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5. introduction to_the_nutrients__c,_f,_p_
 

5. introduction to_the_nutrients__c,_f,_p_

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    5. introduction to_the_nutrients__c,_f,_p_ 5. introduction to_the_nutrients__c,_f,_p_ Document Transcript

    • DisaccharidesDisaccharides comprise pairs of monosaccharides.Sucrose is the commonest in the diet, formed by the condensation of glucose andfructose. It is obtained from sugar beet or sugarcanes, and by-products of the extractionprocess include molasses, golden syrup and brown sugar. Sucrose is also found in honeyand maple syrup (in solution), fruit and vegetables (associated with the cellularstructure).Lactose consisting of glucose and galactose is present free of cell wall material inmammalian milk; in the Western diet it originates from cow’s milk and its products (e.g.foods containing milk power or whey such as milk chocolate, instant potatoes, biscuitsand creamed soup). It is widely used by the food industry and people following alactose-free diet need to be aware of its prevalence.Maltose consists of two glucose units and is primarily found in germinating grains suchas barley and wheat. The malt produced by this spouting is used in the production offermented drinks such as beer. Small amounts of maltose are found in some biscuits,breakfast cereals and malted drinks.OligosaccharidesOligosaccharides, including stachyose, raffinose and inulin, make a quantitatively smallcontribution to the diet. They consist of fewer than ten monosaccharide units (generallygalactose, maltose or fructose attached to glucose units), and are found in plant foodssuch as leeks, onions, garlic, lentils and beans. They pass through unchanged to theproximal colon, where they undergo rapid fermentation by bacteria resulting in theproduction of small chain fatty acids and gases, leading to flatulence.PolysaccharidesPolysaccharides consist of more than ten monosaccharide units arranged in straight,branched or coiled chains. Traditionally divided into digestible (available) forms, suchas starches, and non-digestible (unavailable) forms, such as cellulose and lignin.Starch consists of linked glucose units arranged in either straight or branched chains. Inamylase, there are a-1, 4-glucosidic bonds linking each of the glucose molecules. 1
    • Amylopectin contains additional a-1, 6-glucosidic bonds, resulting in a branchedstructure. Many of the common starchy foods, such as potatoes, cereals and beans,contain amylopectin and amylose in the approximate ratio of 3:1. The relatively highproportion of amylopectin allows starch to from stable gels with good water retention.Dietary fiber consist of both cellulose and non-cellulose components, both beingpolymers of simple sugar.-Celluose is the main component of plant cell walls and is made up of many glucoseunits joined by b-1, 4, linkages. This makes the molecule very resistant to digestion.-The non-cellulose polysaccharides consist of the hemicelluoses, pectins, and gums.They contain sugars such as arabinose, xyose, mannose, glucose, galactose andrhamnose. These are readily fermented as a food source for bacteria.FATSAims (1) To describe the fats that are common in the diet. (2) To describe specific nutritional characteristics of fatty acids.Major roles of fatsFats (or lipids) are essential in the diet to provide:-a concentrated source of energy-an insulating layer under the skin-structural components in the body-functional constituents of many metabolic processes-a vehicle for intake and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins-an important contributor to flavor and palatability of foodsThe most important lipids in nutrition are:-Triacylglycerols (TAGs, also known as triglycerides): these contain three fatty acidsattached to a molecule of glycerol; comprise up to 95 % of dietary lipids.-phosphoplipids: contain a glycerol backbone, with two fatty acids (nonpolar) and a‘polar head group’ with a phosphoric acid residue and either sugars of amino acids. The 2
    • commonest example is phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). Phospholipids have anamphipathic nature and can act at the interface between aqueous and lipid environments.This also allows them to function as emulsifying agents.-Steroles: contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen arranged as ring structure, withassociated side chains. Cholesterol is the main sterol in animal tissues, often associatedwith a fatty acid, forming cholesteryl esters. Plants contain phytosterols.Fat soluble vitamins are associated with these lipids.Fatty acids are the main components of dietary lipids. Their generic structure has acarbon backbone, with a carboxyl (-COOH) group at one end and a methyl group (-CH3) at the other end.The fatty acids differ from one another in a number of ways. These variations result in adiversity of physical properties of the fatty acids and therefore the resulting lipids,affecting their metabolic role and consequences for health.Saturated fatty acids (SFAs)These contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms on each carbon, and then to besolid at room temperature.-Milk fat, containing SFAs synthesized by rumen bacteria, is the main dietary source ofshort- and medium-chain SFAs, with four to ten carbons. Products such as butter arerich in these fatty acids.-The majority of SFAs in the diet contains 13, 16 and 18 carbons, and come from palm(C16) and coconut oil (C14), animal and hydrogenated fats.-Longer chain SFAs, up to 24-carbons, are synthesized within brain tissue membranes.Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)-these contain one double bond, with the main example being oleic acid (C18:1),derived from olive and rapeseed oils.-MUFAs from oily fish may also be present in small amount.Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)PUFAs have the lowest melting point of all the types of fatty acids, because of the 3
    • presence of double bonds. They are liquid at room temperature; when used in themanufacture of spreading fats, emulsification is used to produce a more solid spread.-The major PUFAs contain 18-22 carbons, up to six double bonds and belong to the n-3and n-6 families.-PUFAs and their derivatives regulate fluidity and other properties of membranes, witha particular role in the brain, nervous system and retina for the n-3 PUFAs.The body is unable to synthesize the parent compounds of the n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, andthese are termed the essential fatty acids, which must be supplied in the diet. In the body,the parent acid can be converted into longer chain forms. This occurs by a series ofdesaturation (adding a double bond by removing hydrogen) and elongation (adding twocarbon atoms) reactions.Trans Fatty acids (TFAs)Unsaturated fatty acids can contain one or more double bonds arranged in the transposition. Meat and milk from ruminant animals and hydrogenated fats are both potentialsources of TFAs. These have characteristics similar to SFAs, as a result of closeralignment or molecules.TFAs have been associated with a detrimental effect on plasma lipids, with raised levelsof LDLs, and lowered high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Because of this, foodmanufacturers have in recent years worked to lower levels of TFAs in foods, and somelabeling regulations require that any TFAs are declared.Lower cholesterol?Healthy eating advice has principally been focused on dietary modification to reduceplasma LDL levels. However, it must be noted that there is genetic variability in LDLlevels and their response to dietary cholesterol intakes, such that reductions in dietarycholesterol are no longer considered a major part of dietary advice for most people.Phytosterols are derived from plant: b-sitosterol is obtained from nuts, cereals and fatsand oils. Plant stanol (saturated) and sterol (unsaturated) esters have been marketed inrecent years to help in cholesterol lowering, as they compete with cholesterol for 4
    • absorption and promote the increased loss of cholesterol in the feces. An in take of2g/day of these compounds appears to have the optimal effect.Fat intake and dietFat is perceived by many people as the component of the diet to be reduced as much aspossible. However, this is not conducive to health, as a certain amount of fat, usuallyaround 30% of the total energy, is required to fulfill the important roles that fat has inthe body. Diets that are low in fat can be very bulky, as the energy density is reduced,and more food has to be consumed to achieve an adequate energy intake. Whenconsumers wish to reduced their energy consumption, reducing their fat intake can behelpful, but under these circumstances it is important to ensure that essential fatty acidsand fat-soluble vitamins are still being supplied to meet nutritional requirements.ProteinsAims (1) to describe the basic structure of proteins. (2) To consider how proteins are digested. Proteins form the basic building blocks of all living cells. (i. e. found in cell membranes and organelles), as well as the enzymes and chemical messengers that integrate body functions. In contrast to carbohydrates and fats, which contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, proteins also contain nitrogen and are the most abundant nitrogen- containing molecules in the body. Structure of proteins A protein molecule is made up of a chain of individual amino acids, linked by peptide bonds. The chain becomes folded in various ways and links are made between amino acids that come to lie adjacent to each other, commonly by hydrogen bonds between oxygen and nitrogen atoms, or by interactions between side chains. 5
    • Folding and cross-linking contributes:-Strength and elasticity to particular structural proteins;-reactive sties for receptors or enzymic activity.Amino acidsThe sequence in which amino acids are present determines the identity and functionof a protein. There are 20 amino acids, in combinations ranging from 50 to over1000 in any one protein, contributing to enormous diversity.Amino acids have a common basic structure, which varying side chains. Side chainsmay be hydrophilic or hydrophobic, as well as aliphatic, aromatic, acidic or basicresulting in amino acids with these properties.Digestion and absorption of proteinsIn their native form, most proteins are very resistant to digestion, with only thesuperficial bonds susceptible to proteolytic activity. However, once a protein 몬been denatured, by exposure to either heat or acid, the forces holding the structuretogether become weakened, and digestion can occur. Cooking and the acidity ofstomach contents both contribute to increasing the digestibility of proteins.Enzymes are secreted as inactive proenzymes, and activated only after secretioninto the stomach or duodenum; this protects the organs from autodigestion byproteolytic enzymes.The polypeptide chains are broken at specific sites, exposing more terminal sites forfurther cleavage. In this way, progressively shorter peptide chains are produced.Overall, the process liberates free amino acids as well as other small peptides,which are themselves further split by aminopeptidases located within the intestinalmucosa during the process of absorption.Dietary protein is normally almost completely digested. However, the presence ofindigestible cell walls and trypsin inhibitors (in raw beans) will interfere with theprocess. In general, legumes are considered the least effectively digested proteinsource. 6
    • Functions of proteins in the bodyAims (1) To identify the main functions of proteins in the body (2) To recognize the role of essential amino acids in protein function and metabolism. The amino acids from the digestive tract enter the ‘amino acids pool’ and are used to synthesize proteins required for various functions in the body.Metabolism of amino acidsProtein synthesis and breakdownThere is a continuous turnover of protein in the body, which in healthy adults exhibits abalance between synthesis and breakdown, and amounts to 3-6g/kg body weight per day.During growth there is an excess of synthesis over breakdown and in wasting conditions(e. g. starvation, cancer and after surgery or trauma), breakdown exceeds synthesis.Protein synthesis is regulated principally by insulin, and catabolism by glucocorticoids.At the cellular level, the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) forms thetemplate for protein synthesis on the ribosome.Essential and nonessential amino acids-The body is unable to make nine of the amino acids used in protein synthesis, and thesemust be supplied by the diet, or derived from breakdown of other proteins. These areknown as the ‘essential’ or ‘indispensable’ amino acids. Lack of any one of these willlimit the synthesis of protein, even if all the other required amino acids are present inadequate amounts.-In addition there are a number of other amino acids that can be synthesized in the bodyunder normal conditions, given the necessary supply of precursor molecules. In theabsence of these precursors, the amino acids become ‘conditionally indispensable’. Thisis also the case in prematurity and in disease or physiological stress, where the capacityfor synthesis is outstripped by the need for the amino acid.-The remaining amino acids can be made from metabolic intermediates that are notlimiting, and so are not required to be supplied as such by the diet. 7
    • Utilization of amino acidsProtein synthesis is an energy-demanding process; it has been calculated that the energyrequirement is 4.2 kJ (`1kal)/g of protein synthesized. Protein synthesis occurs morerapidly after a meal than in the fasting state, due to the greater supply of amino acids.On average the energy used in protein synthesis accounts for 12 % of the basalmetabolic rate.Oxidation of amino acidsThere is no functional store of amino acids, so those that are not used directly, orindirectly (by conversion to another amino acid where possible) are oxidized. Thisprocess can be considered in two parts. (1) Removal of the amino group initially yields ammonia, which is converted to urea in the liver; some of this is excreted via the kidneys, but the remainder is reabsorbed into the colon from the bloodstream, and recycled by the bacteria to carbon dioxide and ammonia, which can be used for the synthesis of nitrogenous compounds. This cycle is termed ‘urea salvage’. (2) The carbon skeleton of the amino acid is ultimately converted to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of ATP. This occurs particularly in the liver, which obtains a major part of its fuel needs from this oxidation.Glutamine breakdown is a major source of fuel for the gut and white blood cells.The final pathway by which the carbon skeletons of amino acids are utilized depends ontheir structure. The majority is metabolized to glucose and is termed glucogenic.Ketogenic amino acids (including leucine and lysine) give rise to acetoacetic acid andultimately yield acetyl CoA. A few of the amino acids may be both glucogenic andketogenic, including tryptophan, methionine, cystein, phenylalanine, tyrosine andisoleucine.ConclusionProteins are essential for life, but it is the amino acids that they contain that are the keyto their functions. These are released from food and utilized efficiently in the body, tofulfill a broad range of functions. 8
    • Proteins: Needs and sources Aims (1) To quantify the body’s need for protein (2) To identify sources of protein and how these fulfill protein needs.The need for proteinProtein is required for maintenance of the body’s structure and functions at all times.Extra protein may be required during growth, in pregnancy and repair after injury.Establishing how much protein is required is problematic, for three reasons;-Protein deficiency, which would be used as a basis for quantifying the requirement, is anonspecific condition, affecting many processes, is difficult to define and thereforecannot be used as a baseline.-The body is able to adapt to varying levels of protein intake, and protein metabolism isaffected by levels of energy intake.-The methods available are imprecise, and rely on balance studies, which rarely includeall constituents of protein flux.Nitrogen balanceProtein metabolism in the body has traditionally been extrapolated from nitrogen intakeand loss to provide a measure of ‘nitrogen balance’.Nitrogen balance is the difference between the intake and losses of nitrogen.-A positive nitrogen balance implies that protein is being utilized and retained in thebody, in growth or major tissue repair. Nitrogen balance does not become positivesimply as a result of an increased dietary intake of protein; the extra protein may beused for energy and the excess nitrogen excreted as urea.-A negative nitrogen balance, where losses exceed intake, is indicative of proteinbreakdown and may be the result of starvation, injury or a catabolic state. It may alsooccur with low energy intakes when protein is sued for energy rather than maintenanceand repair.Using nitrogen measurement to assess balance assumes that all protein has 16% 9
    • nitrogen content, so that a value obtained for nitrogen flux can be converted to a proteinflux using the factor of 6. 24 (100/16). It excludes non-protein nitrogenous sources,which may be significant.There are inherent difficulties in measuring nitrogen loss. Nitrogen is lost in;-Urine (as urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonium compounds);-feces (unabsorbed nitrogen, bacterial protein);-skin, hair, nails, saliva and sweat, breath and colonic gases (all of these are difficult toquantify).On the basis of such measurement, it has been calculated that when the diet is totallydevoid of protein, the daily nitrogen losses amount to 55mg/kg body weight, which isequivalent to a protein loss of 0.34g/kg body weight.This is termed the obligatory loss. When the efficiency of utilization is taken intoaccount, a daily figure of 0.66g/kg body weight as a maintenance requirement isobtained.Assessing protein qualityProteins consumed in the diet must be converted into the proteins typically found in thehuman body, to fulfill physiological needs.Protein quality can be defined as the efficiency with which a protein can be utilized bythe body. Accordingly, various ways exist of evaluating the quality of proteins in termsof meeting these needs. None of these give a completely satisfactory assessment ofprotein quality, and new methods continue to be developed.Amino acids scoreThe supply of amino acids incorrect proportions for the body’s needs is the fundamentaldeterminant of protein quality. For a protein to be useful it must provide the essentialamino acids in the appropriate amounts (nonessential amino acids can be synthesizedfrom other amino acids as required).Synthesis of any new proteins can only occur up to the limit of the essential amino acidpresent in the least amount relative to its need. This is termed the limiting amino acid. 10
    • Thus for all of the essential amino acids in a protein, an ‘amino acid score’ can becalculated with the lowest score indicating the limiting amino acid.Dietary protein sourcesWorldwide, the availability of plant proteins is relatively consistent at about50g/person/day. However, the availability of animal protein sources varies widely, form<5 to 50 g/head/day, highest in most Western countries.The supply of protein in relation to energy is generally 10-12%, with some exceptionswhere protein-poor staples, such as cassava and plantain, are eaten.Deficiency of proteinInadequate protein intakes rarely occur alone, and are generally found within a widerpicture of undernutrtion.Insufficient intakes of energy cause protein to be used for energy, and make itunavailable for tissue maintenance or growth.In children, there is stunted growth, muscle wasting, poor wound healing and increasedrisk of infection. The classical description of low plasma albumin level is kwashiorkor,although it is considered that other deficiencies, of fatty acids and minerals, contributeto the overall picture.In hospital malnutrition syndrome, patients may have increased needs due toconsume sufficient nutrients. In a process driven by cytokines, protein is broken downin muscle to provide amino acids for the immune system and the synthesis of acute-phase proteins in the liver. The synthesis of normal transport proteins in the liver may bereduced. There is an overall negative nitrogen balance; the extent varies depending onthe magnitude of the trauma, but may represent protein losses of 5-70g/day. 11