ∑x = 470 ∑y = 47,4 ∑x2 = 38300 ∑y2 = 335,54  751, 75 x  58,75 y  5,925 ∑xy = 2033 11
12. 12. Note Syy not used• Least squares here but we will regression model use later!! Sxx =10687,5 S yy =54, 695 Sxy  751, 75 x  58, 75 y  5,925 S xy b a  y  bx S xx  5,925  (0, 07)(58, 75) 751, 75   10, 0375 10687,5  0, 07 → ŷ = 10,0375 – 0,07x
13. 13. • Least squares regression model –ŷ=a+bx – ŷ = 10,0375 – 0,07x y y y b>0 b=0 b<0 x x x Positive linear No relation Negative linear 13
14. 14. • Plot least squares regression model – ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07x If x = 30: Relation between units produced → ŷ = 10,04 - 0,07(30) and cost of production =7,94 12.00 If x = 90: Cost per unit (R) 10.00 8.00 6.00 → ŷ = 10,04 - 0,07(90) 4.00 = 3,74 2.00 0.00 0 30 60 90 120 150 Number of units 14
15. 15. EXAMPLEA car manufacturing business wants to find outhow the price of its car models depreciate withage. The business took a sample of 8 models andcollected the following information on age (yrs) andprice (R1000):- Age 8 3 6 9 2 5 6 3 Price 16 74 38 19 102 36 33 69Find the equation for the regression line with priceas dependent variable and age as independent 15
16. 16. Example answerExample 11.4, textbook, part 2, page 383 16
17. 17. PREDICTIONS IN REGRESSION ANALYSIS• A sample regression line usually obtained for the purpose of prediction• That is to estimate the value of Y corresponding to as selected value of x• Two ways to estimate y:- – Point estimate – Confidence interval 17
18. 18. • Prediction with regression model – Point estimate using ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07x – What will be the estimated cost if 60 units will be produced? – ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07(60)=R5,84 – What will be the estimated cost if 25 units will be produced? – ŷ = 10,075 – 0,07(25)=R8,29 18
19. 19. ERRORS• When regression line estimates every observed value has a predicted value• Predicted values will all fall exactly on regression line• All observed values will not fall on regression line• Difference between the two values is known as an ERROR and is denoted by ei 19
20. 20. ERRORS• Since the observed values deviate from the predicted values the regression equation is not a perfect predictor• Need to be able to assess the accuracy of the regression line in predicting the values and this is done by analysing the errors ei• STD DEV errors measures how widely observed values are spread around regression line• The smaller the STD DEV the closer the points cluster around line 20
21. 21. • Standard deviation Number Cost Predicted Difference ei of random errors Units per cost per = yi - ŷi (x) unit (y) unit (ŷ) – ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07x 10 10,00 9,34 0,66 ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07(10) = 9,34 – ei indicate how 8,64 0,07(20) the 20 8,80 8,64 0,16 observed and 30 7,90 7,94 -0,04 expected values 50 6,20 6,54 -0,34 differ 60 5,00 5,84 -0,84 – Standard deviation 80 4,00 4,44 -0,44 of errors measures 100 3,50 3,04 0,46 spread around the 120 2,00 1,64 0,36 line • Smaller - points closer to line 21
22. 22. • Standard deviation Number Units Cost per Predicted cost per Difference ei = yi - ŷi of random errors (x) unit (y) unit (ŷ) 10 10,00 9,34 0,66 S yy  bS xySe  20 8,80 8,64 0,16 n2 30 7,90 7,94 -0,04 54, 695  (0, 07)(751, 75) 50 6,20 6,54 -0,34 60 5,00 5,84 -0,84 82 80 4,00 4,44 -0,44 0,588 100 3,50 3,04 0,46 – Small 120 2,00 1,64 0,36 – Values close to line 22
23. 23. CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR PREDICTION• Different samples from the same population will give different point estimates• Likely that different samples from same population will give different estimated regression lines• Therefore need to construct a confidence interval for Y based on one sample that will give a more reliable estimate of Y• Generally called a PREDICTION INTERVAL 23
24. 24. • Confidence interval for prediction – Point estimate for 60 units • ŷ = 10,04 – 0,07(60)=R5,84 – Rather calculate a confidence interval for the mean value of y for a given x value – Use the t-distribution – Confidence interval for the mean of y, given x = x0  CONF  y| x0 1   a  bx0  tn  2 ; 1  s y x0   2   1  x0  x 2  where S y| x0  se2    n SXX    24
25. 25. • Confidence interval for prediction – CONF   y| x    a  bx0  tn  2 ; 1  s y x0  0 1  2   1  x0  x 2  where S y| x0  se2    n SXX     1  60  58, 75 2   0,5882    8 10687,5     0, 2080 25
26. 26. • Confidence interval for prediction – 95% confidence interval if x = 60 CONF  y| x0  1   a  bx0  tn  2 ; 1  s y x0   2   10, 04  0, 07(60)  t8 2;10,025 0, 2080     5,84  2, 447(0, 2080)   5,84  0,508976  5,33 ; 6,35 – 95% sure mean cost for 60 units will be between R5,33 an R6,35 26
27. 27. • Inferences about β (population slope) – b point estimate of β – T-distribution used to make inferences about β – Confidence interval for β CONF   1  b  tn  2 ; 1  sb   2  se where sb  sxx – If confidence interval includes 0 – no linear relation – If confidence interval not includes 0 – might be a linear relation 27
28. 28. • Inferences about β (population slope) – Confidence interval for β CONF   1  b  tn  2 ; 1  sb   2  se 0,588 where sb    0, 00569 sxx 10687,5 28
29. 29. • Inferences about β (population slope) – Confidence interval for β CONF   1  b  tn  2 ; 1  sb   2    0, 07  2, 447(0, 00569   0, 0839 ;  0, 0561 – 95% sure population slope will be between -0,0839 and -0,0561 – Interval does not include 0 – Might be a linear relation 29
30. 30. • Inferences about β (population slope) – Hypothesis test concerning β Testing H0: β = 0 for n < 30Alternative Decision rule: Test statistichypothesis Reject H0 if H1: β ≠ 0 |t| ≥ tn - 2;1- α/2 t b sb H1: β > 0 t ≥ tn-2;1- α se with sb  H1: β < 0 t ≤ -tn-2;1- α sxx 30
31. 31. • Solution -2,447 +2,447 – H0 : β = 0 Reject H0 Accept H0 Reject H0 – H1 : β ≠ 0 – α = 0,05 If H1 : β > 0 - test for positive slope se 0,588 sb   0, 00569β < 0 - test for negative slope sxx 10687,5 If H1 : b 0, 07   t–  12,346 sb 0, 00569 At α = 0,05 the slope is not zero – – Reject H0 there is a linear relation between number of units and cost per unit 31
32. 32. • Correlation Analysis – Strength of linear relationship – Direction of linear relationship • Positive • Negative – Population correlation coefficient ρ (rho) – Sample correlation coefficient r – r always between -1 and +1 • r = 1 perfect positive • r = -1 perfect negative • r = 0 no relationship • near 0 weak relationship • near -1 or +1 strong relationship 32
33. 33. Coefficient of correlation• The coefficient of correlation is used to measure the strength of association between two variables.• The coefficient values range between -1 and 1. – If r = -1 (negative association) or r = +1 (positive association) every point falls on the regression line. – If r = 0 there is no linear pattern.• The coefficient can be used to test for linear relationship between two variables. 33
34. 34. Perfect positive High positive Low positive r = +1 r = +0,9 r = +0,3Y Y Y X X XPerfect negative High negative No Correlation r = -1 r = -0,8 r=0Y Y Y X X X 34
35. 35. • Correlation coefficient r Number Units (x) Cost per unit (y)Sxx =38300  1 (470) 2  10687,5 8 10 R10,00S yy =335.54  1 (47, 4) 2  54, 695 8 20 8,80Sxy =2033  1 (470)  47, 4   751, 75 8 30 7,90 50 6,20 S xyr 60 5,00 sxx s yy 80 4,00 751, 75 100 3,50  120 2,00 10687,5(54, 695) ∑x = 470 ∑y = 47,4  0,98 ∑x2 = 38300 ∑y2 = 335,54 – Strong negative x  58,75 y  5,925 relationship ∑xy = 2033 35
36. 36. • Coefficient of determination Number Cost per Units (x) unit (y) r2 10 R10,00 – – 96% of the proportionthe cost of units20 explained8,80 Measures variation in of is by the variation inthe number of units produced changes in the dependent 30 7,90 – 4% is unexplained be variable y that can 50 6,20 explained by the 60 5,00 independent variable x 80 4,00 100 3,50 – % of total variation in y that 120 2,00 is explained by the ∑x = 470 ∑y = 47,4 regression model ∑x2 = 38300 ∑y2 = 335,54 x  58,75 y  5,925 r  0,98  96,04% 2 2 36 ∑xy = 2033
37. 37. • Hypothesis test concerning the correlation coefficient ρ Testing H0: ρ = 0 for n < 30Alternative Decision rule: Test statistichypothesis Reject H0 if r t H1: ρ ≠ 0 |t| ≥ tn - 2;1- α/2 1 r2 n2 37
38. 38. • Solution -2,447 +2,447 – H0 : ρ = 0 Reject H0 Accept H0 Reject H0 – H1 : ρ ≠ 0 – α = 0,05 r 0,98 t   12, 06 1 r2 1  (0,98) 2 – n2 82 At α = 0,05 the correlation coefficient is – Reject H0 not zero – there is a linear relation between number of units and cost per unit 38
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