Knowledge management
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  • 1. A paper presentation On Knowledge management At State Level Seminar on Current Scenario in Management 11th February 2012 Organized by: N. R. Vekaria Institute of Business Management Studies Bilkha Road-JunagadhSubmitted by: jignesh vamja Mo: 9426128003 Email id: jsvamja@yahoo.com 1
  • 2. INDEXSR. No. PERTICULARS PAGE NO. 1. Introduction 3 2 Concept of knowledge management 4 3 Knowledge chain 5 4 Benefits of Knowledge Management System 7 5 Features of Knowledge Management 8 6 Barriers to KM 9 7 Evaluating knowledge management 10 8 conclusion 10 2
  • 3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTIntroductionUnder increasing competitive pressure, many companies are examining how they can bettermanage their intellectual capital. As the pace of global competition quickens, executives realizethat their edge lies in more efficiently transferring knowledge across the organization. Theemerging field of knowledge management addresses the broad processes of locating, organizing,transferring and more efficiently using information and expertise within an organization. Newmarket forces and infrastructure changes have prompted an interest in knowledge management.Market forces include new corporate models that emphasize corporate growth and efficiency, theneed for cycle time reduction, knowledge lost from downsizing and the need to share informationacross the organization, which often means across the globe.To lower these barriers to sharing knowledge, leading executives recognize the need to institutenew knowledge-centric practices. Information technology plays an important role in enablingthese processes across distributed enterprises. What executives want to avoid, however, is thecost and disruption of a wholesale change to the organization’s information systems.The promise of technologies aimed at knowledge management is that they will helporganizations use the knowledge they have more efficiently without changing the tools theycurrently use to create it and process it. This is the promise, but unfortunately what manysoftware vendors tout as knowledge management systems are only existing information retrievalengines, groupware systems or document management systems with a new marketing tagline.What executives really need are new technologies designed to implement the revolutionarychanges in the way knowledge workers create, communicate and manage knowledge. To helpanswer that question, this white paper examines the practical aspects of knowledge managementand evaluates how various new and existing technologies can be used to create a knowledgemanagement system that meets the needs of the organization. 3
  • 4. What is Knowledge Management?Knowledge management is understood to be an umbrella term encompassing the many uniquebut related facets of knowledge – exchange,transfer and uptake among them. While there is nouniversally accepted definition of KM, most are extremely similar. For this paper, the workingdefinition of knowledge management has been determined to be“... the systematic process bywhich knowledge needed for an organization to succeed is created, captured, shared andleveraged.Decision making on knowledge management, networks can adopt a strategy for knowledgemanagement which takes positive steps to examine and prioritise actions around the elements inthe Table below. It may not be possible or feasible to address all of these however tackling someof them may serve to raise the profile and relevance of the network more than others. The tablemay be used both as a tool for action but also as a tool for self assessment on the subject ofknowledge management.How well do we perform knowledge management?Good shows that the output has been achievedImproving shows there is awareness about the importance of the output and actionis being takenNeeds more attention shows the output is not yet being addressed or considered important.The Role of Technology in Knowledge ManagementTwo distinct factions exist in the knowledge management world. Those who maintain thatorganizational behavior and individual socialization determine how much knowledge passesbetween individuals generally believe that technology is not the answer. Rather, they seetechnology as merely a distraction from issues such as change management, culture andleadership. Information technology evangelists who focus on technology as the solution to theknowledge management question occupy the other end of the spectrum. 4
  • 5. Most case studies to date, however, have shown that a successful knowledge managementprogram requires a change in organizational behavior and in technology infrastructure.Technology is not the solution to an organization’s knowledge management needs, however it isrequired to enable the organization’s knowledge management processes.The knowledge chainFundamental to the practical definition of knowledge management is the concept of theknowledge chain.» internal awareness;» internal responsiveness;» external responsiveness;» external awareness;Internal awarenessIn its simplest terms, internal awareness is the ability of an organization to quickly assess itsinventory of skills and core competency. It is the awareness of past history in terms of talent,know-how, interaction, process performance, and communities of practice. Strong emphasis onfunctional organization structures, which often permeate traditional companies, inhibits thedevelopment of internal awareness. Organizations with a rigid functional structure most oftendefine their core competency as their products and services, not their skills. Strong internalawareness is built on an ongoing challenge of what is done and a focus on what is possible.Internal responsiveness 5
  • 6. Internal responsiveness is the ability to exploit internal awareness. Internal responsivenessconsiders how quickly competencies can be translated into actions to bring a product to marketor respond to a customer needExternal responsivenessExternal responsiveness is the ability to best meet the requirements of the market. When all issaid and done, an organization’s ability to better satisfy this cell in the knowledge chain than itscompetitors will determine its success or failure. External responsiveness is measured by theability to effectively respond to opportunities and threats outside of the organization in a timelymanner. This is the essence of competitive advantage – a level of responsiveness toenvironmental conditions that is significantly faster than that of its competitors.External awarenessExternal awareness is the mirror image of internal awareness. It is the organization’s ability tounderstand how the market perceives the value associated with its products and services, tounderstand who are its customers, what those customers want, who are their competitors,competencies of competitors, market trends, competitive actions, government regulations, andany other relevant market forces that exist outside the organization itself. When coupled withinternal awareness, external awareness may lead to entirely new markets. External awareness isone of the cornerstones of the Internet, where new business models are sprouting up at anunprecedented pace. The velocity of the Internet provides an incredible opportunity to act uponthe market’s reaction to new products. However, new models for capturing market responses arejust as critical.Benefits of Knowledge Management System 6
  • 7. Creating an enterprise-wide knowledge management system is not a simple task. However, thebenefits of a well-designed system are immense:Awareness: Everyone knows where to go to find the organization’s knowledge, saving peopletime and effort.Accessibility: All individuals can use the organization’s combined knowledge and experience inthe context of their own roles.Availability: Knowledge is usable wherever it is needed whether from the home office, on theroad or at the customer’s side. This enables increased responsiveness to customers, partners andcoworkers.Timeliness: Knowledge is available whenever it is needed, eliminating time-wasting distributionof information just in case people are interested.The Importance of People to KMAn essential thread that runs throughout the four components of KM is the need for skilledStaff attached to each core function. Therefore, capacity-building efforts with public healthStaff through a variety of methods and tools are critical to the success of KM. “Learning andknowledge are not organizational functions. They happen to and through individual people.An organization only ‘learns’ when an individual is able to impart the understanding to orchange the behaviour of the organization as a whole”While culture, content, process and technology are important, “they do not do knowledgemanagement. Unless you are able to involve practitioners actively in the process, your abilityto truly manage knowledge assets is going to remain seriously limited. It is their knowledge”Key Features of Knowledge Management System 7
  • 8. Although individual knowledge management systems are as different as each individualorganization, they share many basic features.Open and DistributedBy definition, a knowledge management system unifies existing knowledge silos. Standardprotocols and application programming interfaces (APIs) enable integration among systems suchas groupware, e-mail, document management and directory services. In implementing a unifyingsystem, organizations must ensure that the information architecture is flexible enough to meet theevolving needs of individual organizations. Knowledge management systems must also be ableto be distributed over various host computers and physical locations. The system should allowsystem administration from any location by using HTML, Java applets or ActiveX controls thatare accessible through any compatible web browser.CustomizableAll organizations and large organizations in particular require an extremely customizableknowledge management system. The system should supply user interfaces in the form oftemplates so users can easily customize them using tools such as HTML and JavaScript. A robustknowledge management system should allow easy integration of existing and new applications.It must include documented application programming interfaces (APIs) and software developertoolkits (SDKs) that allow the organization to link systems to each other. For example, if thesystem administrator links a monitoring system to a technical documentation repository, he orshe can push the appropriate technical documentation directly to a repair technician when themonitoring system senses that a system is malfunctioning.Measurable 8
  • 9. Measurement is a critical aspect of any knowledge management effort to strike the right balancebetween organizational and technological changes. Only by quantifying and processing theresults can organizations determine if the systems are having the desired effect. A knowledgemanagement system includes tools that allow managers to measure and verify usage to get aclear picture of how the system is being used, locate performance bottlenecks and, mostimportantly, use the data to improve organizational knowledge transfer processes.SecureWhile traditional applications usually require the administrator to grant access to those who needparticular information, knowledge management applications focus on maximizing access toknowledge. Therefore they are more likely to require the administrator to prohibit access tospecific content areas to those workers who should not have access to them. However, this doesnot mean that knowledge management systems do not have security. A knowledge managementsystem needs to provide secure repositories and preserve security models present in existingknowledge silos where appropriate, while allowing access across the organization to those whoneed it.Barriers to KM• It’s not convenient.• They don’t know what they know.• They don’t know the value of what they know.• They believe knowledge hoarding is job security.• They don’t get credit for it.• They don’t have the time.• They take pride in their expertise.• They enjoy interacting with peers.• They wish to learn. 9
  • 10. • They expect others to reciprocate.• Their culture encourages sharing.• They are loyal to the organization.Evaluating knowledge management • outcomes measures that reflect attainment of financial, clinical or operational performance • process measures that track activity that is expected to yield results. • satisfaction measures that track improvements in employee attitude, physician engagement,and consumer satisfaction with the care processConclusionKnowledge Management appears to have the support of most major organisations. Manycompanies are still struggling to quantify benefits that can be displayed on the balance sheet,although some like BP Amoco, Shell and Chevron have shown some quantified benefits. Morenatural everyday processes will probably succeed the pilot initiatives with an emphasis on howknowledge can be re-used for idea generation. 10