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Appendicular Lower Limbs
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Appendicular Lower Limbs

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The Lower Limbs of the Appendicular Skeleton

The Lower Limbs of the Appendicular Skeleton


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  • 1. AppendicularSkeleton
    The Lower Limbs
  • 2. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
    Formed by the two coxal bones (a.k.a. ossacoxae) that form the hip bones
    Coxal bones are attached to the sacrum to form the bony pelvis
    The bony pelvis holds the entire weight of the upper body and protects the organs of the lower abdomen
    The pelvis is divided into two sections—false pelvis and true pelvis
    False pelvis is area between wings of hip
    True pelvis is open space between the bones, anterior to sacrum and coccyx
  • 3. TheLowerLimbs –PelvicGirdle
  • 4. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
    Each hip bone is made by the fusion of three bones—ilium, ischium, and pubis
    Ilium is the largest bone of the coxa
    Connects to the alae of the sacrum
    Form the superior, winged section of hip bone and the superior part of the acetabulum
    Iliac crest is edge of the ilium that stretches from the anterior superior spine to the posterior superior spine
  • 5. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
  • 6. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
    The ischium is also called the “sitdown bone”
    Forms the most inferior part of the coxa
    Ischial tuberosity is roughened area of most inferior point that receives the body weight when sitting
    Ischial spine is a projection on the posterior side of the ischium, above the ischial tuberosity
    Greater sciatic notch is above the ischium, below the posterior inferior iliac spine that allows nerves and blood vessels to pass from the back of the pelvis to the thigh
  • 7. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
  • 8. TheLowerLimbs –PelvicGirdle
    The pubis is the most anterior part of the pelvis
    The ramus of each pubic bone forms the anterior side of the obturator foramen (the ischial ramus forms the posterior), which allows blood vessels and nerves to pass into the anterior part of the thigh
    The pubic symphysis is the cartilaginous point of fusion for the pubic bones in the front
    The acetabulum is the socket formed by the three bones where the thigh bone articulates with the hip
  • 9. TheLowerLimbs – PelvicGirdle
  • 10. TheLowerLimbs – Thigh
    Thigh consists of one bone—the femur—that is the heaviest, strongest bone in the body
    The proximal end of the femur includes a head, neck, and trochanters
    The head is rounded and fits deep into the acetabulum of the hip
    The neck is the constricted part of bone just inferior/lateral to the head
    The greater trochanter is a projection on the top of the bone for muscle attachment
    The less trochanter is a projection inferior to the neck that allows for muscle attachment
  • 11. TheLowerLimbs – Thigh
    The gluteal tuberosity is a ridge on the posterior that runs the length of the shaft and attaches to the gluteal muscles
    The distal end of the femur includes the lateral and medial condyles, separated by the intercondylar notch
  • 12. TheLowerLimbs – Thigh
  • 13. TheLowerLimbs – Leg
    The leg consists of two bones—the tibia and fibula
    The tibia and fibula are connected by an interosseous membrane
    The tibia is also called the shinbone
    Larger, more medial bone of the leg
    Articulates with femur at the medial and lateral condyles (separated by the intercondylar eminence)
    Tibial tuberosity is roughened surface on anterior side of tibia that serves as a point of attachment for the patellar ligament
    Anterior crest runs the length of the anterior side of the tibia
    Medial malleolus is process on distal, medial end of tibia that forms inner bulge of ankle
  • 14. TheLowerLimbs – Leg
    The fibula is the smaller, lateral bone of the leg
    Does not articulate with the femur
    Sticklike structure that forms joints with the tibia proximally and distally
    Lateral malleolus forms the outer part of the ankle
  • 15. TheLowerLimbs – Leg
  • 16. TheLowerLimbs – Foot
    Foot has three sections (like the hand) with the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
    There are 7 tarsal bones that form the inner ankle and the heel
    5 metatarsals form the sole of the foot
    14 phalanges form the toes; labeled proximal, middle, and distal like the fingers
    Ligaments within the tarsals and metatarsals cause the arch of the foot (two longitudinal arches, 1 transverse arch)
  • 17. TheLowerLimbs – Foot