JILL MITCHELLEmail: email@example.comBackgroundBSc(Hons) Chemical EngineeringChartered/Professional EngineerMBA – Bristol Business School, UKCurrently studying for a PhD in Entrepreneurship at Pretoria University25 years+ industry experience, specifically brewing , food & packaging industry12 years+ small business management experience, UK & RSA:- setting up and running businesses
LEARNING OUTCOMES•Define projects.•Discuss the types of projects.•Define Project Management.•Describe the constraints experienced in a project.•Describe the importance of Project Management to the small business owner.•Describe the role of the Project Manager.•Describe the essential skills for successful project management.•Determine how Project Management and the Organisational Structure interlink.•Describe the Systems Approach.•Describe the three (3) Spheres Model and the four (4) Frames of Organisations.•Differentiate between the different phases of a project.•Describe the Project Processes.•Describe the nine (9) knowledge areas of the Project Management Body of knowledge.•Use the tools of the trade: Introduction to Excel and MS Project.
RECOMMENDED READINGLewis, J. (2007). Fundamentals of Project Management. Amacom, New York.Burke, R. (2007) Project Management Techniques. (College Edition). Burke Publishing.Heldman, K. (2005) Project Management Jumpstart Alameda, SYBEX inc.
INTRODUCTIONPurposeExplain & apply the basic principles of project management- Project management principles- Phases of project- Roles within project management- Feasibility- Execution of project plans- Computerised project management systems
INTRODUCTION- Need to apply theory to practice- Cannot pass simply by memorising facts- Need a deep understanding of theory- Conceptualise and relate to real world scenarios
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – HOW NOT TO!Monkeys 01 0002
PROJECT DEFINITION” A temporary endeavour, with a definite beginning and end that produces a unique product or service with dedicated resources. Ongoing operations have no definite beginning or end and produce the same product over and over”(Heldman,2005: pp. 2-3)“ A temporary endeavour undertaken to produce a unique product, service or result”(PMBOK, 2004: p5)
TYPES OF PROJECT- Administrative Projects- Construction Projects- Computer Software Development- Design of Plans Projects- Equipment or System Installation Projects- Event or Relocation Projects- Maintenance of Process Industry Projects- New Project Development Projects- Research Projects
GROUP EXERCISEMatching Project typesGroups of 4 peopleDiscuss and agree which category each project described comes into20 minutes
PROJECT MANAGEMENT DEFINED“ …… the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”(Springer et al, 2006: pp 1-3)“… application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to achieve project requirements. Project management is accomplished through the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring, controlling & closing”(PMBOK, 2004: p8)
PROJECT MANAGEMENT DEFINED- Approach to management of work within the constraints of time, cost and performance requirements- Body of knowledge concerned with principles, techniques and tools used in planning, control, monitoring and review of projects- (businessdictionary.com)
CASE STUDYLENOVO – THE USE OF PM TO IMPROVE BUSINESS PERFORMANCEGROUPS OF 430 MINUTESRead case studyDiscuss:-1. What alternatives Lenovo could have considered other than the PM route2. What key areas of PM do you think made this approach so successful for Lenovo3. What difficulties/barriers do you think the Lenovo senior management team experienced when introducing this new management concept
HISTORY OF PROJECT MANAGEMENTThe History of Project Management
PROJECT CONSTRAINTS Changes in cost Changes in Changes in quality time Changes in scope Springer et al, (2006)
CONSTRAINTSSCOPEAll activities that have to be performed on the projectCOSTResources cost money. Bring in project at lowest cost BUT to agreed standardTIMECompletion date is critical. Many construction companies incur serious financialpenalties if project is delivered lateQUALITYStandard of workmanship and materials required by client. Crucial that agreed priorto project commencement. Written and agreed specification preferable
OTHER CONSTRAINTSClient satisfactionAvailability of skilled workersGovernment legislationWeatherTechnical problems etc.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND THE SMALLBUSINESS OWNERCase Study:-Group exercise4 people per group20 minutes1. Make a list of all possible people involved with a building project2. List the possible roles that Andrew had to fulfil to build the house successfully
ROLE OF PROJECT MANAGER“…..the single point of responsibility, it is the project manager who integrates And coordinates all the contributions, and guides them to successfully complete the project”Burke (2007:p26)
SUCCESSFUL PROJECT MANAGEMENT….is accomplished through meeting the stakeholders’ needs and expectations, which will need to be clearly defined and documented
SKILLS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT- Communication skills key to success- Organisation techniques- Time management skills- Ability to prioritise- Information management proficiency- People management- General management skills
PROJECT MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE(SPRINGER AT AL)FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURECompany structured according to funtional departmentsDepartments probably work in relative isolationDirectives come from the top and have a hierarchy down to staffSimple to understandReporting lines are clearTraditional structure – most companies configure toTime consuming and inflexibleNot good in a fast changing business environmentProject managers usually have little power
PROJECT MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE(SPRINGER AT AL)PROJECT STRUCTUREUsually designed for companies that complete projects for clientsProject Manager in a position of authorityProject Manager needs extensive experienceDifficult to keep key people as not always projects availableMany Project Managers employed on contract basis
PROJECT MANAGEMENT & ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE(SPRINGER AT AL)MATRIX STRUCTUREMixture between functional and projectWeak form: functional heads have more power than project managersStrong form: project managers have more power than functional headsBalanced Form: functional and project managers share power
INDIVIDUAL EXERCISESummarise the advantages and disadvantages of the three different management structures:-15 minutes Structure Advantage Disadvantage Functional Project Matrix
GROUP EXERCISE PROJECT PLANYou are required to design an “APP” for the Iphone Develop detailed working planSelect project team and appoint responsibilities ScheduleBrainstorm ideas for proposed application ResourcesESTABLISH PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE CostsDefine responsibilities for each team member REPORT BACKEstablish method of managing the project Prepare 2 page summary to include:-PROJECT DEFINITION Details of “APP”Confirm;- Project team and their responsibilitiesObjectives Resource planScope Time planBenefits A summary of the risks and benefits of planRisk Hand in the report at the end of sessionDEVELOP IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH 4. Please ensure that all names ofDevelop resource plan project team are included in the report.PeopleBudgetMaterials
REVISION EXERCISE1. Explain the difference between the terms “project” and “project management”2. Explain how different constraints can possibly affect one another.3. Explain why good project planning is crucial in the small business environment4. Describe the role and function of a project manager in a project5. Name the nine knowledge areas defined by PMBOK
ICE TASK NO 1Using pages 13 -43 in your Project Management manual please complete :-Using the website www.worditout.com create a word cloud using the key principles and concepts of the theory that you have learned in the section of the manual detailed above. Print the word cloud and bring to the next lecture.
EXCEL SPREADSHEET ACTIVITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Budget COMMENTSDesign "app" 35000Prepare marketing plan 5000Prepare business plan 7500Develop sales presentation 5000Present to Apple 500Approval 0Upload APP 1500 TOTAL 54500Sales & Marketing budget 10000Design and implementation Budget 36500