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2008 Memory Revision

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Psychology revision unit 3

Psychology revision unit 3

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  • 1. Area of Study #1 MEMORY
  • 2. Unit 4 Exam Structure - Memory
    • First section on Exam
    • 40% of questions on Memory – every dot point will be covered
    • This equates to
      • 22 MCQs
      • About 12-14 marks of SAQs
  • 3. dp 1- encoding, storage and retrieval
    • Encoding – formatting information so it can be processed and retained
      • how you put it in (visual, auditory, kinaesthetic processing, elaborative encoding)
    • Storage - which system will it go in? What will it be linked to?
    • Retrieval - getting it out of memory, bringing it from LTM into STM for use.
  • 4. dp 2 - measures of retention: recall, recognition, relearning and the relative sensitivity of each measure
    • Relearning (MOST SENSTIVE)
      • know the formula
      • savings score = %age of info saved
    • Recognition
      • Definition vs example
    • Recall (LEAST SENSITIVE)
      • Different types: serial, free & cued
  • 5. dp 2 - measures of retention: recall, recognition, relearning and the relative sensitivity of each measure
    • Recall types
      • Cued recall
        • (more sensitive than free recall)
      • Free recall
      • Serial recall
  • 6. dp 3 - relationship between, and properties of, sensory memory (iconic and echoic), short-term memory and long-term memory;
    • Atkinson-Shiffron Model
    Long Term Memory Short Term Memory Information is Forgotten! Maintenance rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal/ encoding Attention Sensory Memory
  • 7. dp – 3 cont.,
    • Comparison Table
    Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Duration Iconic Echoic 1/3 3 – 4 Sec sec 12 – 30 seconds Unlimited/ forever Capacity unlimited 7 ± 2 ‘pieces’ of info unlimited
  • 8. dp – 3 cont….sensory memory (iconic and echoic)
    • Unlimited capacity
    • Limited duration (1/3- 4 secs)
    If you hear this lion roar, your echoic memory would retain the auditory info for 3 to 4 secs. However if you see the lion, your iconic memory would hold the visual info for only about 1/3 sec. ICONIC MEMORY ECHOIC MEMORY
  • 9. dp 4 - short-term memory capacity, effects of rehearsal (maintenance and elaborative), chunking, consolidation theory
    • STM Duration – how long it lasts?
    • About 20 seconds (12-30 secs)
    • Rehearsal to keep in STM
      • Maintenance Rehearsal - Involves going over and over information (using rote repetition) without adding any meaning to keep the information in STM
        • (keeps the info. in STM to increase the duration, but with enough rote repetition/rehearsal the info. may go through to LTM)
  • 10. dp 4 - short-term memory capacity, effects of rehearsal (maintenance and elaborative), chunking, consolidation theory
      • Maintenance Rehearsal
        • Eg: Looking up and repeating a phone number over and over until you dial the number and then it is quickly forgotten/replaced
    • Rehearsal to move info. from STM
      • Elaborative Rehearsal - Involves going over and over information whilst adding meaning by linking to information already in LTM
        • (transfers the info. from STM to LTM)
  • 11. Sample Exam question MR v ER
    • Question 3 (Section B VCAA 2004)
    • State one similarity and one difference between maintenance and elaborative rehearsal. (2 marks)
    • Possible Answer:
    • Similarities – any of:
      • both involve mental repetition of the items
      • both improve memory
      • both may lead to encoding.
    • Differences – any of:
      • E.R. active, M.R. more passive
      • E.R. involves meaning, M.R. no meaning
      • E.R. involves linking to other material in LTM, M.R. no linking
      • E.R. transfers to LTM, M.R. often stays in STM.
  • 12. dp 4 –cont. Capacity of STM
    • Capacity – how much can STM hold?
      • Average person: 7 ± 2 units/items (5-9 items)
    • Chunking increases capacity
      • Definition of chunking: grouping single units into a meaningful complete whole unit - can use an example:
        • 544157226638 chunked to 5441 5722 6638
        • weallenjoychocolate ----- We all enjoy chocolate
      • Digit Span Test developed magic number 7 ± 2
  • 13. dp 4 –cont. Consolidation theory
    • Consolidation theory
      • Physical/chemical changes take place in the brain (neurons) when something new is learnt and a memory is made
      • This process takes time
      • (approx 30 minutes)
      • If interrupted during this time period – consolidation of the memory may not occur!
      • Theory supported by research – ECT patients
  • 14. dp 5 - working memory
    • Baddeley’s model: a function of STM in which small amounts of information can be processed
    Central Executive Phonological Loop Visuo-Spatial Sketch Pad Forms associations with other components Enables the retrieval if items from LTM to be associated with other items in working memory Hold traces of acoustic or speech-based material for about two seconds unless it is maintained through the use of the second part, articulatory sub-vocal rehearsal Visual working memory is responsible for the temporary storage and manipulation of visual and spatial information.
  • 15. dp 6 - long-term memory types (procedural, declarative, episodic, semantic) and …
    • Types
    Procedural Declarative Episodic Semantic Long Term Memory
  • 16. dp 6 - long-term memory types (procedural, declarative, episodic, semantic) and …
    • Types
    Procedural Long Term Memory
    • ‘ How to’ type memories
    • Eg: Our memory of the actions
    • required for:
        • how to ride a bike or
        • how to tie your shoe laces
    • These memories are less likely to be forgotten with age
  • 17. dp 6 - long-term memory types (procedural, declarative, episodic, semantic) and …
    • Types
    Declarative Episodic Semantic Long Term Memory
    • Episodic LTMs
      • Autobiographical factual memories which are personal and are linked to a time and place
    • Semantic LTMs
      • General knowledge factual information and rules about the world
  • 18. dp 6 - long-term memory types (procedural, declarative, episodic, semantic) and …
    • Examples of types of LTMs
    • Episodic Semantic Procedural
    • Last birthday? Name the largest How to play mountain in Aust. baseball
  • 19. Sample Exam Question
    • Question 4 (Section B VCAA 2003)
    • In which form of long-term memory would the following pieces of information be stored? (3 marks)
    • Indicate your answer by placing a tick (  ) in the correct boxes.
       OR  Semantic Episodic Procedural i. your name ii. how to knit iii. your seat on an aeroplane
  • 20. dp 6 cont…..organisation of information in LTM (as illustrated by semantic network theory)
    • Semantic Network Theory
    • Proposes that information in LTM is stored in an organised way involving
    • Nodes (concepts)
    • Links
    • Hierarchies
    node node node links node node node node
  • 21. dp 6 cont…..organisation of information in LTM (as illustrated by semantic network theory)
    • Eg >>>
  • 22. dp 6 cont…..organisation of information in LTM (as illustrated by semantic network theory)
    • Eg >>>
  • 23. dp 7 - Serial position effect;
    • Primacy effect
      • Items at the beginning of the list may be rehearsed and retained in LTM = recall
    • Recency effect
      • Items at the end of the list may still be in STM
        • (only if recall is immediate and
        • Recall is not in serial order) = recall
  • 24. dp 7 - Serial position effect cont; Percentage recall rate for items recalled immediately after learning from a serial list Average 61% Average 79% Average 27%
  • 25. Sample exam question
    • Question 9 (Section A VCAA 2004)
    • The primacy effect occurs because the items at the beginning of a serial list are
    • A. more likely to be transferred to long-term memory.
    • B. still held in short-term memory at the time of immediate recall of the list.
    • C. forgotten as new items enter short-term memory.
    • D. interfered with by the later items in the list.
  • 26. dp 8 -theories of forgetting (retrieval failure theory, interference theory, motivated forgetting, decay)
    • Forgetting: inability to retrieve previously stored information
    • Organic causes - Amnesia
    • Non-organic causes
      • Cue dependant forgetting
        • Retrieval failure theory
      • Trace dependant forgetting
        • Motivated Forgetting
        • Interference Theory
        • Decay Theory
  • 27. Cont.,
    • Retrieval failure theory
    • Forget because the cue used does not lead us to the information (memory)
      • Linked to semantic network theory
      • Cue dependant forgetting
      • May lead to partial retrieval
      • Theory supported by the tip of
      • the tongue phenomena
  • 28. Cont.,
    • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
      • A state or feeling that occurs when individuals are aware of knowing something, confident they will eventually remember it, but are not able to retrieve it from memory at that particular time.
  • 29. Cont.,
    • Motivated Forgetting
    • Blocking of memory from conscious awareness usually due to emotional reaction to memory
      • Based on Repression (unconscious blocking) and/or Suppression (conscious blocking)
      • Freud - defence mechanisms
  • 30.
    • Interference theory
    • When recall of information is interrupted by other memories
      • Occurs more frequently when the information is similar in nature
      • When the information is learned and remembered close in time
    Cont.,
  • 31.
    • Proactive Interference
      • previously (old) learnt info interferes with encoding and storage of recently (new) learnt info…. trouble recalling new info!
        • Eg: Old pin no. stays in your memory and stops you from retrieving your new one
    • Retroactive Interference
      • recently learnt (new) info interferes with ability to retrieve previously learnt (older) info… trouble recalling old info!
        • Eg: New class names stops me from retrieving names of last year’s class members
    Cont.,
  • 32.
    • Decay Theory : If neural pathway that stores memory trace is not frequently activated then it begins to decay (and fades with disuse over time)
      • “ use it or lose it”
    Cont.,
  • 33.
    • Decay Theory
    • EXAMPLE OF DECAY THEORY: While Emma is at University she studies Escher’s work. 20 years later, her memory has faded considerably because she has not recalled the information since her days at University.
    Cont., Original Memory Faded Memory
  • 34. dp 9 - The features of the forgetting curve
    • Shows the pattern (rate and amount) of forgetting over time- in a graphical representation
  • 35. dp 9 - The features of the forgetting curve
    • Shows the pattern (rate and amount) of forgetting over time
    • Studied by Ebbinghaus using nonsense syllables
  • 36. dp 10 - Organic causes of forgetting (amnesia both anterograde and retrograde) and….
    • Organic – means physical damage to the brain causing memory loss
      • Amnesia: 2 types…
        • Anterograde Amnesia
        • Retrograde Amnesia
    Time of Head Trauma ANTEROGRADEAMNESIA RETROGRADE AMNESIA Types of memories affected???
  • 37.
    • Effect on STM
      • Simple (OK) vs Complex task (not OK)
    • Effect on LTM
      • Type of memory more susceptible…
      • Episodic
      • Caused by
        • Lack of motivation
        • Lack of confidence
        • Slowing of CNS (cognitive slowing)
        • Measure of retention used (recall worse
        • than recognition)
    dp 10 cont,….memory decline over the life span
  • 38.
    • Researchers found that participants became less able to recall class mates names as they got older, but their ability to recognise names and faces differed little in relation to age.
    dp 10 cont,….memory decline over the life span
  • 39. dp 11 - Memory enhancement through quality of encoding (organisation) and…
    • Elaborative encoding
      • Self Referencing
    • More meaningful the material the more memory…
  • 40. dp 11 - The use of context dependent cues, state dependent cues and…
    • Relying on prompts to aid retrieval
      • Context = external environment such as sights, sounds, temperature, objects etc.
      • State = internal environment such as stress levels, mood etc
    • Can increase memory by 20%
  • 41. dp 11 - Mnemonic devices (narrative chaining and method of loci)
    • Mnemonic – tool used to enhance memory
    • Rely on Association with info already in LTM and Visualisation
    • Examples:
      • Narrative Chaining: creating a story
      • Method of Loci:
  • 42. Narrative Chaining
    • Linking unrelated items to form a meaningful sequence (story) or narrative (relates to organisation of words)
      • “ One day Snow white took the 7 dwarfs on a holiday to STM land. 2 of the dwarfs decided to stay behind (-2) but along the way they picked 2 extra dwarfs (+2) with them so it was a tight squeeze in the car. When she arrived at the hotel there were only 3 chunky beds so the Manager had to ‘group’ the dwarfs, 3 to a bed to make sure he could accommodate them all….”
  • 43. Method of Loci
    • Uses a familiar sequences of locations (already in LTM) to associate (link) information to and relies on visualisation of the location to act as a cue to the information as it is already in LTM.
      • We visualise each item (to be remembered) as placed in each position along the location path (eg: around your house) and then take a
      • mental walk along the path to collect
      • each item
  • 44. I can fool people into believing I cooked a great dinner! I would like to have volunteers to come and clean the dishes What goes on in there will remain confidential! Set of scales in the bathroom remind me of legal systems based on Justice Respect people and don’t leave it smelly! If you get kicked out of Bedroom 1 you have to withdraw to here Last thing I do is get out of the car – debriefing comes at the end! I can see the benefits of washing and ironing! Where I keep my documentation and would sign papers! When I have guests I act very ‘professional’ – on my best behaviour! EG. Method of Loci
  • 45. dp 12 - Formation of operational hypotheses and…
    • Operation definitions
      • explains the methods/procedures used to measure the variables
      • Eg. aggression – measured by the number of times a child kicks another child
    • Operational Hypothesis – needs to incorporate population, operationalised IV and DV and a change/direction.
      • An apple a day keeps the doctor away: VCE students from Shepparton who eat least 1 apple per day for three weeks will reduce by at least 20% the number of times they visit the doctor in a year compared to those who don’t eat an apple a day.
  • 46. dp 12 - Interpretation of p values
    • Probability that ‘chance’ caused the change in DV instead of the IV
    • p≤0.05 – probability that chance caused the change in the DV is less than 5 in every 100 results (5%)
    • Can use stricter ‘rules’ (eg p<0.01, p<0.001 etc)
    Hint: the smaller the p-value the better the results are!
  • 47.
    • Statistical tests
      • T-tests produce p (probability) values
        • The difference in the mean scores is statistically significant (if the p value is set at a significance level of .05) and the p value comes out at anything .05 or lower
      • Chi- squared Test
    dp 12 - Interpretation of p values cont,
  • 48.
    • P values
    • Which are significant at an acceptance level of .05?
      • .09 .045 .05 .07 .001 .051 .006
    • Put in order of significance level
        • .07 .035 .08 .05 .003 .051 .0001
    dp 12 - Interpretation of p values cont,
  • 49. Sample Exam Question
    • Question 16 (section B VCAA 2004)
    • The school librarian, is trying to find out how to make more students return library books on time. She decides to test two conditions. She places half the books in a standard cover, & the other half in a bright orange cover. She then records whether the books are returned on time or not. Nikita finds that the books in the bright orange cover are returned at a slightly higher rate than books in the standard cover ( p > .05).
    • The results are as follows.
    • a. What is the independent variable in this study? (1 mk)
    Standard Cover Bright Orange Cover Book returned on time 72% 74%
  • 50. Sample Exam Question
    • Question 16 (section B VCAA 2004)
    • The school librarian, is trying to find out how to make more students return library books on time. She decides to test 2 conditions. She places half the books in a standard cover, & the other half in a bright orange cover. She then records whether the books are returned on time or not. Nikita finds that the books in the bright orange cover are returned at a slightly higher rate than books in the standard cover ( p > .05).
    • b. What conclusion can be drawn from the results of this study? (1 mark)
  • 51.
    • Q16 a
    • Either of:
    • standard cover/bright orange cover
    • colour of book cover
    • Q16 b
    • Either of:
    • there is no (statistically) significant difference in the return rates for the two types of book cover
    • no conclusion can be drawn.
  • 52. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
    • Ethics – refers to moral principles and standards that guide individuals to distinguish between right and wrong actions
    • Psychologists have a code of ethics which provides guidelines that must be followed when conducting research.
  • 53. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
    • Integrity: A commitment by the researcher to the search for knowledge, to recognised principles for conducting research and in the honest and ethical conduct of research (including reporting).
    • Respect for persons: Proper regard by the researcher for the welfare, rights, beliefs, perceptions, customs and cultural heritage of all individuals involved in research.
    • Beneficence: The researcher’s responsibility to maximise potential benefits of the research and minimise risks of harm or discomfort to all research participants.
    • Justice: Ensuring a fair distribution of benefits and burdens within the population of research interest, as well as for any research participant.
  • 54. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
    • Role of the researcher
      • When planning research, the researcher must undertake an evaluation of the ethical issues, ensuring that the welfare of the participants is the primary concern.
        • Informed consent
        • Debriefing
        • Deception in research
        • Professional conduct
  • 55. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
    • Role of the researcher
      • When planning research, the researcher must undertake an evaluation of the ethical issues, ensuring that the welfare of the participants is the primary concern.
        • Informed consent
        • Debriefing
        • Deception in research
        • Professional conduct
  • 56. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
      • Informed consent procedures: participants must be appropriately informed about the study & have appropriately documented consent, ie. consent form.
      • Deception in research: If ‘knowing’ would change DV then you can deceive. Note: In all cases involving deception, participants must be debriefed at the conclusion of the study.
      • Debriefing: opportunity for participants to obtain all appropriate information about the nature, results and conclusion of the research.
  • 57. dp 13 - Ethical principles in the conduct of psychological research related to memory
    • Participant rights
      • Confidentiality: details of a participants’ involvement must not be disclosed without their consent.
      • Voluntary participation: participants’ involvement must be voluntary, not coerced/pressured to be involved.
      • Withdrawal rights: the researcher must inform the participant that they are free to participate, decline to participate or withdraw from a study at any time.
  • 58. B e s t W i s h e s