Sinnott: 1. homo/hetero obsession creates a binary that can be reductive. Sinnott (15): Sexual orientation says little about gender. 2. There isn’t a clear line about what constitutes sex between women and its importance. 3. INHERENT ambivalence of all terms about sex and gender—nothing is timeless, though it might have history. Yet, many things are constructed as timeless through constantly negotiated practices.
Historical Junctures Western/Tradition Binary history: len puan (47) tom/dee (51-3) female masculinity and breasts (53-4) karma 54
Economic Boom 70s and 80s meant change for socioeconomic status as well as tom, dee emerge in 70s thai daughters are considered to be responsible to take care of families thai women marry later than other asian nations
What makes a Tom? What makes adee? Dees have a precarious identity. They don’t ﬁt Thai understanding of homosexuality. 80. 81 temporary 82 (ordinary, not misgendered), and attracted to masculinity 81Toms: Comparable to men: 70, 104--imagined category 105sometimes men (among themselves) 78used interchangeably sometimes by dees w/men, or w/sharp distinctions: soft, gentle, good listener 8f3+among themselves: different from mena and women 84not women, not REAL men 84knew how to please women /better than men 85sufferingsofterproviding
Inconsistencies (at least to us) western inﬂuence, class expectations, what categories represent, (dees should be wives and mothers 103) masculine and which is feminine (Toms take care of Dees and service dees—in a feminized manner—so they are not purely masculine OUR EARLIER GENDER ONLY/SEX ONLY structure not always working. Identities fundamentally different than our earlier self-identity exercise (110)