The Broadcasters - Ch 4 and 5 Presentation Transcript
The Broadcasters: Ch 4 – Popular Radio and Ch 5 – Television and the Power of Visual Culture While these slides were created using material from the above textbook, they are not official presentations from the publisher, Bedford/St. Martin’s. In addition, many slides may contain professor’s supplemental notes on various media topics.
“Radio affects most people intimately, person-to-person, offering a world of unspoken communication between writer-speaker and listener. That is the immediate aspect of radio. A private experience.” Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media 1964
“Television is the medium from which most of us receive our news, sports, entertainment, cues for civic discourse, and, most of all, our marching orders as consumers.”Frank Rich, New York Times
Brief History of Radio and Television The Rise and Fall of the Networks and the Transition to Today Watch for Key Terms… The Telecommunications Act of 1996, FCC and Ownership Measuring the Audience - How Ratings and Markets Work Noncommercial Broadcast Stations Today’sTrends
Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves--Broadcast waves (radio and television) are sent through the air using the electromagnetic spectrum. Hence, the “airwaves” that you and I—the public—own.
Radio Came First: A Brief History of Radio’s Inventors Radio technology was built off of the existing telegraph. But this Samuel Morse invention needed wires and cables to work. Inventors to know: James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz Guglielmo Marconi: advances “wireless telegraphy”, filed patent in 1894; known as the “father of radio”; in 1943, the US Supreme Court overturned his patent and deemed Nikola Tesla the inventor of radio Lee De Forest: developed the Audion or vacuum tube—which captured radio signals and amplified them. This was essential to the later transmission of voices and music Reginald Fessenden: credited with first voice broadcast, 1906 Edwin Armstrong: developed FM radio in the early 1930’s; Helped fix the electrical interference problem of radio Timeline p. 110
Brief History of Television Inventors Vladimir Zworykin: (researcher at Westinghouse) invented the iconoscope, the first TV camera tube to convert light rays into electric signals—1928 patent Some Statistics:
1948-1% of homes had a television
1953-more than 50% had one
Early 1960’s-more than 90% of all homes had a television set
Patent Wars!! Philo Farnsworth (potato farmer) transmitted the first electronic TV picture in 1927; later, he conducted first public demonstration in 1934 Timeline p.
The Rise and Fall of the Networks Both Radio and TV Enjoyed a So-Called “Golden Age” or “Network Era” CBS, NBC, and ABC – the networks got their start and foothold in radio Network Decline in TV: Technological changes VCRs, DVRs, Time-shifting (taping shows and watching them later) Government regulation Prime Time Access Rule (6:30-7:00 Central) – must go to local stations Development of new networks Fox (Simpsons, Married with Children) UPN & WB = The CW (America’s Next Top Model, Dawson’s Creek, Felicity, Moesha) Network Decline in Radio: The public’s fascination with its new friend television and subsequent move of radio programming to TV The transition to an automobile culture The rise of “format radio” A new level of portability, thanks to developing technology Big Three networks have lost more than 50% of audience since 1980s.
Network Decline Forces Commercial Radio to Transition, Giving Us Format Radio Can you put a local St. Louis station’s name Next to each of these? Format Radio: the concept of radio stations playing specific styles (or formats) geared to listeners’ age, race, or gender; management, rather than deejays controlled programming each hour; uses a program log, pictured on p. 127 p. 130 – graph of Most Popular Radio Formats in the United States
Morning Drive 6-9a.m.
Afternoon Drive 4-7p.m.
Television Technology Transition: Analog v. Digital Rabbit Ears v. Converter Box By June 2009 TVs’s must have a “converter box” to transcode the digital signal Means a clearer picture Means stations can now send out four or five signals, where before, they could only send out one—this is due to the compression of the signal from analog to digital
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 Relaxed ownership rules—meaning companies could own more than the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) previously regulated From 1996-2004, the number of radio station owners declined by 34%!!!! Owners: Most commercial stations are owned by a “group owner” Radio: Clear Channel Communications is the LARGEST owner of commercial radio stations – 1,150; Other big names: Citadel, Cumulus and Cox Television Big Names: (besides the O&O’s-network “owned and operated” stations) Tribune, Gannett, Hearst, Sinclair, Belo and Cox
How Can We Measure Who is Watching and Listening? Sampling: surveying a handful of watchers and listeners to gauge the habits of a large group Radio Arbitron Markets Focus on seasons: Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall Continuous, except for the month of December Portable People Meters (PPMs): electronic devices that people wear which detect broadcast digital signals Television Nielsen Markets Focus on four “sweeps” months: November, February, May and July Diaries: booklets people fill out, detailing what they are watching or listening to Why is audience measurement important? It sets rates for advertisers!!
TV Economics: Network Prime-Time and Advertising Costs p. 171 – Costs in 2008 for average costs for 30-second commercial
“Since its creation, commercial television has tended to serve the interest of profit more than those of democracy. And networks have proved time and again that they are more interested in delivering audiences to advertisers than providing educational and provocative programming to citizens and viewers.” Media & Culture
Noncommercial Radio and Television Created under the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB); Both rely on “corporate sponsorships” National Public Radio (NPR) St. Louis station: 90.7 KWMU
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
St. Louis station: KETC Channel 9
Why create and support broadcasting that isn’t reliant on advertisers?
Television: Latest Technology Cable YouTube Hulu.com Time Shifting DVRs
Which do you spend more time with? Television or The Internet?
Do any of these help or hurt traditional television?
Radio: Latest Technology Internet Radio Satellite Radio Podcasting iPhone Apps like “I Heart Radio” Pandora
The youth audience of radio is in decline—down 15% between 1999 and 2006 among 12-24 year olds, who have embraced iPods and the Internet.