Where is Suriname?Where’s the Netherlands for that Matter? Wekker and Robinson Planet Queeeeeeeeer
Suriname Brief History Spanish explores in 16th century Settled by English in mid-17th century Dutch colony in 1667. independent from the Netherlands in 1975. 1980- military power declared as socialist republic 1987 –democratic election 1990- military overthrow 1991 to present elected government
Sranan Tongo Also known as Sranan, Surinaams, Surinamese, Suriname Creole English Creole language, spoken as native language by 120,000 people has inﬂuences of Dutch, English, Portuguese and Central and West African languages used in formal education only since 1980s has been a written language since late 19th century, given ofﬁcial spelling by government of Suriname in 1986 second verse of nation anthem is in Sranan
Languages of Surinam Dutch (ofﬁcial), English (widely spoken), Sranang T ongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and lingua franca among others), Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
Self-reflexivity ala RobinsonReflexivity—factual material shouldn’t be present by an omniscient and invisible narrator.Yet, after 20 years of reflexivity (published in 2002, now it’s 26 years),it’s been practiced so much that it’s time to critique. (see pp. 785-6)
RobinsonPositionality: “writing as a” 788 1. Reduce complexity of lives 2. cultural relativity west and third world as internally coherent 789, loses present day circumstances such as multinational coprs and religious fundamentalism 3. Stereotypes: a. ethnographers are reducible to simple identitiess: essentialized qualities 790,789 • people written about react to ethnographer; they are shifting processes, not unidirectional teleologies 790; most people quite proficient at assigning labels on their own 791
Main ideas for Wekker 1. Wekker’s position as ethnographer Consider Robinson Consider depiction vis-à-vis Juliette Consider other ethnographic practices (including those we’ve read this quarter) Consider vis-à-vis other theoretical models (see later slide) 2. Study of sexuality 3. Intersection with western knowledges
2. Study of sexuality ｷ mati work and how it compares to other women loving women. sexual fulﬁllment, not the sex object of desire ｷ different from male activity explanation ｷ Not as gendered, but is often gendered (48)
3. Intersection with western ｷ Ethnographer and her practices (esp. sex 19) ｷ W’s “sassiness” and ageism ｷ Trying to pay instead of paying for laundry, etc ｷ Choosing to narrate as chronology and 3 forms (personal, local, global) 49 ｷ Christina as “western” vs. Winti 45 ｷ War years: American (short weird section) 38-9 ｷ Political parties (replicating Dutch, in order to get independence, too) 39-41
W’s theoretical models Engagement w/queer theory and sexuality studies: 68 black female sexuality literary criticism History not social scientiﬁc study, yet ethnography
Addressing issues overlooked in studies of women who love women: sexual subjectivity built through “grammatical principles”: mati work, not being a mati 72, female sexuality is self driven 73 not sexual identity: homosexual self 73
Dutch Citizenship-- 2 ways to obtain it:1. option procedure ( simpler and quicker than naturalization) Need to have Dutch residence permit and one of 8 categories Relevant to us: married to a Dutch citizen for at least three years and has legally lived in the Netherlands, the Dutch Antilles or Aruba for an uninterrupted period of at least 15 years. Applicants for Dutch citizenship through the option procedure do not have to renounce any foreign citizenship they hold.
2. Naturalizationa. Applicant must meet all of conditions i. Aged 18 or over with a permanent resident permit ii. 5 continuous years residence in the Netherlands, the Dutch Antilles or Aruba with a valid residence permit. There are a number of exceptions to this rule. iii. Sufﬁciently integrated in Dutch society and are able to read, write, speak, and understand Dutch. This must normally be proved by taking a naturalization test. Successful completion of an eligible integration course is an alternative. iv. In the four years preceding the application, the applicant has not been given any custodial sentence, training order, community service order, or high monetary penalty.b. xemption to the residence requirement E
How does this affect our knowledge of globalization? How do methodologies compare with one another? How do genres compare with one another? Think of crosscurrents and discontinuities among texts: Sinnott and Wekker; Abu-Lughod and Robinson and Wekker, Chua and Wekker, Sassen and Wekker, Altman and Wekker, etc.