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Case study on inguinal hernia
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Case study on inguinal hernia


This is a case study done by me as a part of my in-service education progamme in my institution...hope this may help all nurses who wants to do a case study.

This is a case study done by me as a part of my in-service education progamme in my institution...hope this may help all nurses who wants to do a case study.

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  • 2. OBJECTIVES AT THE END OF THE PRESENTATION THE AUDIENCE WILL BE ABLE TO • Attain knowledge regarding the definition, incidence, etiology, signs and symptoms of hernia • Understand the surgical correction of inguinal hernia and complications after surgery. • Identify patients needs , carry out interventions according to the needs and evaluate patients response to care.
  • 3. DEFINITION • An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal cavity contents through the inguinal canal.
  • 4. INCIDENCE About 25% of males and 2% of females develop inguinal hernias; this is the most common hernia in males and females Indirect inguinal hernias are the most common hernias in both men and women; a right-sided predominance exists.
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION There are two types of inguinal hernia based on their relationship to inferior epigastric vessels DIRECT INGUINAL HERNIA INDIRECT INGUINAL HERNIA
  • 6. DIRECT INGUINAL HERNIA Direct inguinal hernias occur medial to the inferior epigastric vessels when abdominal contents herniate through a weak spot in the fascia of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, which is formed by the transversalis fascia.
  • 7. INDIRECT INGUINAL HERNIA Indirect inguinal hernias occur when abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring , lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels.
  • 8. CLINICAL CLASSIFICATIONS  Reducible hernia: is one which can be pushed back into the abdomen by putting manual pressure to it.  Irreducible hernia: is one which cannot be pushed back into the abdomen by applying manual pressure. • Irreducible hernias are further classified into  Obstructed hernia-is one in which the lumen of the herniated part of intestine is obstructed but the blood supply to the hernial sac is intact.  Incarcerated hernia-is one in which adhesions develop between the wall of hernial sac and the wall of intestine.  Strangulated hernia- is one in which the blood supply of the sac is cut off, thus, leading to ischemia. the lumen of the intestine may be patent or not.
  • 10. ETIOLOGY          Increased pressure within the abdomen A pre-existing weak spot in the abdominal wall Straining during bowel movements or urination Heavy lifting Ascites Pregnancy Excess weight Chronic coughing or sneezing Peritoneal dialysis
  • 11. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS • A bulge in the area on either side of your pubic bone • A burning, gurgling or aching sensation at the bulge • Pain or discomfort in the groin, especially when bending over, coughing or lifting • A heavy or dragging sensation in groin • Weakness or pressure in your groin • Occasionally, in men, pain and swelling in the scrotum around the testicles when the protruding intestine descends into the scrotum • Signs and symptoms in children Inguinal hernias in newborns and children result from a weakness in the abdominal wall that's present at birth. Sometimes the hernia may be visible only when an infant is crying, coughing or straining during a bowel movement. In an older child, a hernia is likely to be more apparent when the child coughs, strains during a bowel movement or stands for a long period of time.
  • 12. INVESTIGATION • A health care provider can confirm that you have a hernia during a physical exam. The growth may increase in size when you cough, bend, lift, or strain. • X-ray abdomen/CT Scan in case of strangulated inguinal hernia
  • 13. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT • Hernias that or not strangulated or incarcerated can be mechanically reduced. • A truss can be placed over the hernia after it has been reduced & left in place to prevent the hernia from recurring.(truss is a firm pad held in place by a belt) • The client is taught to apply the truss daily before arising & to inspect the skin underneath for any breakdown.
  • 15. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT Inguinal hernia surgery refers to a surgical operation for the correction of an inguinal hernia. Surgery is not advised in most cases, watchful waiting being the recommended option . In particular, elective surgery is no longer recommended for the treatment of minimally symptomatic hernias, due to the significant risk of chronic pain (Post herniorraphy pain syndrome), and the low risk of incarceration
  • 17. OPEN REPAIR (LICHTENSTEIN) • The most commonly performed inguinal hernia repair today is the Lichtenstein repair. A flat mesh is placed on top of the defect • It is a "tension-free" repair that does not put tension on muscles • It involves the placement of a mesh to strengthen the inguinal region. • Patients typically go home within a few hours of surgery, often requiring no medication beyond Paracetamol. • Patients are encouraged to walk as soon as possible postoperatively, and they can usually resume most normal activities within a week or two of the operation. • Recurrence rate is low, <2%.
  • 19. LAPROSCOPIC HERNIA REPAIR • There are mainly two methods of laparoscopic repair: • Transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) • Totally extra-peritoneal (TEP) repair. • When performed by a surgeon experienced in hernia repair, laparoscopic repair causes less complications than Lichtenstein, and especially half less chronic pain.
  • 20. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT (CONTD.) Laparoscopic mesh surgery, as compared to open mesh surgery ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Quicker recovery Less risk of chronic pain Needs surgeon highly experienced Less pain during first days Fewer postoperative complication of bleeding Longer operating time Increased recurrence of primary hernias if surgeon not experienced enough
  • 21. MESHES PERMANENT MESH  Commercial meshes are typically made of prolene (polypropylene) or polyester.  Mosquito-net mesh-Meshes made of mosquito net clothes, in co-polymer of polyethylene and polypropylene have been used for low-income. ABSORBABLE MESH  Biomeshes are increasingly popular since their first use in 1999.  They are absorbable and they can be used for repair in infected environment, like for an incarcerated hernia. Moreover, they seem to improve comfort.
  • 23. COMPLICATION  Pressure on surrounding tissues. Most inguinal hernias enlarge over time if they're not repaired surgically. Large hernias can put pressure on surrounding tissues — in men they may extend into the scrotum, causing pain and swelling.  Incarcerated hernia. This complication of an inguinal hernia occurs when a loop of intestine becomes trapped in the weak point in the abdominal wall. This may obstruct the bowel, leading to severe pain, nausea, vomiting and the inability to have a bowel movement or pass gas.  Strangulation. When part of the intestine is trapped in the abdominal wall (incarcerated hernia), blood flow to this portion of the intestine may be diminished. This condition is called strangulation, and it may lead to the death of the affected bowel tissues. A strangulated hernia is life-threatening and requires immediate surgery
  • 24. COMPLICATIONS  Post herniorrhaphy pain syndrome, or inguinodynia is pain or discomfort lasting greater than 3 months after surgery of inguinal hernia.  Hernia recurrence.. Recurrence is the most common complication of inguinal hernia repair, causing patients to undergo a second operation. Hernia recurrence occurs less often when a hernioplasty is performed.  Bleeding. Bleeding inside the incision of hernia repair.It can cause severe swelling and bluish discoloration of the skin around the incision.It is unusual and occurs in less than 2 percent of patients  Wound infection. The risk of wound infection is small—less than 2 percent,and is more likely to occur in older adults and people who undergo more complex hernia repair.  Injury to internal organs. Although extremely rare, injury to the intestine, bladder, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels leading to the legs, internal female organs, and vas deferens.
  • 25. COMPLICATION OF MESH REPAIR Complications are frequent (>10%). They include, but are not limited to:  foreign-body sensation  chronic pain  ejaculation disorders  mesh migration  mesh folding  Infection  adhesion formation  erosion into intraperitoneal organs In the long term, polypropylene meshes face degradation, due to heat effects. This increases the risk of stiffness and chronic pain. Persistent inflammation and increased cell turnover at the mesh-tissue interface raised the possibility of cancer transformation.
  • 26. NURSING MANAGEMENT (GENERAL)  Alteration in comfort pain related to disease condition  Alteration in comfort pain related to surgical intervention  Nursing interventions  Fit the patient with truss/belt when hernia is reduced if ordered  Evaluate signs and symptoms of hernia incarceration/strangulation  Give stool softeners as directed
  • 27. NURSING MANAGEMENTS CONTD. • Teach about bed rest , intermittent icepacks ,and scrotal elevation to reduce scrotal edema or swelling. • Encourage ambulation as permitted • Advise patient that difficulty in urination is common after surgery , promote elimination to eliminate as necessary or catheterise the patient. • Teach about bed rest , intermittent ice packs and scrotal elevation to reduce scrotal edema or swelling. • Encourage ambulation as permitted • Advise patient that difficulty in urination is common after surgery,promote elimination to eliminate as necessary or catheterise the patient. • Preventing infection • Check dressing for drainage &incision for redness and swelling. • Monitor for signs/symptoms of infection • Administer antibiotics if appropriate
  • 28. PATIENT EDUCATION • Advise that pain and scrotal swelling may be present for 24-48 hours after repair of an inguinal hernia. • Apply ice intermittently • Elevate scrotum,and use scrotal support • Take medication prescribed to relieve discomfort • Teach to monitor self for signs of infection. • Report continued difficulty in voiding • Avoid heavy lifting for 4-6 weeks.Athletics and extremesof exertion to be avoided for 8-12 weeks post operatively
  • 31. PRESENT SURGICAL HISTORY Mr. XYZ admitted for Elective inguinal hernia repair on 06/08/13.He had a left groin swelling of one month duration. He is known case of Diabetes mellitus and hypertensive for 10 years and is on regular medications.No significant past surgical history.
  • 32. GENERAL APPEARANCE He is moderately built. Maintains a erect posture and steady gait. Hygiene and Grooming: Looks cleans and tidy. Maintains his personal hygiene. MOOD: Calm and Co operative.
  • 33. FAMILY HISTORY He is married with five children. He has a good famly support in the home. SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS : He is a retired from job. He has middle class socio economis status.
  • 34. NUTRITIONAL HISTORY He is a Non-vegetarian. He likes to eat red meat and fried food. He eats three meals per day and snacks in between. He is moderately built.
  • 35. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION • Groin: A 3 x 4 cm Left Inguinal Swelling that is reducible and non tender on palpitation associated with scrotal swelling. • All other system review remained normal.
  • 36. BASELINE DATA • • • • • • • • • • VITAL SIGNS: TEMPERATURE-36.5 C BP-138/84 mm of Hg Pulse:82 Beats/minute Respiration:24 Breaths/minute Oxygen saturation:99%(room air) Height:156cm Weight:68kgs BMI:24 Braden Score:23 Oral Score:7 Fall score:0
  • 37. INVESTIGATIONS DESCRIPTION VALUE UNIT RANGE WBC COUNT 8.4 10^3uL 3.6-11.0 RBC COUNT 4.84 10^6uL 4.5-6.00 HGB 17.4 g/dL 13.0-18.0 HCT 16.3 % 40.0-52.0 PLATELET 231 10^3uL 150-400 CREATININE 1.00 mg/dL 0.7-1.2 UREA 22 mg/dL 12-40 P0TASSIUM 4.7 mmol/L 3.3-4.8 SODIUM 138 mmol/L 136-145 CHLORIDE 112 mmol/L 98-108 HIV NEGATIVE HbsAg NEGATIVE 37
  • 39. NURSING CARE PLAN(PRE-OP) Assessment Diagnosis Objective intervention evaluation Patient has repeated doubts regarding surgery Patient is free from fear and anxiety •Assess the anxiety level of the patient •Explain to the patient all procedures in simple terms •Introduce the patient to similar patients who had under gone surgery Diversion therapy Patient is relieved of fear and anxiety Fear and anxiety related to hospitaliza tion. 39
  • 40. Assessment diagnosis objective intervention evaluati on Patient asks doubts regarding pre op preparation Knowledge deficit regarding pre and post operative care Patient gains adequate knowledge regarding pre &postoperati ve care •Assess the knowledge level of the patient •Explain to the patient regarding the need for npo,pre operative skin preparation, site marking. •Explain regarding post op pain management, early mobilisation,splintin g technique. Patient verbaliz ed importa nce of pre op nil by mouth and importa nce of early mobilisa tion. 40
  • 41. NURSING CARE PLAN (POST OP) Assessment Diagnosis Objective Patient verbalizes pain over the operated site. Heart rate 100/minute Alteration in Patient gets comfort pain relief from related to pain surgical intervention Interventions Evaluation •Assess the pain level of the patient •Provide comfortable position to the patient •Instruct the patient to splint the surgical site while coughing/ moving •Diversion therapy •Administer analgesics as ordered Analgesics given. advised splinting techniques. patient resting comfortably. 41
  • 42. Assessment Diagnosis Objective Intervention Evaluation Patient nil by mouth since previous day midnight. Lips dry. High risk for fluid volume deficit related to nil by mouth status Patient maintains normal fluid volume. •Assess the level of hydration of the patient. •Monitor vital signs •Monitor urine output •Maintain intake output chart •Administer iv fluids as ordered. Patient maintains normal fluid volume.has adequate urine output. 42
  • 43. Assessment Diagnosis Objective Interventions Evaluation Patient has undergone open hernia repair with mesh Patient is having a redivac drain High risk for bleeding related to surgical intervention Patient remains free fro bleeding from the surgical site •Assess the post operative site for any bleeding or oozing •Monitor drain output •Monitor vital signs Post operative dressing site dry and intact Drain within normal limits 43
  • 44. Assessment Diagnosis Objective Intervention Evaluation Patient has under gone hernia repair with mesh Patient remains free from infection •Assess the post operative dressing for any discharge •Assess the post operative site for any redness or oozing •Monitor vital signs •Administer antibiotics as ordered High risk for infection related to surgical intervention Patient didn’t developed any post operative infection. 44
  • 45. COURSE OF HOSPITAL STAY • 05-08-13-Admitted electively for left inguinal hernia repair. Site marking and skin preparation done.NPO instructed from mid night. • 06-08-13-undergone open left inguinal hernia with mesh repair under general anaesthesia. He received Zinacef1.5g intraoperatively. Received with one redivac drain in situ. Received him conscious , coherent. Post operative dressing dry and intact. Post Op orders to start full diet when fully awake. Continue observation. • 07-08-13 - started on fulldiet , mobilisation, change dressing, mark drain • 08-08-13 - drain marked at 70ml, full diet, pressure dressing. • 09-07-13- antibiotics changed to oral zinacef 500mg BD, mark drain, pressure dressing.
  • 46. COURSE OF HOSPITAL STAY (CONTD.) • 10-08-13 - to remove drain and discharge by evening. To continue full diet and oral antibiotics. • CONDITION AT DISCHARGE: afebrile, vitally stable, pain free ,clean wound and free of infection. DISCHARGE MEDICINES: Tab Zinnat500mg BD*5DAYS Tab Paracetamol1g TDS PRN
  • 47. DISCHARGE INSTRUCTIONS • Avoid heavy lifting and strenuous exercises for 6-8 weeks. • Maintain personal hygiene. • Continue with oral antibiotics and PRN analgesics as ordered. • Monitor for signs of infection and to report to emergency if so. • Encouraged to have vitamin C and protein rich food.
  • 48. QUESTIONS • What is inguinal hernia? • What are the signs & symptoms of inguinal hernia? • Which are the two types of hernia repair? • What are the complications after hernia surgery? • What are the discharge instructions to the patient?
  • 49. CONCLUSION • An inguinal hernia can occur any time from infancy to adulthood and is much more common in males than females. Inguinal hernias may be repaired through surgery. Surgery for inguinal hernia is usually done on an outpatient basis. Recovery time varies depending on the size of the hernia, the technique used, and the age and health of the patient.