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10   ed cahoon
 

10 ed cahoon

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    10   ed cahoon 10 ed cahoon Presentation Transcript

    • Input versus Output Biotech Crop Traits: How Does the Consumer Benefit? Ed Cahoon Center for Plant Science Innovation Department of Biochemistry ecahoon2@unl.edu
    • Biotech crops are major components of the agricultural economy of the United States and portions of the developed and developing world (but not Europe) United States: Biotech crops—50% of total crop production, 93% of soybean production Worldwide: Biotech crops-77% of soybean and 50% of cotton production But where are the improved food and feed products?
    • Biotechnology offers tools that when used together with plant breeding can improve crop production and qualities of crops Biotech crops are generated by insertion of genes and/or genetic elements into host plants The resulting “transgenic” crops are then bred into the top performing germplasm to achieve optimal production in specific geographic regions.
    • Biotech Crop Traits Are Categorized Largely as Input or Output Traits Input Traits: Agronomic traits that improve crop production and/or reduce production costs Examples: drought tolerance, insect resistance, herbicide resistance. Primary benefactors: Farmers Output Traits: Traits that improve the quality of products derived from crops. Examples: enhanced human and livestock nutrition, improved industrial properties. Primary benefactors: Processors and consumers.
    • Nearly All of the Economically Significant Biotech Crops are Engineered with Input Traits Insect Resistance: Crop are typically engineered with genes for Bt Cry proteins for resistance to lepidopteran insects, such as European corn borer. Crops: corn, cotton, rice (China) Herbicide Resistance: Crop are engineered with genes for novel essential enzymes that are resistant to herbicide inhibition or detoxify herbicides. Crops: soybean, corn, cotton, rapeseed, sugar beet Virus Resistance: Crop are typically engineered with genes for virus coat proteins to confer resistance to specific viruses. Crops: papaya, squash
    • Nebraska’s Contribution to Input Biotech Traits
    • Do Input Traits Benefit Consumers? Yes….but not directly. *Input biotech traits contribute to the maintenance of a ready source of food at affordable prices. *Crops engineered for resistance to insects typically have less pesticide residues. *Improved environment: Reduced soil erosion World Vegetable Oil Consumption from reduced soil tillage with herbicide resistant crops. *Reduced impact on natural resources: Reduced use of fuel for application of pesticides and cultivation. Future: Reduced fertilizer and water use.Lu et al. (2011) Current Op. Biotechnol.
    • Where are the Output Traits for Consumers?Flavr Savr Very few output traits have received regulatory approval. Examples: Amflora Potato delayed ripening tomatoes high oleic soybean (healthy oil) industrial starch potatoes (Europe) GLA safflower (healthy oil) Are consumers willing to pay a premium for biotech nutritionally enhanced/better tasting foods?Large companies are reducing investments in output trait development. An opportunity for small companies/niche markets?
    • Can Input and Output Biotech Traits Improvethe Human Condition in the Developing World? Little or no biotech crops in Sub-Saharan Africa: An opportunity for improved production and improved food quality?Input Traits: Pest and drought resistance traits can improve crop production. Do opportunities exist for output traits?
    • Enhanced Nutrition Traits: The Case of Biotechnology for Provitamin A Biofortification Golden Rice 1 Golden Rice 2 Golden RiceVitamin A deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and contributes to blindness and weakened immune systems.
    • Healthy Traits for the Developing World: Does Plant Biotechnology Have a Role?Grand Challenges in Global Heath: Challenge 9 (GC9)Goal: Improve the nutritional status of the major staple crops of thedeveloping world.Focus: iron, zinc, provitamin A, vitamin E, and protein biofortification Target Crops: Sorghum Cassava Rice Banana
    • Cassava Biofortification Cassava (Manihot esculenta) - yucca, manihot, tapioca Most important source of calories in the tropics after rice and maize Vegetatively propagated: limited gene flow Grown in 100 tropical countries on a total of 160 million hectares Eaten daily by 600 million people Poor source of micronutrients
    • Cassava As a Balanced Nutritional Crop has Unique ChallengesNot only is it deficient in iron, zinc, provitamin A, vitamin E, and protein…… It is has major production and distribution problems in Africa*Highly susceptible to viruses *Roots rot quickly through the process of physiological post-harvest deterioration (PPD) *Accumulates cyanogenic compounds Goal: Combine nutritional traits with traits that enhance the production and distribution of cassava to improve the likelihood of acceptance in sub-Saharan Africa
    • Vitamin A Deficiency is a Major Public Health Problem in Sub-Saharan Africa Nigeria: 60% of children have VitA deficiency Goal: Increase provitamin A (β-carotene) concentrations by 10-fold in cassava storage roots.
    • Development of Golden Cassava with Improved Shelf Life
    • Field testing at the National Root Crops Research Institute in Umudike, NigeriaFirst permit for a confinedfield trial of a transgenic crop in Nigeria Field testing planned for KARI, Kenya in late 2010 Next Phase: Product Concept (output + input traits) Stack of Provitamin A trait with a Second Nutritional Trait in a Farmer-Preferred Cassava Variety with Virus Resistance