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Lu3 – the planning phase lectures

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INPM210 - LU 3 - The Planning Phase

INPM210 - LU 3 - The Planning Phase

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  • 1. OBJECTIVESDescribe the planning phaseExplain value of proper planningLook at goals, objectives, deliverablesCreate project scope statementCreate communication planCreate WBS & Gantt Chart (MSProject)Create a network diagramConduct critical path analysisPlanning for required resourcesOver allocated resourcesBudgeting techniquesResponsibility assignment matrix
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONThis section dedicated to planning of theproject:- All about detail More effort more likelihood of success
  • 3. ADDING VALUE VS COST OF CHANGEBurke (2007):-PROJECT MANAGERS HAVE GREATEST CHANCE OF ADDINGVALUE AT THE BEGINNING OF A PROJECT- Cost of change minimised at planning phase because it is a “paper” exercise- Changes later in project involve additional work, wasted time and resourcesCLASS EXERCISERead case study page 83 of manual
  • 4. GOALS VS OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESBroadly defined objective intentionsGOALSMore detailed, focused aim
  • 5. USE “SMART” TO DEFINE GOALSSpecific – goals should be clearly defined, when, whereMeasurable – quantifiableAchievable – All parties must agree it is achievableRealistic – must be physically possible to attainTime Bound – must be driven by deadlines
  • 6. “SMART” EXAMPLEBuild a road to PretoriaPage 85
  • 7. INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE Think of a goal you wish to achieve personally Write it down Take the goal and write it the smart way10 minutesDo individually please!
  • 8. DELIVERABLES• Specific, measurable outcomes• Must be completed for goals to be achieved• SMART criterion can be used to write deliverable• Tangible results are outcome of deliverables• When all deliverables complete project is complete
  • 9. EXAMPLES OF DELIVERABLES• Obtain result of feasibility study by 01/08/2011• Create charter by 02/12/2011• Finalise construction drawings by 01/01/2012
  • 10. ASSUMPTIONS“……..the act or an instance of accepting withoutproof. Arrogance”• Negative connotations• Avoidance of responsibilities
  • 11. PROJECT SCOPEP87 of manual• Detailed document• Contains list of all goals and deliverables• Used to generate resource and cost estimates• Essential tool for guiding and controlling project• List of exclusions is KEY
  • 12. COMMUNICATION PLAN• Usually constructed in table form• Type of communication and person responsible listed• Type of communication includes: status reports, progress reports, forecasts etc.• Recipients , method and frequency of delivery listedSee p88 in manual
  • 13. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE“ …. a tool used to graphically display the deliverables of the project in a hierarchical fashion. It organises the work of the project in logical groupings and displays the information in a tree form or an outline form”
  • 14. GANTT CHARTS - BASIC
  • 15. GANTT CHART – MULTIPLE MILESTONE
  • 16. GANT CHART - HOURLY
  • 17. GANTT - SUMMARY
  • 18. GANTT – EARNED VALUE
  • 19. NETWORK DIAGRAMS AND CPA Network diagrams illustrate graphically the relationships between tasksNumber of different methods:- • Precedence Diagramming Method • Activity on Arrow Method • Activity on Node Method
  • 20. NETWORK DIAGRAM METHOD• Identify all tasks in a project• Sequence them• Present tasks, predecessors and durations in a table• Draw a network
  • 21. TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS Identify tasks with TASK PREDECESSOR DURATION no predecessor A - 2 B A 3Identify bursts – C A 2tasks sharing a D B 1commonpredecessor E C 5 F C 4 G E,F 7Identify merges –tasks with more H D,G 2than one I H 4predecessor NO PREDECESSOR THEN MUST BE FIRST TASK
  • 22. BURSTSActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
  • 23. MERGEActivity on NodePrecedence Diagramming Method
  • 24. INDIVIDUAL EXERCISE1. Identify the Bursts and Merges in the example below2. Draw a network for the situation using the Precedence Diagramming Method TASK PREDECESSOR A - B A C A D B,C E D F E
  • 25. NETWORK DIAGRAM BURST B A D E F C MERGE
  • 26. NETWORK EXAMPLES1. Complete the network examples worksheet2. Work individually!
  • 27. TASK BOXPrecedence Diagramming Method uses task boxes to represent tasks and connectors ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish YOU NEED TO MEMORISE THIS – IT WILL NOT BE GIVEN YOU IN EXAM
  • 28. TASKS, PREDECESSORS AND DURATIONS TASK PREDECESSOR DURATION A - 2 B A 3 C A 2 D B 1 E C 5 F C 4 G E,F 7 H D,G 2 I H 4 Draw a network diagram for this example Double-check the tasks against their predecessors to make sure it is correct
  • 29. TASKSPut task name into diagram ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  • 30. DURATION An activities duration will run from the start to the finish of the activity.. Time units can be expressed in hours, days, weeks, months, shifts – whatever is appropriate for the project. For simplicity we will always use days as our time unit. PUT DURATIONS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  • 31. DURATIONSAdd durations to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  • 32. CRITICAL PATHCalculate the critical path by adding up the durations on each pathThe longest time is the critical pathMark the critical path in a different colour on your diagram
  • 33. FLOAT Float is a measure of flexibility or surplus time in an activity’s schedule. It indicates how many days an activity can be delayed before if affects the project completion dateAll activities on the critical path have a float of 0Put this onto your diagram
  • 34. FLOATAdd floats to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  • 35. FLOAT – NON CRITICAL PATHSECOND LONGEST PATHTotal critical path duration – 2nd longest path duration = 2nd longest path floatPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAMTHIRD LONGEST PATHTotal critical path duration – 3rdlongest path duration = 3rd longest path floatPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAMWhen a task is part of more than 1 path the smallest number is always selected for the float
  • 36. EARLY START Early start is the earliest date by which an activity can start assuming all of the preceding activities are completed as plannedES = ES preceding task + duration preceding taskPUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  • 37. EARLY STARTAdd EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  • 38. EARLY FINISH Early finish is the earliest date by which an activity can be completed assuming all of the preceding activities are completed as planned EF = ES + Duration -1 PUT THIS ONTO YOUR DIAGRAM
  • 39. EARLY FINISH Add EARLY STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late FinishMake sure that the last tasks EF = critical path duration. If not you have made anerror
  • 40. LATE START Late start is the latest date an activity can finish to meet the planned completion date LS = ES + FLOAT PUT THIS ON YOUR DIAGRAM
  • 41. LATE STARTAdd LATE STARTS to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish
  • 42. LATE FINISH Late finish is the latest date an activity can finish to meet the planned completion date LF = EF + FLOAT PUT THIS ON YOUR DIAGRAM
  • 43. LATE FINISHAdd LATE FINISHES to your network as per the task box convention ES EF Early Start Early Finish FLOAT TASK DURATION LS LF Late Start Late Finish Check the late finishes at merges. The merging tasks should have same LF otherwise there is an error
  • 44. SUMMARY CPA ES EF F T D EF = ES + D – 1 LS LF LS = ES + F ES = ES PRECEDING TASK + D PRECEDING TASK LF = EF + F F = LS –ES OR LF-EF ES 1ST TASK =1 F CRITICAL PATH = 0 F ON MORE THAN 1 PATH SMALLEST SELECTED ES FROM MERGED TASKS SELECT HIGHEST ONE
  • 45. CPA EXERCISES PREPARE CPA FOR EACH OF THE EXAMPLES ON THE NETWORK EXAMPLE SHEET WORK INDIVIDUALLY
  • 46. IMPLICATION TO THE CRITICAL PATH• When float is used up critical path may change• Tasks on critical path have zero float, therefore a task with no float left will fall on critical path• This tells us that there may be more than one critical path AND the critical path is subject to change• Float in a task box represents float for entire path. If a task is delayed, all the succeeding tasks will also be delayed and their float days will be reduced
  • 47. PLANNING FOR REQUIRED RESOURCESMsProjectPage 107 manual
  • 48. BUDGETING TECHNIQUES• Carefully controlled budget good indication of projects financial state• Senior management VERY unhappy with poor budget control
  • 49. RESPONSIBILITY ASSIGNMENT MATRIX- ENSURES EVERYONE KNOWS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE- ENABLES PROJECT MANAGER TO KEEP TRACK OF DUTIES AND LIABILITIES EVERYONE KNOWS WHO IS RESPONSIBLE- Page 114 of manual
  • 50. RISK MANAGEMENTDEFINITION:risk:-A CHANCE OR POSSIBILITY OF DANGER, LOSS, INJURY ETC
  • 51. SOURCES OF RISKCan come from internal or external sourcesExternal – risks originate from macro – environment, includes political and legal issuesInternal - risks come from the project or from within the organisation, workforce problems, inadequate resources and outdated technologies
  • 52. RISK ELEMENTSRisks are analysed according to two variables:PROBABILITY – measured by a %100% - sure thing0% - impossible to happen70% - likely to happen30% - unlikely to happenAfter assessing probability need to asses the impact it will have if it happensIMPACT
  • 53. CONSTRUCT A RISK MATRIXSee page 116 in manual
  • 54. RESPONSE TO RISKSee table 3AJ page 117AvoidanceMitigationTransferenceAcceptance
  • 55. RISK MANAGEMENTShow risk management video
  • 56. ACCIDENTS AT WORKShow H&S video
  • 57. HEALTH & SAFETY AT WORKShow top 10 photos H&S