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Leadership [1]


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  • 1. Leadership There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Machiavelli
  • 2. Management" versus Leadership
    • 'Leadership'
    • a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a sense of direction.
    • 'Management' ( Latin manus) - a hand, handling a sword, a ship, a horse.
    • 19thC corporatism and industrialisation - managerial agents
    • What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977)
    • Managers focus attention & energy on
    • how things get done
    • their role in events that occur or in a decision-making process.
    • Leaders more concerned with
    • ideas
    • relating to others in more intuitive, empathetic ways
    • what events and decisions mean to people
  • 3. Classical management
    • Managers
    • plan, organise, direct, control resources to achieve objectives.
    • follow formal policies, rules &procedural regulations of their employing organisation (administration > management?)
    • handle and physically direct resources:
      • money, materials, machinery, equipment, space, facilities,
      • information and technology
      • use of time
      • people
    • Telling people what to do and how to do it more than vision and giving a sense of direction?
  • 4. Leadership 'messages'
    • Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate
    • enable others to understand information, instructions or ideas
    • seek order and control
    • Leaders have followers. They
    • envision, influence, inspire.
    • tolerate, promote creativity and imagination
    • Bring order from chaos
    • influence people towards objectives and desire to achieve
    • gain voluntary commitment over compliance
    • win hearts and minds
  • 5. Bennis (1989)
    • Managers
    • Administer and copy
    • Maintain
    • Focus on systems & structure
    • Rely on control
    • Short-range view - bottom line
    • Ask how and when
    • Accept the status quo
    • Classic good soldier
    • Do things right
    • Leaders
    • Innovation and originality
    • Develop
    • Focus on people
    • Inspire trust
    • Long-range view - the horizon
    • Ask what and why
    • Challenge the status quo
    • Own person
    • Do the right things
    'the liberation of talent rather than restraint by rule’ Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use of 'resources'. (Peters & Austin, 1985).
  • 6. Leadership & organisational effectiveness
    • Common-sense + research link between manager- leadership behaviour & subordinate performance.
    • belief that business success has much to do with 'leadership'.
    • management development programmes emphasise manager and leadership style.
    • Can leadership and problem-solving skills really be developed from
      • simulated experienced in a field (outward bound approach)?
      • assessment centre activity (workshop-like selection & development)?
      • coaching and mentoring
      • going on a leadership course?
      • Reading a book, watching the TV?
      • Playing rugby or football?
  • 7. Practitioners, academia and recipes
    • a mix of traditional and behavioural science approaches
    • few analytical studies of leadership offer much to the practical manager (Adair)
    • academic doubts
    • textbooks tend to
      • Report 'theories'
      • Some query the validity of particular approaches
      • Imply prescriptions
    • An industry selling
      • prescriptive 'leadership development' and interpersonal skills packages: motivating, listening, participative problem solving, assertiveness and transforming skills
  • 8. Leadership behaviour & effect on performance.
    • Change involving 'people' is associated with leadership
    • What competencies can be meaningfully described as 'leadership'?
    • Managers & politicians generalise - 'we know it when we see it'.
    • Correlate the skills and success of particular personalities.
    • Mayo and Hawthorne experiments ( Roethlisberger & Dickson, 1939)
    • 'permissive' leadership behaviour leads to greater output
    • Kurt Lewin (1939)
    • Autocratic, Laissez faire, Democratic leader styles & the behaviour/performance of youth groups
    • language & 'model' linking styles --> subordinate performance
  • 9. Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference
    • Unitary
      • One set of values, beliefs, commitments
      • Shared understanding & commitment to objectives
      • One source of leadership
      • Team members - All pulling in the same direction
      • Potential for harmony is assumed if leader communicates well
      • Disagreements  the result of misunderstanding
      • Dissidents – "rabble" hypothesis
    Alan Fox – Research Paper to Donovan Commission 1968
  • 10. Change the people in post
    • Selection and job change can profoundly effect organisational effectiveness. Peters and Waterman (1982)
      • ' Hewlett-Packard Way' & 'MbWA’ (Management by walk about)
    • Pascale & Athos (1982) compare 'styles' and effect
      • compared the styles and management practices of
        • founder of Matsushita (National Panasonic)
        • American CEOs
      • 'good' and 'bad' leadership styles
        • Konosuke Matsushita & E. Carlson - United Airlines ('good')
        • Harold Geneen at ITT (short-term effective, long-term bad).
        • Margaret Thatcher vs. Tony Blair?
  • 11. How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?
    • wide ranging question
    • open to question
    • difficult to research - what are the variables?
    • difficult to
      • separate fact from fiction
      • attribute cause and effect in different contexts and organisational settings over time
      • ambiguity of measures of organisational performance
    • gap between perception of practitioners and behavioural scientists
  • 12. Typology of leadership theory
    • Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'. Nuances in original works
    • Yet three variables to leadership situations :
      • leader
      • followers
      • context/situation in which L/F find themselves
    trait theory variable of leader Breadth of application specific to situation universal Focus The Person Behaviour centred style theory variable of leader contingency theory situation & L-F relationship group dynamics + VDL the followers
  • 13. Leadership traits approach
    • everyday wisdom on common traits.
    • can anyone agree?
    • do some 'qualities' indicate potential & differentiate the 'effective from the ineffective'
    • Wide range of trait descriptors & variety of 'leaders' (heroes and villains) - difficult to agree on one list
  • 14. Cartwright and Zander (1968)
    • Effective leaders are often
    • more intelligent, dependable, responsible, active and participative socially
    • with higher socioecon. status
    • act more often in different ways, or the same way to different degrees in some activities?
    • give out & ask for more information
    • make more frequent interpretations of events
    psychometric tests for assessment and selection. Nature over nurture Leadership is learned, although I cannot explain entirely how ... The ability to lead and inspire others is .. more instinctual than premeditated and … acquired somehow through the experiences of one's everyday life …. the nature & quality of that leadership comes out of … innate character & personality… Harold Geneen ITT
  • 15. Exercise
    • Think of three managers you have known. List the qualities of those you rate as being more effective managers
    • Do a separate list for three less effective ones.
    • What factors, or qualities, recur on each list?
    • Select four leaders from national or organisational life and list their qualities. Which ones keep recurring?
    • What factors match those for your effective managers?
  • 16. Limitations of 'traits' approach
    • when leaders behave towards followers in different ways, how much is cause, how much is effect?
    • non-leaders often possess the same traits as leaders.
    • Impossible to compile a list of universal traits.
      • Bird 1940 identified 79 different traits from 'the literature'. Only 5% common to => 4 studies
    • Conclusion?
    • Consider the situation that leadership occurs in.
  • 17. The group dynamics (group process) approach
    • leadership as a function of organisation not the individual.
    • small task groups not whole organisation
    • three common functional behaviours:
      • accomplish the task
      • social & emotional needs of group
      • social & emotional needs of individual members .
    • failure in one affects the other two (performance & satisfaction).
    • Leader contributions?
      • Structuring - integrating
      • Calming, supporting
      • Controlling
    • But one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all
    • roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors' - Belbin roles
    • 'Cometh the hour, cometh the man'.
  • 18. Adair: Action-centred leadership
      • Task
      • functions
      • Group
      • maintenance
      • Individual
      • needs
      • functional emphasis based on task situation and socio-emotional needs
      • Aware of group processes, people in group, nuances of behaviour, interpersonal skills
  • 19. Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975)
    • Leader may use different style for member (idiosyncrasies)
    • Social exchange - leader-member relationships (dyads)
    • Group = a set of vertical linkages
    • Two sub-groups of relationships
    • In-group members
    • For the leader - reliable, effort, initiative, open, trust and confidence, autonomy
    • Out-group members
    • Calculative, do contract only, distant, tension dyad
    • Leadership - a negotiated VDL role
  • 20. Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions
    • Cohesive groups or teams working as a social unit (a 'ten group') achieve more than individuals in isolation. Based on
      • Anecdotal, experiential evidence
      • analogy with primitive tribes & animal behaviour Morris (1967, 1969), Ardrey (1961, 1967, 1970).
      • Share common patterns with baboons, chickens, lions?
    • Leadership is not a personal quality.
    • Some have innate tendency and drive for high-status dominance but this is one factor only
      • become leader only in relation to specific group & task
      • group leader emerges because the group thinks that he/she can best help the group
  • 21. Critique of Group Dynamics approach
    • If leadership behaviour is situationally and group related what happens when the situation or group changes?
    • Does the organisation function sub-optimally?
    • But
    • we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers & situations
    • ignores wider organisational demands on leader and group.
  • 22. The leadership style approach
    • Hawthorne experiments origin
      • Leader 'style' affects morale and output.
      • Relay Assembly room - increased output caused by 'permissive' management of researchers
      • Bank Wiring room - links management style and employee attitudes and behaviour
    • Kurt Lewin et al 1939 - adult leaders in boys' hobby club
      • Autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leaders and follower behaviour
      • Democratic style reflects dominant social values
      • Impetus for further study - Michigan and Ohio State
  • 23. Ohio State studies (two factor-theory)
    • two (independent) L-dimensions
      • initiating structure (task centred)
      • consideration (interpersonal relationships)
    • "measure" perceptions & style preferences in various settings ---> inventories & development prescriptions
    • effectiveness reflects
      • task completion
      • member satisfaction
    • High task supervisors - productive but high turnover, lower morale
    • High consideration supervisors - high morale, low productivity
    • Over-generalised conclusions
      • ideal leader = high on initiation + consideration.
      • participative styles preferred
    Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948, 1956)
  • 24. Ohio State findings - balancing initiation & consideration
    • crews & superiors rate aircraft commanders by:
      • technical competence
      • effectiveness in working with other crew members
      • performance under stress
      • conformity to standard operating procedures
      • overall effectiveness as crew members
    • Crews & senior officers differed in perception of commander styles & effectiveness
      • Superiors judge leader competence in terms of
        • formal & traditional standards
        • high initiating & low or indifferent consideration.
      • Subordinates give less significance to initiating. High satisfaction under 'considerate' commanders (seen as more competent).
  • 25. Linking Pin (Likert)
    • Effective leaders fulfil group needs & functions in a situation
    • Frustration, low productivity, absentees & turnover if formal-L can’t perform all these.
    • Formal tasks.
    • instrumental competencies & motives
    • technical know-how, innovation, sense of achievement, concern for quality & customer care
    • Affiliation
    • interaction, support & expressive needs
    • Weak formal-L. Informal alternative emerges
    • If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if this changes?
    • Can formal leader adapt?
    • will group, dept, nation (led by alternative) perform optimally?
    o o o o o o o o o
  • 26. Critique of Ohio State Studies
    • Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders or non-evaluative measures of performance.
    • output measures can often be favourably affected in the short term by authoritarian leadership.
    • Usual problems of social research
      • Hawthorne effect
      • Abstracted empiricism
      • likelihood that a change in performance is related to more than one variable
  • 27. Michigan Leadership Studies
    • programmes for changing style & org. culture
    • 'proprietary' approaches to assessment & training
    • Diagnosis and treatment
    • Blake - Mouton Managerial Grid (1968)
    • Extended with contingency focus
      • Tannenbaum 1958
      • Reddin (1970)
      • Hersey &Blanchard (1977)
    1.9 9.9. the ideal one-best style 1.1 9.1. Concern for production High Low Concern for people High Low 5.5. Managerial Grid
  • 28. Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum Boss-centred Follower-centred decision making & action freedom for followers use of authority by leader Continuum based on situational factors: value system, wants, confidence, willingness. Tells Sells Consults Joins Abdicates Suggests Delegates
  • 29. Exercise
    • Review your experiences of working under different leadership styles. Advantages & disadvantages of a shift to a more 'participative' style?
    • What departments in your organisation appear to operate with different 'leadership cultures'? Account for the differences.
  • 30. Critique of style theories
    • Universality of the style approach?
    • Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of ' style' theories
    • Style changes often assoc. with changes in org. structure + other mgt competencies .
    • Fiedler (1967) questions whether participative, considerate styles are better than trad. authoritarian or directive.
    • Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of behaviour change from directive to participative.
    • Organisational & work pressures - own & other people's expectations.
  • 31. Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967)
    • D efines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---> high task performance by group. Depends on
    • preferred style of leader
    • group situation as much as leader
    • contextual variables
    • Quality of L-member relations
    • Work structure (high to low)
    • Leader position power
    • Respected leaders have personal power. No need to use position power (authority)
    • High structure? non- compliance? Easy intervention. Unstructured, hard measure? Cannot easily enforce. Less power
    • extent of formal authority over rewards and sanctions Power is not just dependent leader-follower relationships.
  • 32. Fielder development prescription
    • Re-structure the work - How?
    • position power - depending on L. assessment, give subordinates near-equal 'rank' (experts) or assign several ranks below
    • Loosen or tighten communication and decision-making
    • leader-member relations - leader can be similar or dissimilar to members (social, educational or ethnic background, values or attitudes)
    • A history of harmony or conflict? Assign a leader whose style fits group
    • Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55
    • See Chapter 13 Rollinson
    • Measure preferred style
    • least preferred co-worker LPC instrument
    • 8 scales e.g. cooperative-uncooperative, friendly-unfriendly, supportive-hostile
    • High LPC - relationships oriented
    • Low LPC - task oriented
    • - External circumstances affect L ability to influence
    • - Change leader (personality?) to fit situation or restructure to reflect strengths?
  • 33. Fiedler: leader-members, task structures, position power Task centred Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Relationship-oriented Task centred Task centred Task centred More effective leadership style Weak Weak Unstructured Poor 8 Weak Strong Unstructured Poor 7 Moderate Weak Structured Poor 6 Moderate Strong Structured Poor 5 Moderate Weak Unstructured Good 4 Good Weak Unstructured Good 3 Good Weak Structured Good 2 Good Strong Structured Good 1 Favourableness Position power Task structure Leader-member Relations
  • 34. Implications and critique of Fielder
    • If Fielder is right
    • don’t try to change people arrange task & power to fit situation
      • select leaders & identify preferred styles. Diagnose situation and change it for - best fit leader-match concept
    • But
    • can a manager really choose a style, change 'personality' and a virtuoso with different styles?
    • Leadership training targets this. Are they training pigs to fly?
    • LPC scores may indicate attitudes or personality but not actual behaviour
    • Task performance is sole criterion for evaluating effectiveness (neglects follower satisfaction)
    • L-processes are more sophisticated than this theory. Mixed evidence on validity - other variables ignored
    • However
    • a deeper study which breaks the 'one-best-style' view and addresses contextual variables
  • 35. Exam Questions
    • Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social engineering' approach to the development of thinking on leadership and manager development practice.
    • Evaluate how the Fiedler 'contingency and social engineering approach' to leadership could work in any organisation known to you.
  • 36. Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)
    • Is Blake - Mouton (1968) 9.9 style ideal?
    • style is more/less effective in situation
    Effectiveness High Low Task High Low Relationships Low High Related Integrated Separated Dedicated Developer Manager executive Bureaucrat Benevolent autocrat Missionary Compromiser Deserter Autocrat
  • 37. Situational leadership model (Hersey & Blanchard 1977, 1982)
    • A contingency approach with follower maturity as critical situational variable for L-effectiveness.
    • two major dimensions
      • task style
      • relationship style
    • Four styles
      • telling, selling, participating, delegating.
    • follower maturity
      • degree of achievement motivation
      • willingness to take on responsibility
      • education or experience
    • Theoretically weak
    • no proper rationale for the hypothesised relationships
    • Maturity - an over-simplified factor - lacks empirical support (Yukl, 1981; Graeff, 1983; Blank et al, 1990).
  • 38. Path-goal theory (contingency approach)
    • Main idea
    • Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals using appropriate style, contingent on situational variables
    • differs from Fiedler
    • various styles - directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented - can be used by the same leader in different situations to
      • influence subordinates' perceptions of the situational factors
      • motivate by focusing on payoffs
      • coaching and direction
      • clarifying goals and expectancies
      • reducing frustrations/barriers.
    • the research is not conclusive
    • House & Mitchell 1974
    • Based on expectancy theory of motivation
  • 39. Problems with contingency theories
    • what causes what in real life?
    • As with style theories, it is difficult to understand why there should be a favourable climate towards the leader in some groups.
    • It could be argued that 'permissive' leadership is the result, rather than the cause, of group effectiveness.
  • 40. Social learning theory and leadership
    • a model for continuous interaction between the environment (macro variables + subordinates and the leader's behaviour, perceptions and cognitions.
    • leader & subordinates/followers have negotiable, interactive relationship
    • They learn how they can modify or influence each other's behaviour by giving or holding back desired rewards
      • Davis and Luthans, 1980
      • Sims and Lorenzi, The New Leadership Paradigm, Sage, 1992
  • 41. Why the persistent search ?
    • exercising effective-L is becoming more and more difficult
      • economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc.
      • political change South Africa, Soviet Union, Italy, Japan and Europe
      • less natural goodwill and traditional deference towards leaders
    • Many skills and techniques of today's senior executives are being superseded.
    • Competition & changing markets, products, technologies and expectations dictate adaptability and innovation in strategic decision making, marketing, organisation - and leadership
  • 42. Are successful leaders redefining their role?
    • projecting a particular ethos and culture
    • powerful vision of where their companies or their societies are heading.
    • E.g. Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed's vision of Malaysia in the year 2020
    • former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's vision of Singapore as The Switzerland of the East by 1999.
    • What does this imply for leadership behaviour?
    • Managers and senior executives who are successful leaders will not only respond to change positively but also actively create change.
    • Leaders with a particular drive, a desire to bring order out of chaos, or, if something is too cosy, to create chaos in order to bring change.
  • 43. Transformational leadership theory
    • Context? late-20 th C national & global pol-econ. change
    • Contributors: Downton (1973), Burns (1978), Bass (1985), Bennis & Nanus (1985), Tichy & Devanna (1986)
    • Bass surveyed 70 execs "In your careers, who transformed you in Burns' terms (raised awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy …. to transcend self-interest).
    • Answer: usually an organisational superior.
    • fresh thinking?
    • transformational leader creates conditions for followers to want to achieve results and to fulfil themselves.
    • bridges small group studies & leadership by ’movers and shakers’ who transform organisations
  • 44. From Laissez faire to Transactional
    • Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid intervention, weak follow up, passivity, potential for confusion
    • Transactional leaders
      • Management by exception
      • Passive: set standards/objectives, wait for, react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo
      • Active: standards/objectives, monitor, correct, look for error,
      • enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and risk-taking
      • constructive transactions, contingent rewards
      • agree standards/objectives, feedback, rewards for achievement.
      • outcome: performance that meets expectations.
      • simplified in One-Minute Manager (Blanchard & Johnson 1982)
      • Airport business library
  • 45. Transactional leadership in perspective
    • Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP
    • laissez-faire and transactional in directive, consultative, participative & delegative styles
      • directive + Mgt by Exception
      • 'These are the rules and this is how you've broken them'.
      • participative + Mgt by exception
      • 'Let's work out together the rules to identify mistakes'
    • Weaknesses
      • Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets, systems, controls
      • management > leadership
      • fails to develop, motivate, bring to full potential (Bass)
  • 46. The transformational leader (Bass’s four 'I's)
    • promotes
    • follower desire for achievement & self-development.
    • teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy, belief, value
    • Four 'I's.
    • lndividualised consideration (IC)
    • Intellectual stimulation (IS)
    • Inspirational motivation (IM)
    • ldealised influence (charisma) (II)
  • 47. Individualised consideration and Intellectual stimulation
    • IC
    • identifying individuals' needs & abilities, opportunities to learn, delegating, coaching and giving developmental feedback. Spend time with individuals e.g. mentoring.
    • IS
    • question status quo, encourage imagination, creativity, logical thinking and intuition.
    • unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation.
    • Compare UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Sony
  • 48. Inspirational motivation & ldealised influence
    • Inspirational motivation
    • clear vision, problems as opportunities, language & symbols
      • I had a dream …...
      • Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what you can do..
      • go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler.
    • ldealised influence
    • Confident in communicating a virtuous vision
    • the buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence, trust, accomplishment over failure. Respected for personal ability
    • Leadership .. the priceless gift you earn from those who work for you. I have to earn the right to that gift, and continuously re-earn (it).
    • John Harvey-Jones (ICI)
    • Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair
    • Hitler, Jim Jones
  • 49. Bass's model
    • Learn TL!!
    • Avolio-Bass training package
    • Encouraging TL will
    • project confidence, commitment & competence
    • attract quality staff to the mission & challenge
    • develop people more fully to respond better to competition & change
    LF LF LF 4 x I CR MbEx-A MbEx-P LF effective passive active ineffective
  • 50. Motorola's six-sigma programme.
    • Transformational leadership application
    • defect-free parts within six standard deviations
    • concepts, symbols and vision for world-class quality
    • IS, IM, IC in promoting awareness, responsibility and self-monitoring.
    6 Σ
  • 51. Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?
    • ‘ exporting participative management or Theory Y from the USA to authoritarian cultures is like 'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who believe in the divine right of kings'.
    • Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966
    • Leadership - a universal phenomenon?
      • context and culture influences
      • Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy, Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan and Singapore
      • suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning across cultures
  • 52. Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need 'em?
    • 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory and research in explaining effect on motivation &performance
    • 'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr & Jermier 1978)
    • Are there substitutes for leadership making L-behaviour unnecessary e.g.
      • 'Professional', competent people do not need 'leadership' to perform well and to be motivated. Depends on
        • the individuals, the work, the organisation and its structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction, group cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of the leader
    • Replace/counteract leader behaviour in determining member performance and satisfaction.