What, Why and How of Accommoda1ons and Modiﬁca1ons • What is an accommoda-on? • What is a modiﬁca-on?
Deﬁni1ons • Accommodaons are changes to the way a student is expected to learn or how the student is assessed. • Modiﬁcaons are changes to what the student is expected to learn and/or the standards the student is expected to meet.
IDEA Only an IEP Team can make modiﬁca1ons to a student s educa1onal program. IEP teams also specify what accommoda1ons, if any, are needed. Teachers are legally responsible for providing accommoda1ons speciﬁed in IEPs.
Central Ques1on Can the student par-cipate in and beneﬁt from the lesson in the same way as all other students? ….. or are accommoda-ons needed?
Accommoda-ons • Change how something is taught– not what is taught or what standards a student is expected to meet. • Do not change the instruc1onal level, content or criteria for mee1ng a standard • Examples: • a student who struggles with wri1ng may give answers orally • a struggling reader may be given books on tape
Accommoda-ons in Presenta-on alter how direc1ons and content are delivered to students.
Some examples of accommoda1ons in presenta1on include: • Oral reading (either by an adult or a tape) • Large print • Magniﬁca1on devices • Sign language • Braille and Nemeth Code (a speciﬁc type of Braille used for math and science nota1ons) • Tac1le graphics (e.g.; 3-‐D topographical maps, 2-‐D raised line drawings) • Manipula1ves (e.g.; geometric solids, real coins & currency, abacus) • Audio ampliﬁca1on devices (e.g., hearing aids) • Screen reader
Response Accommoda-ons allow for diﬀerent ways students may demonstrate learning (or respond to assessment)
Response Accommoda-ons Include: • Verbal rather than wriZen responses • Responses may be dictated to a scribe • Use of a tape recorder to capture responses • Answers to be recorded directly into test booklet • Use of organiza1onal devices, including calcula1on devices, spelling and grammar assis1ve devices, visual organizers, or graphic organizers
Se?ng Accommoda-ons are changes either where an assignment and/ or test is taken or the environment in which the work is completed
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Se?ng Accommoda-ons Include: • Working in a small group or individually in separate room • Adjus1ng the ligh1ng • Providing noise buﬀers such as headphones, earphones, or earplugs
Timing/Scheduling Accommoda-ons allow ﬂexibility in the schedule of an assignment or assessment especially for students who – may need more 1me to process informa1on or – may need breaks throughout the tes1ng process to regroup and refocus – may need change in tes1ng schedule or order of subjects
Making Cri1cal Decisions • The challenge is to decide which accommoda1ons will help students learn new skills and knowledge— and which will help them demonstrate what theyve learned (Shriner & DeStefano, 2003). • Accommoda1ons are most eﬀec1ve when they are based on individual strengths and needs rather than disability type.
IEP Team Determines Accommoda1ons • Considers the speciﬁc strengths, challenges, and rou1nes of a student • Decides if a student needs accommoda1ons in the classroom or in tes1ng • Decides what accommoda1ons are needed
Student Involvement • Increases likelihood of selec1ng most eﬀec1ve accommoda1ons • Recognizes them as valued par1cipants • May increase their sense of increased control and responsibility in their learning
Monitoring the Impact Some things to consider include: • Did the student actually use and take advantage of the accommoda-on? • Was the student able to master the objec-ves of the lesson or course because of the accommoda-on? • Was the student able to fully par-cipate in the class because of the accommoda-on? • Did the accommoda1on help the student feel more successful in class?
• The Online Accommoda-ons Bibliography at the Na1onal Center on Educa1onal Outcomes (NCEO) is an excellent source of informa1on on the range of possible accommoda1ons • hZp://cehd.umn.edu/nceo/ AccomStudies.htm