Projective tests often focus on latent or unconscious aspects of personality. Obviously, psychologists and others differ in the degree to which they rely on unconscious informationThe use of vague, ambiguous, unstructured stimulus objects or situations in which the subject “projects” his or her personality, attitude, opinions and self-concept to give the situation some structure.Not only these, it reveals their inner or private world but gives a proper clue to estimate their total personality.Klein argued that projective testing cannotpinpoint types of personality organization, specificpersonality characteristics, or the diagnosis of mentaldisordersHundreds of different projective techniques have been developed—most of which are not widely used today
Certain projective techniques are wholly verbal, utilizing only words in both stimulus materials and responses. Some of this can be administered in their in either oral or written form.
Originally known as the free association test.Clinicalapplication of this methods was stimulated largely by the psychoanalytic movement,According to the authers test has dual aim: To aid in detecting impairment of thought processes and to suggest significant areas of conflict.It use as a “lie detector”.The diagnostic use of the test has declined
Testscan range fromfewer than 10 sentences to more than 75.There are many variations of sentence completion tests. Some clinicians havedeveloped their own. One form developed by Julian Rotter has some establishedvalidity and reliability, but most sentence completion tests do not. Special-purposesentence completion tests have been developed to measure different problem areas.For example, one sentence completion test is used with patients who have chronicpain, and another to assess issues concerning transsexual patients. The sentencecompletion test is seldom if ever used alone but is combined with other appropriateinstruments.The sentence completion test is much more direct in soliciting responses from the patient. The patient is simply presented with a series of incomplete sentences and asked to complete the sentence with the first response that comes to mindAdvantages of the sentence completion are short administration time, ease ofadministration, variety of instruments, and ease of construction. Disadvantages arelack of reliability and validity studies and ease of fabrication and deception
Projective Drawing Techniques Projective drawing techniques are often helpful in establishing rapport and engaging shy or negative children who are reluctant to become involved in more-verbal interaction with the clinician.Two common approaches to projective drawings are the House-Tree-Person and Kinetic Family Drawing. In the former, the child is first asked to draw a person and, after completing that drawing, is asked to draw a person of the sex opposite to that of the person in the first drawing. When finished, the child is asked to draw a house and then a tree.Kinetic Family Drawing is accomplished by telling the child to “Draw a picture of your family doing something.” The drawing can elicit verbal comments that concern family cohesiveness or conflict, the perceived role of the child within the family system, relationships with significant others within the family and the degree of interaction versus isolation of various family members, and family structure and the hierarchy of power.
• Projective techniques (objective hypothesis)
• These technique are based on the phenomenon
• In these technique relatively indefinite and
unstructured stimuli are provided to the subject
and he or she is asked to structured them in any
way they likes
• In doing so they unconsciously projects their own
desires, hopes, fears, repressed wishes etc.
WORD ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE
• It is a simple technique devised by Galton in 1879.
• In word association respondents are presented with
a list of words one at a time and asked to respond
to each with the first word that comes to mind .
• The word of interest called test words usually 55
Responses are analyzed by calculating -
• The frequency with which any word is given as a
• The amount of time that elapses before a responses
• The number of respondents who do not respond at
all to a test word within a reasonable period of time.
• In Sentence completion or unfinished sentences, the
respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to
complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first
word or phrase that comes to mind.
• My father seldom.......................
• Most people don't know that I'm afraid of..............
• When I was a child, I.......................
• When encountering frustration, I usually………………
ROTTERS INCOMPLETE SENTENCE
• This includes list of 40 incomplete sentences and
there is no specific time limit for the respondent
• The respondent makes such sentences that
manifest his unconscious
desires, thinking, frustrations, emotions, anxiety,
mental state etc.
ASSESSMENT FOR COMPLETING
Five types of attitudes are kept in mind while
assessing the personalities from resultant
1) Attitude towards family
2) Social attitude
3) Emotional attitude
4) Sexual attitude
5) Character traits
• A well- known early example is the Machover Draw-a-
person test (D-A-P Machover 1949).
• In this test the individual is provided with paper and
pencil and is told to “draw a person’’.
• Completion of the first drawing he or she is asked to
draw a person of the opposite sex or of a different
• The drawing is usually followed by a series of question to
elicit specific information about age
, schooling, occupation.
• Analysing memories especially those of early life , in
order to understand recurrent or intractable conflicts in
• In Bruhn’s cognitive – perceptual
theory, autobiographical memories are central to the
understanding of personality.
• The early memories procedure (EMP Bruhn , 1989) is a
self administered paper-and –pencil instrument that
samples 21 autobiographical memories from the entire
life span , not just childhood.
• The first part calls for six general or spontaneous
memories delimited primarily by specific timeframes (the
five earliest memories and a particularly important life
• The second part comprises 15 specific or directed
memories that explore a diverse set of events and areas
that may be clinically relevant (e.g. a traumatic
memory, one’s first punishment memory or one’s
happiest memory )
• The subject is given an incomplete
sentence, story, argument or conversation, and
asked to finish it.
• Brand mapping (Gordon and Langmaid,1988)
• A subject is asked to role-play, act, draw or paint
a specific concept or situation.
• Focus on the manner in which the subject
• constructs something, rather than on what it
• The subjects have to explain why certain things
are most important¨ or least important¨, or to
"rank" or order¨ or “categorize” certain factors
associated with a product, brand or service
• The content of verbal or pictorial descriptions or
sorted information is analyzed by classifying the
content into categories that are then given
• Specific components of the test protocol are thus
tabulated and used systematically to evaluate
either a subject's responses or the empirical
validity of generalizations about groups.
• There are no systems of scoring or tabulation.
• The description and explanation of the
projections by the subjects form the database
which then requires ordering and interpretation.