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Differentiated instruction

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An introduction to how we differentiate content, process, and learning environment to meet student needs.

An introduction to how we differentiate content, process, and learning environment to meet student needs.

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Differentiated instruction Differentiated instruction Presentation Transcript

  • Differentiating Instruction TED 406 Teaching Secondary Reading Jill A. Aguilar (Adapted from Tomlinson, 1995, 1999; Winebrenner, 1992, 1996)
  • What is Differentiated Instruction?
    • To differentiate instruction is to recognize students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively.
  • What is Differentiated Instruction?
    • Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class.
  • What is Differentiated Instruction?
    • The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.
  • What is Differentiated Instruction? Learning Environment
  • 4 Elements to Differentiate
    • Content – what the student needs to learn or how the student will get access to the information;
    • Process – activities in which the student engages in order to make sense of or master the content;
    • Product – culminating projects that ask the student to rehearse, apply, and extend what he or she has learned in a unit; and
    • Learning environment – the way the classroom works and feels.
  • Content
    • Examples of differentiating content:
    • 1. Using reading materials at varying readability levels;
    • 2. Putting text materials on tape;
    • 3. Using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness levels of students;
    • 4. Presenting ideas through both auditory and visual means;
    • 5. Using reading buddies; and
    • 6. Meeting with small groups to re-teach an idea or skill for struggling learners, or to extend the thinking or skills of advanced learners.
  • Process
    • Examples of differentiating process:
    • 1. Using tiered activities;
    • 2. Providing interest centers;
    • 3. Developing personal agendas (task lists written by the teacher and containing both in-common work for the whole class and work that addresses individual needs of learners);
    • 4. Offering manipulatives or other hands-on supports; and
    • 5. Varying the length of time a student may take to complete a task.
  • Product
    • Examples of differentiating product:
    • 1. Giving students options of how to express required learning;
    • 2. Using rubrics that match and extend students' varied skills levels;
    • 3. Allowing students to work alone or in small groups on their products; and
    • 4. Encouraging students to create their own product assignments as long as the assignments contain required elements.
  • Learning Environment
    • Examples of differentiating learning environment:
    • 1. Making sure there are places in the room to work quietly and without distraction, as well as places that invite student collaboration;
    • 2. Providing materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings;
    • 3. Setting out clear guidelines for independent work that matches individual needs;
    • 4. Developing routines that allow students to get help when teachers are busy and cannot help them immediately; and
    • 5. Helping students understand that some learners need to move around to learn, while others do better sitting quietly
  • Full Range of Students
    • Students with identified special needs (IEP);
    • Struggling readers;
    • English learners;
    • Speakers of non-standard Englishes;
    • Gifted students;
    • Who else?
  • What Differentiation Is Not
    • Class centered
    • Mainly for students with learning problems
    • A tracking system by abilities
    • A recipe for learning
    • A different lesson plan for every student
    • Whole-group drill and practice or any single structure or activity
    • Fact-based learning alone
  • What Differentiation Is Not
    • Unmanageable or undisciplined
    • Modifying the instruction up or down in difficulty
    • A method you will need all new materials for
    • Cost free
    • Just about learning styles
    • A set of strategies and activities
  • What Differentiation Is
    • Student centered
    • For all students
    • For heterogeneous groups
    • A change in philosophy about how learning should take place
    • Multiple approaches or options for content, process, and product
    • A mix of whole-class, group, and independent learning
    • More about quality than quantity
  • What Differentiation Is
    • Flexible and varied
    • Proactive in the planning stage
    • Rooted in assessment
    • Based on continual reflection and adjustment to help students learn well
    • A belief system that says all learners come to the classroom with potential ready to be accessed
  • Let’s Try It Out… Learning Environment Content Product Process Curriculum Student