You Cant Learn Much from Books You Cant Read• 1. List three of the problems with textbooks that Allington identifies. Do these problems ring true to you? Describe how you have seen this issue play out in a classroom. mismatch between the textbook and students reading capacity
• 2. What solutions does Allington offer to these problems? What do you think of his solutions? Are they realistic and practical? Have you seen any classrooms that use these solutions?
The English Settle at Jamestown• In April of 1607, the Virginia Company’s three ships reached the North American shore.• The ships settled near Chesapeake Bay and built a Fort James to protect the settlement of Jamestown, named for their king.
A Disastrous Start• Unlike Spanish Colonies, which were funded by Spanish rulers, the English colonies were originally funded by Joint-Stock Companies.• Stock companies allowed investors to pool their wealth in support of a colony that would yield a profit.• Investors in the Jamestown colony demanded a quick return on their investment, and the colonists hoped to find gold to satisfy them
A Disastrous Start • The colonist neglected farming, and soon contaminated river water struck them; followed by hunger.
A Disastrous Start• John Smith who craved adventure; offered his services as a colonist to the Virginia Company (a group of merchants).• Smith held the colony together by forcing the colonist to farm and securing food and support from the native Powhatan peoples.
• Smith was injured and returned to England.• Without Smiths leadership the colony deteriorated to the point of famine.• The settlement was saved, by the arrival of new colonist and by the development of a highly profitable crop, tobacco.
Tobacco Requires a Supply of Labor• In order to grow tobacco, the Virginia Company needed field laborers.• Immigration jumped in 1618, when the company introduced the “headright system”, offering 50 acres of land to “adventurers” who would transport people from England.
• Many of those who arrived in Virginia, came as indentured servants.• In exchange for passage to North America and food and shelter; an indentured servant agreed to a limited term of servitude (usually 4 to 7 years)• Indentured servants were mainly from lower classes of English societies.
Ch. 8 Business Organization• A sole proprietorship is a business owned and run by one person• About 75% of all businesses in the U.S. are sole proprietorships, however, since most sole proprietorships are small they account for only 6% of all U.S. sales• The biggest advantage of sole proprietorship is that the owner gets to keep all profits after paying income taxes (are also easy to start)
Partnerships • A partnership is a business organization owned by 2 or more persons • Partners must agree on how profits and responsibilities are divided • General Partnership: is when partners share equally in both responsibility and liability (doctors, lawyers and accountants) • Limited Partnership: Only one partner is required to be a general partner. That partner has control over the business but unlimited personal liability for the firm’s actions. Other partners contribute only money
• A newer type of partnership is the limited liability partnership in this type of partnership all partners are limited partners and are shielded from personal liability in certain situations• Advantages: responsibility may be shared: each partner brings, different strengths and skills to the business• Each partners assets, or money and other values, improve the firm’s ability to borrow funds for operations or expansion
5-3: “Understanding Slope”What distinguishes the graphs of different lines? y The Steepness! This is also x called the SLOPE!
How do we actually measure the slope of a line? Slope is a fraction comparing the RISE y RUN RUN RISE x
There are 4 cases of SLOPE to consider: y y Positive Negative Slope Slope x x y Zero y No Slope Slope x x
Example: What is the slope of the line passingthrough (-2, 3) and (2, 6)? y Step 1: Is the slope positive positive or negative? 6 Step 2: How far apart are the 3 y-coordinates? 3 steps -2 2 x Step 3: How far apart are the x-coordinates? 4 steps RISE 3 RUN 4You Try: What is the slope between (-5, 7) and (1, 2)?
5-2: “Graphing Using Intercepts” y y-intercept x-intercept xx-intercept: (x, 0) where the line intersects the x-axis.y-intercept: (0, y) where the line intersects the y-axis.
Examples: Find the x- and y-intercepts for each graph y y y 4 3 2 x x x 5 4 x-int: (5, 0) x-int: (-4, 0) x-int: None y-int: (0, 3) y-int: (0, 2) y-int: (0, 4)