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Tvc   jan - march 2013

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    Tvc   jan - march 2013 Tvc jan - march 2013 Document Transcript

    • TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN 100www.textilevaluechain.comPh.: + 9122-26844222. Email: lsauxichempvt@gmail.com B-301, Oxford Chamber, Saki Vihar Road, Tunga Village, Mumbai - 400 072. (India). CORPORATE OFFICE: Pure silver yarn for Jeans, Pure silver yarn for Suiting / Shirting Pure silver yarn for Dress Material Pure silver yarn for Embroidery
    • advt.
    • EditorialSuccess is not the matter ofbeing the best and winning the race.Success is handling the worstand still finishing the race Spinning, the pride of the Textile Value Chain Editorial Advisor, Secretary General of MOA
    • 08 Cover story : Indias Policy Power and Pollution Textile Parks, on Infrastructure 12 Cover Story continued... Interviews & Views Views and Interviews by Industrialists from Bombay Rayon Fashions, Chiripal Group, SVG Fashion, Rishabh Metals and Chemicals, and... 28 New Ageprevious editions New Age Fibres and Yarns Continuation of Fabric Applications and Architecture 36Artificial Turf. Artificial grassSPORTSTECH A look at Technical Textiles: for Indias needs 40 Visual Merchandising A Study to see its effect on the sale of textiles Development of Software to 43 Engineer Cotton knitted Fabric To solve inconsistency issues in Knitted Fabrics60 Approaches towards Effluent Treatment in Textiles Need of the hour!!
    • News: Global / National 06Cover story: Interview with Mr. S.N. Todi, Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd.. 12 Interview with Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal, Chiripal Group & 13 Mr. Sandip Agarwal, SVG Fashions Ltd. 13 Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, Rishabh Metal & Chmicals Pvt. Ltd & 14 View of Mr. Uttam Jain 14 Views of Mr. Aditya Biyani, Dr. Talukdar, Mr. Deshbandhu Kagzi, Mr. Kirti Shah 15 Pollution Redressal Policy 16Fibre : Banana : A Fruit fibre 20 SRTEPC Events brief 21Yarn : Influence of yarn and fabric structures on colour values of textiles 22 Linen & Chairs / Rattan Glitter presence in exhibition 25Colour forecast: Fall Winter 2013 32Technical textile: News 38Skill gap analysis: In Fabric Processing Sector 46Skill gap: Setting of Skill development project by Ministry of Textiles 48College focus: Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science 49Career focus: Career Opportunity in textilles with Home science courses 50Govt. policy: Good Economics is Good Politics 52Associations News: CITI & FICCI 54 TAI & HCC 55 BMC & MOA 56 ITAMMA 38Tradeshow details 57Tradeshow Review: ITME 2012 & Vastra 2012 58
    • Levis® Debuts WasteLess™ DenimCollectionSource: www.textileworld.com San Francisco-based Levi Strauss & Co.has introduced the Levis® Waste<Less™collection of denim jeans and trucker jacketsmade using materials derived from post-consumer recycled (PCR) polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) bottles and food trays.The garments, to be featured in the LevisSpring 2013 collection for men and women,will include a minimum of 20-percent PCRcontent, with an average of eight 12- to 20-ounce PCR PET bottles going into each pair ofjeans and more than 3.5 million bottles goinginto the overall Spring 2013 Waste<Lesscollection. The PCR materials include brown, greenand clear bottles and black food trays; and willbe sorted by color and processed into flake industry. The adhesive is packaged in a pre- In addition to high bond strengths, otherand then into fiber. The fiber will be blended pressurized cylinder for an easy-to-use, key advantages of this product include labor,with cotton in yarns that Greensboro, N.C.- maintenance-free delivery system. Workers equipment and materials savings. Bybased Cone Denim will weave with cotton simply spray the adhesive on the two fabrics eliminating the need for expensive sewingyarn into fabric for the collection. Levis notes being bonded and apply pressure to the machines and generators, contractors canthat the color of the bottles used will provide seam. The adhesive dries quickly, further also avoid unforeseen down time due toan undertone to the fabric and a unique finish enabling fast and efficient assembly. These equipment maintenance and repair.to the garment. simple steps create a bond strong enough to Additionally, in some cases, use of 3M According to James Curleigh, global meet the American Association of State Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray Adhesivepresident, Levis brand, the new collection Highway and Transportation Officials reduces the need for a geotextile materialdemonstrates the companys commitment to (AASHTO) M288-06 requirements for seam overlap from 24" to 6", providing additionalreducing its environmental impact and efficiency for a wide variety of specifications. material savings.encouraging others to do the same, whileproviding products of good quality. "By addingvalue to waste, we hope to change the way Pakistan – Textile Sector to Lose US $ 3 Billion Export Orderspeople think about recycling, ultimately Source: The Nation via www.yarnsandfibres.comincentivizing them to do more of it," he said."This collection proves that you dont have to The All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, additional burden of Rs4 per unit of highersacrifice quality, comfort or style to give an while appreciating government proposal of electricity cost to the consumers.end a new beginning." restricting CNG fuel only to public transport, He said that the solution to the issue of has said that textile industry would lose $3b gas lies in prioritising industry and power exports if gas curtailment continued for sector and only giving direct targeted support3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray another three months, as gas suspension to to low income group by subsiding cheap fuelAdhesive introduced industry continued for five days a week. to only public transport. This should also beSource: GM via www.technicaltextile.com The leader of textile sector and former regulated so that the advantage should be 3M introduces 3M Geotextile Seaming chairman of the Aptma Gohar Ejaz hailed the passed to common man, besides fair ofCylinder Spray Adhesive, a new method for PM Adviser on Petroleum and Natural transport should also be fixed according toseaming geotextile fabrics for uses including, Resources Dr Asim Hussain for supporting CNG rates, he added.but not limited to, erosion control, and soil longstanding stance of textile industry in public He strongly protested against five days aseparation and subgrade stabilization interest to prevent use of CNG in vehicles week gas curtailment to textile industry by theapplications. The adhesive is an extremely over 1,000cc and increasing taxes on CNG SNGPL, as the industry would not be able toversatile, fast-tacking construction-grade with a view to bring its price to a level 20 per perform when it is already passing through sixspray adhesive with a unique wide-web spray cent lower than petrol. hours a day electricity load shedding. He saidpattern, ideal for bonding geotextile fabrics. “Aptma endorses Dr Asims measures for the industry was unable to understand theWith this innovative solution, installers of fair support of local industry as part of the plan logic behind gas curtailment for five days ageotextile fabric can see time-savings of more to phase out CNG industry, which is eating up week when CNG pumps were onthan 56 percent compared to sewing. 425 million cubic feet gas per day,” the Aptma countrywide strike against price reduction. 3M Geotextile Seaming Cylinder Spray group leader observed. He said that long queues outside CNGAdhesive lets contractors create quick, Because of this usage of 400mmcfd gas in stations show that consumption of CNG haspermanent bonds on many geotextile fabrics, CNG, 3,000MW electricity, which can be increased out of proportions and it is in theand also provides a seam strength that produced from this gas, is being produced interest of the country to do away with CNGoutperforms the fabric strength for many through furnace and diesel, costing $3 billion as it was wastage of resources.commonly used fabrics in the construction of import of this oil to Pakistan, along with
    • NATIONAL NEWS Joint Venture Mafatlal Forays into towel business in quality 100% cotton yarn in a wide range Beaulieu International Group enters a Joint Venture with Girosons Clothing of 11 bright & fresh colours. The Lagoona JV with Lucknow-Based INDTEX Industry range of towels is made from premium International Source: Press Release combed cotton for a softer feel and high Source:www.economictimes.com absorbency. The Coral range is made The project entailing an investment from rich combed cotton, which is lint of Rs 100 crore would be through a joint less and available in 11 inspiring pastel, venture with its Indian partner Lucknow medium & dark colours. The Pearla range based, Indtex International. Beaulieu is a 100% cotton fancy jacquard towels. would hold the majority stake in the Marina range offers a range with stripe project. designs. Desire range offers a range with Vice President and CTO, Beaulieu Mafatlal Industries Ltd. has forayed into polka dot designs. Thus, Mafatlal Towels International Group, Guy Verrue along towel business on a massive scale by have set new tradition to enhance the w i t h M a n a g i n g Pa r t n e r I n d t e x entering into bathing experience. International, Iqbal Siddiqui met the a joint venture with Girisons Mr. Vineet Jain, Director- Girisons Principal Secretary, Infrastructure and Clothing Industry. Group further stated that Mafatlal Towels Industrial Development, Siddiqui said that Mafatlal Towels with high absorbency are introduced initially in Maharashtra, they received assurance of full in various sizes are manufactured with the Gujarat, Tamilnadu and KeralaMafatlal cooperation by the state government and state-of-the art technology on most Towels will be available in 14200 retail work on the plant would begin shortly. modern sophisticated machines Mr. outlets, within a year consisting of multi He said that the $1.5 billion, Beaulieu Vineet Jain, Director-Girisons Group brand outlets & Mafatlal Family Shops. International Group, is a leading global stated that the major sale of towels in the Girisons Clothing Industry is a part of player in floor covering business and is country is from unorganized sector 50 years old Girisons Group. The Group setting up a plant in China with an where quality is not satisfactory. Big Is actively engaged in textiles, garments, investment of Rs 250 crores. manufacturers of towels are in export travel, real estate, E-education and E- The plant in UP would come up at Dewa business and they supply surplus stock commerce businesses. Road near the state capital for which the with odd sizes in the market. With the land has already been acquired by the entry of Mafatlal in this field, the company. It would manufacture consumer will have a wider choice and extrusion of PP granules into yarn and selection with best of qualities. weaving carpet backings, said Arshad Mafatlal Towels offer several Iqbal. He said that their product which is categories of towels to cater to the currently imported would find ready demand of discerning consumers. The market among carpet weavers and Oasis range of towels is made from high flooring material manufacturers. Being human to being citizen, need of steps like the information system, an hour...!! complaint boxes, regular interactions etc Source : foundation day of BMC taken by Sri Satyapal Singh for efficient At the occasion of 54th foundation day control. The C.P requested Mumbaikars . celebration of BHARAT MERCHANTS to be responsible citizen apart from being CHAMBER, chief guest Dr. Sri Satyapal a good citizen. He clarified that a Singh, Commissioner of Police, Mumbai responsible citizen keeps his eyes, ears & emphasized the need for citizens to be nose open and informs any suspicious vigilant and help the Police to help the activity to the police through anonymous business practice and other programs in people of the city. President Yogendra complaint letter, emails, sms, letters etc. co-operation with Mumbai Police. BMC Rajpuria & Trustee Rajiv Singal praised the He also emphasized the need of teaching also requested for seat in advisory effective law and order control during his moral value system at school, college and committee of the Mumbai Police, so that regime. Honorary Secretary Shiv even at business chamber level like stake holders are consulted before any Kanodia congratulated his smooth and Bharat Merchants Chamber. Honorary policy is formulated, and they can incident free completion of 31st Dec. and Secretary Shiv Kanodia appreciated his recommend the needs of general equated him to Narayan Murthy of Police valuable guidance and assured that he will citizens. Force. Shiv Kanodia enumerated several ensure strengthening of CSR, fair
    • COVER STORY India’s Policy on Infrastructure: Textile Parks, Power and CETP Avinash Mayekar The main promoters in the ITP would be Industry MD & CEO, Associations/Groups of Entrepreneurs Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. The ITP should have maximum of 8 Separate Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) and shall be formed with the Introduction representatives of Local Industry, Financial Institutions, State Indian Textile industry is one of the major sectors of and Central Govts. Indian economy, largely contributing to the growth of the The scheme targets industrial clusters/locations with countrys industrial sector in terms of export earnings. high growth potential, which require strategic interventions However, in order to nourish this industry there has to be by way of providing world-class infrastructure support. An facilities like road network, power, water and other ITP will have components like Land, Common infrastructural aspects. Somehow, Indian Govt. has yet not Infrastructure, buildings for common facilities, factory focused on policy framework required by the industry and buildings for production purposes and Plant & machinery hence it is being created by the industrialists themselves. with flexibility in setting up to suit the local requirements. The However, it means delays in getting land parcels, plenty of following are the elements of the project cost eligible for the bottle necks in the systems and procedures and many grant: obstacles in liaison with Govt. bodies. In order to give a major thrust to the development of textile industry in India, Govt. has now come out with schemes like SITP which should create good infrastructure , with state-of-the-art facilities as per the guidelines. Scheme for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) SITP was launched by merging two schemes, namely, Apparel Parks for Exports Scheme (APES) and the Textiles Centre Infrastructure Development Scheme (TCIDS). The primary objective is to provide the industry with world-class infrastructure facilities for setting up their textile units and facilitate them to meet international environmental and social standards. The total project cost is funded through a mix of Equity/Grant – from the Ministry of Textiles, State Govt., State Industrial Development Corporation, Industry, Project Management Consultant and Loan - from Banks/ Advantage India Financial Institutions. Abundant availability of raw material (like cotton, silk, The Government of Indias (GOI) support under the jute etc.), growing domestic market, investor friendly govt. Scheme by way of Grant or Equity will be limited to 40% of policies and availability of skilled manpower makes India an the project cost, subject to a ceiling of Rs. 40 crores. GOI ideal location for investment in textiles. The major factors support under the scheme will be generally in the form of affecting the viability of the textile park are availability of raw grant to the SPV unless specifically decided to be equity. material and labour in the vicinity, well-equipped However, the combined equity stake of GOI/State infrastructure in and around the park, availability of market Govt./State Industrial Development Corporation, if any, and investor friendly govt. policies. Hence while selecting a should not exceed 49%. However, GOI support will be location for a textile park; we need to consider parameters provided at 90% of the project cost subject to a ceiling of Rs. like logistics, availability of raw material, skilled labour and 40 crore for first two projects in the States of Arunachal supervisory staff and nearness to targeted market. Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Presence of back-end resources, targeting suitable Tripura, Sikkim and Jammu & Kashmir. customers, customer profiling, catering to customer needs, creating state-of-the-art infrastructure are some of the The pre-requisites for SITP differentiating factors for a textile park. Some of the strategies The Integrated Textile Park (ITP) should have atleast 50 to be adopted to create a techno-economic viable textile units park are The land area should be minimum 100 acres Conducting market research globally and domestically The aggregate investment in land, factory buildings and to understand the current demand-supply situation, assess plant & machinery by the entrepreneurs in ITP shall be at any gaps in demand-supply, target new market segments and least twice the cost of common infrastructure proposed for identity key growth areas, key product segments & key the ITP business requirements 8 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • COVER STORY Creating state-of-the-art infrastructure with facilities in Rajasthan, 2 each in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and 1 matching the international standards each in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh, Determine the product mix of the park with appropriate Karnataka, Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal. land location & its details, location analysis, arriving at the Some of the established ITPs are Islampur Integrated most beneficial investment and understand the overall Textile Park (Maharashtra), Latur Integrated Textile Park requirement of infrastructure like CETP power, water, , (Maharashtra), Gujarat Eco-Textile Park (Gujarat), Palladam marketing hub and other facilities Hi-Tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), Karur Textile Park Mapping the quality of infrastructure provided by the Limited (Tamil Nadu), Madurai Integrated Textile Park (Tamil competitors against the price offered by them and Nadu), Komarapalayam Hi-tech Weaving Park (Tamil Nadu), positioning ourselves to be competitive Baramati Hi-tech Textile Park (Maharashtra), Doddaballapur Existing parks under SITP Integrated Textile Park (Karnataka) and Vraj Integrated Textile Till date 40 parks (Locations of which are shown in the Park (Gujarat). map of India below) have been sanctioned under the 11th Some of the solutions proposed for the Govt. are to Five Year Plan of which 24 have already started operations understand requirement of the industry, reserve land parcels and have attracted investments of over Rs.18,880 crores. at appropriate places for Textile parks, and develop schemes Below is the graph showing the grant in percentage received for mini parks of about 25 acres which can be developed for by the 40 textile parks. specific requirements and to support the industry on merits. Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) The textile processing industry which takes care of value additions in the fabric is characterized by the high volume of water required at various stages of processing and the range of chemicals required for the various processes. These processes generate tremendous amount of waste, the nature of which depends on the type of textile facility, the processes and technologies being involved, and the types of fibres and chemicals used. The waste generated from these processes needs to be disposed correctly otherwise it causes environmental pollution. This necessitates the need for effluent treatment plant wherein the effluent generated in the process house can be treated to such a level that it can be disposed of without causing any damage to the environment. The best case study to emphasize the significance of effluent treatment plant is the Tirupur textile industry. In Tirupur, the effluent generated from the bleaching and dyeing units was discharged into the River Noyyal & River Nallar. The two rivers are natural drainage courses that only The 40 ITPs is estimated % Subsidy Received by the Parks carry water in the monsoon period. During the remainder of to have an investment of Rs. the year, they used to carry only industrial effluents that 18,425 Crores with stagnate in the riverbeds and percolate into the combined project cost of groundwater. As a result, the groundwater quality around around Rs. 4,486 Crores and the cluster of bleaching and dyeing units was polluted to such annual production of Rs. a level that it was unfit for domestic, industrial and agricultural 33,964 Crores. The grant activities. sanctioned to the ITPs is Due to public pressure (especially the farmers), the around 1,385 Crores with Rs. court intervened and closed the dyeing units several times 825 Crores of grant released since 1997. Recently, in June 2005, this took an ugly turn, to these ITPs. The total no. of when the Chennai High Court ordered complete closure of entrepreneurs or units in the ITPs are 1,893 and the total the dyeing units and slapped crores of rupees of employment generated in the park is 6,16,388 (Direct: compensation to clean the environment on the dyeing units. 2,82,576 & Indirect: 3,33,812). This created a furore in the whole textile industry as this lead Govt. has sanctioned Rs. 2,100 crores to set up 21 new to more problems when the demand for the processed textiles wherein ITPs would leverage an investment of over fabrics was increasing. Rs. 9,000 crores, provide employment to nearly 4 lakh However, at present all Dyeing & Processing units are workers. Of the 21 units approved, 6 are in Maharashtra, 4 using 100% Zero Discharge technology and units in Tirupur Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 9
    • COVER STORY created and generating more than 2000 MW in Wind Mill or there is shortage of power. Shortage of power in textile Energy. Both Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) cluster leads to load shedding thereby leading to drop in and Individual units are following this ZLD technology and production. SSIs are unable to sustain in these conditions are meeting the requirements of the trade and servicing the and this leads to the closure of the units. requirements. More than 50% of total units are running, 494 States Rs./ Unit Dyeing units and 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to court order. There are 16 CETPs under Maharashtra 7.01 operation out of 18 now. Punjab 4.95 Below is the picture of River Noyyal at Tirupur which Tamil Nadu 5.50 looks visibly cleaner downstream of Tirupur (inset) after the Rajasthan 6.25 citys dyeing factories were shut in February: Gujarat 5.00 Karnataka 5.50 Andhra Pradesh 3.97 The combined net profit of BSE Sensex companies in the sector fell from Rs 5,166 crores in 2010-11 to Rs 1,845 crores in 2011-12, which is a decline of 64%. As cited by DK Nair, secretary general, CITI, the financial results of 287 textile companies listed on the BSE for 2011-12 have shown a sharp decline in net profits during the year compared to the previous year, despite a growth in net sales. This is indeed a worrying trend that shows a combination of increasing input costs and declining profits. To balance our demand and supply of power, we must take into account the supply of power from the generation CETP is the concept of treating effluents by means of a or HT grid to the specific machinery, increase supply by collective effort mainly for a cluster of small scale industrial selecting secure & uninterrupted power supply, checking the units. The main objective behind setting up of a CETP in a voltage profile and going for cost effective power. While cluster is eliminating the need of effluent treatment plants in planning the supply of power, we should also consider the individual process house which has following advantages: cost of infrastructure required to bring the power from the Saving in capital and operating cost of treatment plants grid to the factory premises, power losses and any other Availability of land at ease concern to the environment. We should reduce demand by Disposal of treated waste water & sludge becomes monitoring and controlling demand, optimizing energy more organized consumption, improving productivity, building capacity and Reduced burden of various regulatory authorities in training human resources. ensuring pollution control requirements Some of the solutions are suggested to the textile industry for implementation of CETPs. The State Pollution Control Boards should prescribe standards for discharging effluents and conduct regular jar tests and submit to CETP . Govt. should come out with CETPs at most of the State Industrial Development Corporations to facilitate good quality infrastructure. No industrial park should be allowed without CETP Build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) . should be adopted for CETP as well. BOOT is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design, construct, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance expenses in the project. Power Generation and Distribution Electricity is one of the major components contributing to the hassle-free operations of the textile units. Textile industry is bound to suffer if cost of power (diesel) increases 10 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • COVER STORY Energy cost is based on two part tariff – fixed charges and consumption charges. Billing parameters are based on FAC charges, TOU charges, penalties/incentives and electricity duty. If we plot a load curve for the measured power data for entire day for a week, we can observe from the graph that the power variations are with high troughs and crests which indicate fluctuations in the power received by the unit. The energy losses can be reduced by plotting the energy data against production and understanding the fixed energy consumption. One more graph can be plotted by plotting cumulative data of past 12 months of the production against cumulative data of past 12 months of the energy. With the help of these 2 graphs, power factor can be improved. To understand the demand side of power, month wise data of maximum load (KVA), connected load (KVA) should be plotted in to a graph and the actual gap regarding power issues should be identified. Energy Monitoring System Peak Load Reduction Demand side Re-scheduling of Management load Base Load Reduce Demand Reduction Energy Conservation GAP Technical Intervention Energy Efficiendcy PowerInstallation Training Increase Supply Condition Evaluation Capacity Building Automation Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) has been consider various land parcels; all equipped with enforced wherein certain % of total power consumed by infrastructure either for textile parks (or mini parks of 25 Obligated Entities should be renewable energy based. If acres each) or through various industrial corporations. Govt. RPO is not complied with, then amount equivalent to the should give major emphasis on clearing all statutory number of RECs at Forbearance Price should be deposited requirements on fast track basis. In short it can be concluded by Obligated Entity. For complying with RPO, three options as: are available: 1) Invest in Renewable Energy Power Projects, ITP scheme: ITP scheme is industry friendly, easy to 2) Purchase Renewable Energy Certificates and 3) Purchase implement and can generate interest in the industry. Hence Merchant Power. this scheme should continue and generate investment and Some of the solutions are suggested for power employment opportunities in the Indian textile industry. It problems to be jointly considered by textile industry and also may have a module of land parcel of 25 acres which can government bodies. Textile industry should be given serve as a Mini Textile park which can be created by existing continuous and quality power supply. Government should textile entrepreneurs for their own expansions or for giving it ensure textile industry to have no power cuts and shut to others as well. downs with uniform rates across country. Various sources of CETP: Govt. should be completely involved in power and new energy development techniques should be developing infrastructure. CETP should be made mandatory explored. We should continuously monitor production and in any industrial park/ textile hub. CETPs may operate on energy consumption and understand our needs. BOOT principal. Power: Special focus on power sector needs to be given Conclusion to fulfill industrial need which is 24x7 especially for textile Looking at all these concerns, we need to devise a industry. Entrepreneurs should focus on various comprehensive strategy for a better Indian textile industry. methodologies to reduce power tariff. Renewable Energy The infrastructure requirements are huge and we need to Obligation could be made mandatory in the coming days. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 11
    • Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited Islampur parkWe interviewed companies for their take on SITPs,Power, Pollution and more…Here, we have an ExclusiveInterview with Mr. S.N.Todi, Commercial Advisor ofBombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. BRFL is a vertically integratedtextile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide rangeof fabrics and garments from state of the art productionfacilities. BRFL owns Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt.Ltd. (IITPL, near Sangli) and Latur Integrated Textile Park T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFLs factory set-up in thePvt. Ltd. (LITPL). They are soon going to start work on Parks with the production and employment detailstheir 3rd park in Kagal (Kolhapur). S.N.T.: In IITP we have weaving, garmenting, garment , washing, and packaging. In LITP we have garment and , Mr. S.N. Todi garment washing, value-added machines, embroidery Commercial Advvisor of plants. In Kagal, it will be Knitting- Yarn based textiles Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. factories. Ÿ Production till date @ LITPT.V.C: You throw light on the Govt. SITPs and how it Garments: 6.38 lacs pcs, Total value - Rs.1.356 lacs.benefits the Common Man? Manpower: Garment Units -1170, Washing Units - 14, Total Manpower – 1184S.N.T.: SITPs benefit everybody and in the end everyone Ÿ Production till date @ IITPcomes out a winner. Weaving: Grey and dyed fabric - 267.92 lacsmtrs. TotalŸCommon Man - It generates substantial employment in value - Rs. 16,872 lacsthe vicinity. Moreover, it has a large potential for Garments: 42.93 lacs pcs. Total value - Rs. 9,230 lacsemployment especially for Women in case of Garmenting. Total product value: Rs.26,102 lacs at the Park.Ÿ Textile industry Entrepreneurs / Owners- It leads to new Manpower: Direct employment: 2042, Indirectventuring in the Textile Parks. It motivates them to avail the employment: 130. Total: 2172benefits under the Scheme and subscribe and participate dueto ready infrastructure and common utilities and facilities T.V.C: What is your take on the Power supply in the Parksavailable. or in general?ŸGovernment & Associations- The Textile Parks generate S.N.T.: Power Cuts, failures and disruptions are required toand contribute to the exchequer to the Govt. and be regulated with modern transmission and distributiondevelopment in the vicinity and to the bodies associated with systems to reduce the Industrys sufferings and deliver timelytraining of skills and development amongst the workers results.T.V.C: Please tell us about BRFL Parks. T.V.C: What are the measures taken by BRFL to beS.N.T.: BRFL has successfully completed and promoted two environment friendly since Textile Industry generatesparks; one at Islampur (IITP) and the other at Latur (LITP) in plenty of effluents? How can India control and discardMaharashtra. It has also got an approval for one more park at hazardous chemicals in areaMIDC-Kagal (Kolhapur) and it is ready to take-off shortly S.N.T.: Yes, sadly Textile Industry generates plenty of effluents while processes like dyeing, processing, printing, sizing and washing of garments. It also generates effluents by way of High BDS in the return water line from boiler and gases/smoke in air pollution by hot exhaust gases. Pollution Control Boards have prescribed norms and limits to treat each effluent and this can only be controlled by regular monitoring and civic sense by all. Latur Park We have installed a Sewerage Treatment Plant (STP) and Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) at Islampur since we haveT.V.C: When did BRFL receive permission for the set-up garment washing in that Park. We also have taken ownershipof the parks? to control and discard hazardous chemicals from weavingS.N.T.: For Islampur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (IITPL) and washing operations and are being regulated to disposeand Latur Integrated Textile Park Pvt. Ltd. (LITPL) we got such waste in areas as prescribed. th rdpermission on 29 May, 2008. For the 3 park at Kagal, we We have been trying to build up Green Zones aroundgot approval on 08.11.2011. the Parks. We have planted nearly 5000 trees in the Park at We took 3 yrs to complete our projects at Islampur and IITP alone and similar at LITP too in the rocky lands.Latur. We expect the same for the plant at Kagal. 12 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • COVER STORY Chiripal Group Special interview: Chiripal Group: Directors Jaiprakash Chiripal and Mr. Yogesh Thaker Chiripal Group is a vertically integrated enterprise having manufacturing facilities for POY, Texturising, Cotton Spinning, Denim Weaving, Knitting and Processing, Home Furnishing, Garmenting, Retail and own Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited (VITPL), Ahmedabad. Technical textiles, weaving and allied sectors like washing, Mr. Jaiprakash Chiripal embroidery etc. We have generated approximately 3000- MD of Chiri pal Group 4000 employment till now, directly and indirectly through our park. T.V.C.: What is the reason behind choosing Ahmedabad T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITPs and for the Park? how is it beneficial? JC & YT: Ahmedabad is a mega city and has a long history of JC & YT: These Parks are for SMEs and work on “Plug and textiles. It has excellent resources like excellent rail & road Play” concept with ready availability of all facilities required network, air connectivity, hotels, continuous water supply, for successful functioning of textile business. They offer the well spread drainage system and uninterrupted power user enterprises, benefits of “cluster economies” and great supply. It is on the path of development with mega projects opportunity for SMEs to grow together along with the seeing the light of the day every moment. Gujarat is a raw industry and achieve their business goals. material hub for cotton, nearness to processing cluster in T.V.C.: Please tell us about Chiripal Groups Park set-up. Narol for weaving and garmenting units. Proximity to city JC & YT: We have set-up Vraj Integrated Textile Park Limited also makes availability of business resources. This is beneficial (VITPL) in Ahmedabad. We received Textile Park permission to the entire city, state and country. As the Industry says, “A in 2006 and completed the park in 2012. The Park is now true value for money destination for the textile completely ready. VITPL is designed to set-up garmenting, manufacturing sector.” SVG Fashions Limited Exclusive interview with Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal, MD of industry ranging from various types of yarns to sports wear, SVG Fashions Ltd. knits, embroideries, prints, for home textiles and dress Mr Sandiip Agarwwal heads ‘Karma’ the home textile materials. Textile Parks are like Malls where everything is division of SVG. SVG Fashions Ltd. is a part of the diversified available in one place. So textile buyers also get to see vertical SVG that is Shree Venkateshwar Group. It has a vertically and and lateral integrated processes for textile products. laterally integrated manufacturing set-up with in-house Everything under one roof makes the park more lucrative R & D labs and design studios. and exciting. T.V.C.: Where is SVG looking to set-up a Park and what Mr. Sandiip Agarwwal are the plans for the same? MD, SVG Fashions Ltd. SA: We are looking to set-up Park in Jhagadia village, near Surat and Baroda, Gujarat. Jhagadia is a place where cotton and polyester raw materials are easily available. We have T.V.C.: Could you throw light on the Govt. SITP’s and already acquired 50 Acres of land in Jhagadia in GIDC area a how is it beneficial? year back. If approved, the Park cost is estimated to be SA: SITP is a Single Window Scheme for SME’s and a cost around Rs. 60-70 crores. saving scheme. It is a common platform to share resources, synergise the activity of various stages of production, T.V.C.: What type of factories is SVG planning for the maintenance, packaging and distribution. It benefits all intended Park? SA: We are planning for all sectors of value chain from raw manufacturers and also professionals related to the industry. material to finished goods. In this manner our park members T.V.C.: Does SVG own any park or SEZ? If No, is SVG will get their raw materials and services on time. As we are planning to invest in any Parks and why? also into exports, we are aware that reaching export SA: We do not own a Park yet. We had applied for a Park but deadlines is sometimes really difficult in a country like India still haven’t’ received Govt’s approval. SVG’s presence and where raw materials and finished goods are far way from interest in setting up a Textile Park is for a good cause. Being each other. Having raw material manufacturers within the skilled players in the value chain in the textile segment makes park will prove to be a boon for the complete value chain in our company an ideal candidate for setting up an SITP We . terms of timely delivery and quality control because feedback have experience across the entire value chain of the textile will be immediately available to the seller. Textile Value Chain | October-December 2012 13
    • COVER STORY Rishabh Metal & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd Special Interview with Mr. Rishabh Jain, MD Rishabh T.V.C.: Is your future plan for addressing concerns for Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. being cost effective and modern? Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. (RMC) is a diverse RJ: We are planning new range of products; in one, the waste company manufacturing a range of specialty chemicals, coagulates in liquid form with different combination of equipments for specialized applications in various industry chemicals. We have a research laboratory in Jalgaon. We do segments including water, waste water treatment, textiles, regular in-house research as well as outsource through paper, etc. In Textiles, they treat Waste Water which is various university like ICT, scientists and industry consultants. Effluent Treatment given after dyeing and washing the In this way, we get a great combination of knowledge, fabrics. guidance and advice. Mr. Rishabh Jain T.V.C.: There are always substitutes for any product. MD Rishabh Metals & Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Substitute for your chemical is other chemical material like Ozone treatment, amongst many others. Also the biggest machinery agent in India is marketing Biological T.V.C.: What challenges does RMC face? How does RMC System where no chemicals are required. How is RMC intend to address them? facing this competition and do you feel chemical RJ: The challenge we face is to give the cheapest product and treatment is out-dated? at the same time be a quality service provider. As per RJ: One needs to look at Cost Benefit Ratio. If any machinery Pollution Control Board strict effluent treatment requires provides the same solution, then what is the one time water for treatment. But the industry is still not ready for machine cost, instalment cost, adding the running cost (need increase in their budget for the treatment. So solution is Be to calculated fix cost and variable) about other treatment, cost effective and be sustainable in the industry. Our clients same cost benefit and advantage and disadvantage of each are Alok Industries, Welspun, Bombay Rayon and many treatment, etc. So it all depends on buyers requirements, more... feasibility, need, urgency, availability and many other factors. We dont fear competition as we are confident about our T.V.C.: Industry is passing through a difficult time. product. Treatment costs have increased. How is RMC addressing this issue? How is RMC handling industry reactions? T.V.C.: RMC have certified drinking water plant? RJ: Yes, we know, we also understand industry problems and RJ: Yes, without certificate we can not supply water to reactions. Globally, chemical costs have shot up by 70%. anybody. We have NSF certification, which is applicable There is serious competition in the chemical industry; few across the world including countries like US, Europe and large players and many small players. Depending upon the other Asian countries. NSF is US based certification for chemical, sometimes we bear the cost and sometimes the drinking water. Every year, there is an Audit check by US customer. We are also working on various technologies; authorities without any prior notification. If the water and treatment balancing cost effectiveness by combing Organic plant are not up to standards, they cancel the certificate. and Inorganic Coagulants which will be 95% cost effective to Since the past two years we have a plant in Jalgaon, industry, amongst other methods. Maharashtra. Views of Industrialists regarding SITPs, Power, Pollution and more… - Mr. Uttam V. Jain, Director of PDEXCIL Water Pollution: Large-scale garment manufacturing units deal with them. have several technological options to combat with the Evaluation of existing exhaust systems. pollution problems. Besides having effective in - house Consideration of exhaust stream pre-cooling. Effluent Treatment Plants or using Common Treatment Consideration, comparison and selection of optimum Plants, other process technology options are available where Air Pollution Control equipment. the water used itself is very minimal. In many Industrial areas Dealing with obnoxious odour: The problem with odour is the effluent water is purified by treatment and recovered that it is not practically measurable. Odorous molecules over 90% for re-use. Currently, the Reverse Osmosis attach themselves to the particles of smoke and can be Technology and other Ion Exchange processes are in vogue. carried great distances from their point of origin, causing Air Pollution: The major air pollution problem in the textile complaint. When air pollution equipment has abated the industry occurs during the finishing stages where various smoke, the odour molecules have no vehicle to carry them. processes are employed for colouring or coating the fabrics. That is why savvy plant managers find that the installation of In order to take measures to check the air pollution it is smoke abatement equipment sometimes solves the odour necessary to: problem, too. Relatively inexpensive equipment is also Analyse chemicals so that systems can be fine-tuned to available to address the problem directly. 14 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • COVER STORY Dr. Talukdar, VP of Kusumgar Corporates Park: Technical Textiles needs separate textile parks in India as their needs are specialized. As of now Kusumgar is not planning for any Park. Pollution: In India, we dont give any importance to pollution. The norms are not clearly specified and hence not strictly followed. Power: There should be uniform policy maintained throughout the country. Stern action should be taken for stealing power. Mr. Aditya Biyani, Marketing Director of Damodar Thread Ltd. Textile Park: Specialization is the need of the hour. Textile Parks will play a vital role for overall growth of the Indian Textile Sector particularly small and medium Scale industries. Both, sourcing and marketing will become economical, efficient and prompt which will help organisations to use their resources efficiently. Pollution: Right infrastructure needs to be built to treat the effluents released from dyeing and processing units. Serious measures have to be taken very soon. It is not possible for individual organisations to build the infrastructure themselves due to capital constraints. Textile Parks will play a very critical role since it is mandatory for textile parks to have common effluent plants, recycling centres etc. Power: Across India, infrastructure for power is being created. Many companies are now installing their own power generation capacities. It is very expensive for organisations to have plants closed due to power cuts. Mr. Kirti Shah, MD of Textile World, Mumbai Market Analysis: Textile business is changing with fashion and production is entirely driven by it. People who are technical qualified with fashion will only survive. In todays highly complex and changing consumer marketplace, brands and retailers need to be sure that the products they deliver meet consumer expectations. Along with that, they also need to meet the required safety, regulatory and government standards, domestically and globally. Textile testing is an integral part of it; Good quality can be achieved either by meeting the standard norms as devised by the buyer or passing the complete parameters for further shipping out the goods to the end user. Power and Pollution: Many production centres like Ichalkaranchi, Erode, and Tirupur are facing problems of power and loosing valuable orders. Textile industry is shifting to Maharashtra, Gujarat, Bihar & U.P Southern mills are shifting to Gujarat & Maharashtra . due to power cut problems. In Gujarat, Jetpur is suffering from water problem which is the biggest industry near Rajkot. Govt is not bothered to resolve this. Due to the Central Govt rule for water pollution, in Ahmedabad, all factories remain closed for one month every six months. Nobody is seriously interested in taking actions & regularizing norms. About half of the worlds waste water problems are linked to the production of textile goods including many of the chemicals which cause harm. Textile has grown up to the peak of the consumer needs which requires the assured quality & sustainable characteristics to further meet the competency in the market. Shri Deshbandhu Kagzi, President of Hindustan Chamber of Commerce Textile Parks: SITPs have several benefits as similar types of manufacturing are based at one place. The Common facility Centre at the Parks provides technical solutions to the process with knowledge sharing rather than competing with each other in isolation. They will facilitate good investment opportunity, employment generation and increase in quality textiles production. SITPs are very attractive as the very word of the park is Integrated Textile Park; it definitely helps in backward as well as forward integration for the products. Thus, it is very useful across the value chain. Water Pollution: The Garment Industry is not as polluting as it is made out to be. Majority of the units convert finished fabric into garment without going for garment wet processing i.e garment dyeing and printing processes. Textile industry is one of the leading consumers of water. It consumes about 3.2% of total consumption of water for various processes such as sizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing and other finishing processes. The used water containing various constituents such as dyes, chemicals etc gets contaminated if released directly into the sources of water. This is resulting into water pollution. Nowadays the use of synthetic fibres, polymers and finishes by textile industry is increasing at rapid rate. Since many of these products are resistant to biological degradation, more care is required in their treatment. Pollution Control Boards have norms and methods in place to monitor the ETPs and CEPTs. The awareness level amongst the Textile Industries has considerably increased after the incidences at Tirupur and Rajasthan. Power: Power cuts and high costs are main hindrance in development. It is also the negative aspect of the industrial scenario. The captive power generation units with natural gas are part solutions to the problem. The Central Government has started the National Grid Concept which is yet to materialise in true sense. The Power Tariff and its availability for the industry at any state should be at par to offer level playing field for the entrepreneurs as well as real growth of the Industry. The Centralize system for power distribution will go a long way in industrial growth and healthy atmosphere. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 15
    • COVER STORY Pollution Redressal Policy Mr. C. N. Shivramakrishnan Waste water characteristics: Waste water quality can be Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC defined by physical, chemical and biological characteristics. (Chartered Colourist) Physical parameters include color, odour, temperature, Senior Textile Advisor solids (residues), turbidity, oil, and grease. Solids can be Water pollution control is concerned with the further classified into suspended and dissolved solids (size protection of the aquatic environment and the and settle ability) as well as organic (volatile) and inorganic maintenance of water quality in lakes, reservoirs, (fixed) fractions. Chemical parameters associated with the streams, rivers, estuaries and the seas. The desired or organic content of wastewater include the biological oxygen required water quality that must be maintained depends on demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total the uses to be made of the water. Therefore, water quality organic carbon (TOC) and total oxygen demand (TOD). criteria must be available for alternative beneficial uses if the BOD is a measure of the organics present in the water, adequacy of various pollution control measures is to be determined by measuring the oxygen necessary to bio- assessed properly. Domestic water supply, industrial water stabilize the organics (the oxygen equivalent of the supply, agricultural water supply, water for recreational use biodegradable organics present).Inorganic chemical and water for fish, other aquatic life and wild life are well parameters include salinity, hardness, pH, acidity, alkalinity, established beneficial uses. Once the criteria necessary for iron, manganese, chlorides, sulphates, sulphides, heavy the protection of the various beneficial uses have been metals (mercury, lead, chromium, copper and zinc) nitrogen established, it is possible to set standards for surface water (organic, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), phosphorous. with the stipulation that no discharge shall create conditions Bacteriological parameters include coli forms, fecal coli that violate them. These standards are known as receiving forms, specific pathogens and viruses. water or stream standards. Water and energy requirements during the processing and Different states have taken the approach of classifying manufacturing of cotton textiles are tremendous. It can take streams in several categories in accordance with the highest up to 200 litres of water to produce, dye and finish one beneficial use to be made of the stream. This use is based, to kilogram of textile. Wastewater from textile production is a certain extent, on existing conditions. Effluent standards often difficult to treat as it contains high concentration of pertain directly to the quality of the treated wastewater dyes, BOD, total organic carbon, dissolved solids and high discharged from a sewage treatment plant. Designing content of toxic metal (chromium, copper, cobalt, lead, zinc, industrial discharge standards should reflect the numerical etc.) compromise between what can be achieved to prevent Colour removal technologies: Considerable amounts of environmental pollution and sustainable development. They water and energy are used in the processing of different should involve categorical limitations for specific sources. materials in the textile production chain. Water is also used in Difficulty in enforcing receiving water standards arises when huge quantities during cotton cultivation. An area of great the combined load of several discharges exceeds the self environmental concern is about the amount of water purification capacity of the receiving waters. Micro pollutants discharged and the chemical load it carries. Other important represent the major concern for industrial effluents. A micro concerns are energy consumption, air emissions, solid pollutant- based sub categorization is needed for an effective wastes and odours, which can create significant problems to control of industrial effluents. environment. Air emissions are usually collected at their In recent years different approaches have been point of origin. Because they have long been controlled in discussed to tackle man-made environmental hazards. different countries, there is good historical data on air Clean technology, eco-mark and green chemistry are some emissions from specific processes. This is not the case with of the most highlighted practices in preventing and or emissions to water. The various streams coming from the reducing the adverse effect on our surroundings. different processes are mixed together to produce a final Environmental issues associated with textile industry effluent whose characteristics are the result of a complex effluents include: combination of factors such as, the types of fibres and make- ups processed, the techniques applied and the types of Ÿ Residual dyestuffs-toxicity,colour, Ÿ Auxiliary agents for dyeing- chemicals and auxiliaries used. biodegradability toxicity and biodegradability Total water management: Conventionally, water coming Ÿ Halogenated organic Ÿ Surfactants and synergistic into a process plant, which generates effluents, are treated compounds (AOXs) relationship with toxicants and discharged. In Total Water Management (TWM), the Ÿ Heavy metal contamination (Cr, Ÿ Finishes - toxicity and effluents are treated and recycled. Water and valuable by- Cu, Zn) biodegradability products are reclaimed and reused. Physical, chemical and Ÿ Salts in effluent which is to be Ÿ Elevated temperatures biological treatments are given to the effluents. The reused for land application Ÿ High levels of total oxidized advantages of TWM are multifold. The inlet water quantity Ÿ High BOD levels. sulphur (TOS) and the effluent discharge quantity are reduced. So through 16 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • COVER STORY TWM, by recycling the effluent for process requirements, effluents containing benign contaminants or being treated to the discharge is also minimized considerably. a level guaranteeing that the receiving stream is not Developing a treatment strategy: A set of cost effective on- impacted. site unit operations and processes can be installed in areas Discharge to sewer: Effluent wastewater treatment which require effluents treatment. These remedial operations are sent to the sewer, which is connected to the techniques consist of preliminary and primary process common effluent treatment plant. The wastewater is subject equipment, instrumentation and control units related to the to municipal pretreatment containing constituents that the textile processing and the waste water characteristics. CETP can effectively degrade. Common outlets for waste water discharges are as follows: Offsite disposal: Effluents and other residues (sludge) Discharge to surface water: Effluent from waste water from wastewater treatment operations are transported to treatment operations is piped directly to a surface water an offsite treatment facility. The handler determines the level body and is subject to local regulations. Effluent limitations of pretreatment required for off site disposal. This method is depend on the ambient water quality criteria, the conditions appropriate for low volume, high toxicity effluents and of the receiving stream and the amount of mixing available. residuals. Effluents and residuals in this category are usually Discharge to surface water is usually a viable outlet for prohibited from discharge through other outlets. Criteria for selection of an ETP system Effluent Character Details of ETP Recurring Expenditure 1 Characteristics of raw effluent Tentative cost of Treatment Plant 1 ETP Cost 1Quantity of chemicals for treatment & 2 Design and treatment unit size cost per day (m3/day and m3/hour) 2 Disposal cost 3 Electrical & mechanical equipment 2 Power (Electricity-KWH) & cost per 3 Method of flow measurement at final day outlet cost 3 Manpower cost per day 4 Scheme descriptions with flow chart 4 Total treatment cost. 5 Characteristics of treated effluent Selecting appropriate treatment technologies: The Ÿ Insoluble substances that Ÿ Substances separable by degassing or environmental impact of the textile industries is associated can be separated physically stripping with its high water consumption as well as by the color, with or without flocculation. Ÿ Substances requiring a redox reaction variety and amount of chemicals which are released in the Ÿ Organic substances Ÿ Substances that can be concentrated wastewater. Waste waters from dyeing and finishing separable by adsorption by ion exchange or reverse osmosis Ÿ Substances separable by Ÿ Substances that can be precipitated as operations in the textile industry are generally high in both precipitation insoluble iron salts or that can be chelated. color and organic content. The waste water from the textile Ÿ Acids and bases industry is known to be strongly coloured with presence of large amount of suspended solids, broadly fluctuating pH, Substances treatable by Biological methods: Effluents require high temperature, besides high chemical oxygen demand. some form of treatment prior to disposal to sewer, river or Colour is the first contamination to be recognized in this sea. Prior to the installation of any end-of-pipe treatment waste water. There are several methods for colour removal method, it is essential to carry out segregation of the effluent like Adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, precipitation, streams to separate the contaminated streams from the polyelectrolyte, biological process, ionizing/ gamma relatively clean streams for treatment. This results in a more radiation. Although there are many options, each one of the effective treatment system as a smaller volume of waste technologies has its limitations, hence combination of water is treated (resulting in lower capital and operating technologies is generally preferred for cost effective colour costs) and it allows for the use of specific treatment methods removal. Before implementing any in plant controls or pre- rather than trying to find one method to treat a mixture of treatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways waste with different characteristics. The segregated clean to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine streams can then be reused with little, or no, treatment the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater elsewhere in the factory. There are two possible locations generated during production. For example, the for treating the effluents, namely, at site or at common concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can effluent treatment plant. The advantage of treatment at the be recycled as part of starting materials for the next factory is that it could allow for partial or full re-use of water. production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater The following technologies can be used. requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices, Zero Discharge Concept: In the past few decades plenty of spill control measures such as spill containment enclosures progress has been made in the area of waste treatment. and eliminating wet floor areas. The principal pollutants Chemical engineers are focusing on environmental concerns affected by modifying industrial manufacturing processes and in the textile plant, mostly on monitoring the chemical in plant treatment methods are as follows: content of waste water. Today, most waste water treatment Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 17
    • COVER STORY Classification of treatments followed in textile effluent: Primary Screening and sedimenting:Equalization Neutralization Coagulation Secondary Aerated lagoon: Trickling filtration Activation of sludge Oxidation Anaerobic digestion Tertiary Oxidation: Electrolytic precipitation Membrane separation Electrochemical process Ion exchange Treatments Sequence Adsorption Thermal evaporation plants work well and the focus is shifting towards additionally 6. The feasibility of establishing suitable collection and conveyance system in minimizing the energy needed to run. The aim is to prevent the case of a common treatment facility. the treatment of local emissions from causing damaging the Regardless of the treatment technology to be adopted, greenhouse gas emissions which contribute to looming following parameters are necessary to achieve zero discharge. global warming. In safety and environmental technology 1. Removal of grits and suspended limits solids 5. Complete removal of colour research, the focus of attention has shifted from local to 2. Removal of oil & grease, scum 6. Recovery of reusable water global concerns over the years. Water losses which need to and other suspended matters 7. Treatment of reject (from reverse osmosis be considered are disposals coming from the clean drains 3. Equalization and adjustment of pH system/blow out from evaporator). system of the water/steam cycle. The Zero Discharge 4. BOD/COD levels are in control 8. Solid waste disposal and management. Concept is designed to collect all kinds of clean drains and Conclusion: Fresh water is fast becoming scarce, forcing us to blow down routing it to the condenser respectively the plan for recycling of treated waste water. Most industries are condensate polishing plant. The regenerated condensate is generating wastewaters that are difficult to treat and are staring fed back to the water/steam cycle. The result is a plant with at stringent discharge norms which are difficult to meet with minimum water consumption. The concept of zero conventional technologies. Conventional effluent treatment discharge signifies that the process water utilized in dyeing plant (ETP) has an array of equipments and chemical treatment and bleaching operations are recovered for reuse to an process. Latest technologies ensure that all the effluent extent that there is no discharge of effluent into the treatment processes like equalization, aeration, settling and environment. decanting are carried out in a single tank. The final treated A zero discharge treatment system design in textile effluents need stringent discharge norms with respect to carbon processing should consider the following things: oxidation, nitrification, de- nitrification and bio-phosphorous 1. Quantity of the effluent to be solids (TSS), reduction in biological removal in line with European standards. Our biosphere is treated. oxygen demand (BOD) for a given 2. Variability in time of the quantity effluent. under constant threat from continuing environmental pollution. as well as quality of the effluent. 4. The upper and lower limits of Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by 3. Unit processes suitable for performance of each unit process. anthropogenic activities on water, air and land have negative achieving desired purposes (such as 5. The durability of the system to be influence over biotic and abiotic components on different removal of total suspended adopted. natural eco-systems. We need to act before it is too late. News: Tirupur first to adopt Zero Liquid Discharge Technology Source: Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) via www.fibre2fashion.com Dr. A Sakthivel, Chairman of AEPC, recently announced to this ZLD technology, some marginal percentage was that Tirupur is the first textiles cluster in India to arrive at the being used after colour processing - in the form of salt water Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Technology. He further as concentrated salt solution - called BRINE Solution re-use.” proudly added on behalf of Dyers Association of Tirupur, “I He further informed that, on the energy front, we are facing also declare that we created and generated more than 2000 problem in running the units. “We are incurring more MW in Wind Mill Energy. That way too we are helping to operational cost due to heavy load shedding and due to achieve Green Field Technology in power sector.” usage of diesel gensets,” he added. It is to be noted that due to the High Court order, the On the Tirupur business acumen, Chairman AEPC said Dyeing & Processing Industry in Tirupur had appalling that, “People here are very determined. They are very problems and many units had to be shut. More than 50% of strong in continuing their established business. They will total units are running. Approximately 494 Dyeing units and explore various ways and means to live-up to the 162 bleaching units were there before closing down due to expectations of their sourcing people both domestic and court order. There are 16 CETPs under operation out of 18 international, even if they have to do business with minor now. Now both Common Effluent Treatment Plants losses / minor margins, since this is a temporary phase and (CETPs) and Individual units are following this ZLD we have to continue with textile business to go a long way. technology and are successfully meeting the requirements of Tirupur traders are well bent people to achieve their goals in the trade and servicing the requirements. spite of all the bottlenecks - like sudden increase in yarn On the problem of water shortage, Dr. Sakthivel said: prices, sudden close-down of the Dyeing & Processing units “As far as water is concerned, we are not facing any problem and to add to that economic slowdown in our traditional since we are re-using the water up to 90%. Moreover, due markets i.e., USA & Europe. 18 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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    • FIBRE FOCUS Banana : Utilization in Textiles Yarn Dr. R. P. Nachane Retired Scientist of CIRCOT Banana is one of the important fruit crops grown almost in every state of India (8 lakh ha). Apart from fruit, it generates huge quantity of biomass as waste in the form of Fabric pseudostem, leaves, suckers etc.,, of these on an average about 60 to 80 t/ha is pseudostem alone, which presently is absolute waste and does not find any commercial applications. In some cottage industries, fibres are extracted from pseudostem for preparations of handicrafts. The fibre extraction is being done mostly by hand where the fibre output is about 0.25kg/day/man. In order to mechanize the fibre extraction, research was carried out at Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai and modified Handicraft fibre extraction machine "Raspador" was developed. After Using fibres extracted at NAU two large scale trials of initial experiments some refinement and modifications were yarn making were conducted at Kolkata on jute spinning carried out in Raspador machine as well as procedure for system. The yarn produced is of about 1s cotton count extraction. These modifications improved the productivity of having tenacity of 10g/tex. CIRCOT has fabricated banana machine to 20-25 kg/day. Under NAIP-Banana project fibre processing assembly for conversion of fibres to yarn. entitled "A Value Chain on Utilization of Banana Pseudostem This is a laboratory scale spinning unit exclusively for spinning for Fibre and Other Value Added Products" in all 24 Raspador of banana fibres and requires certain modifications to machines were procured and operationalized at Navsari improve the quality of yarn. This work is under progress and Agricultural University (three at NAU and Twenty one are is expected to be completed in near future. given to banana farmers through Banana Co-operatives). About 2.5 tonnes of banana fibres extracted by the About 20,300 kg of fibres were extracted by farmers and farmers in and around Navsari was converted into non- sold to NAU at the rate of Rs.80/kg, so net income of woven fabric by needle punching method. Fabrics with Rs.10,17,800/- was gained by them. surface density of 450, 700 and 900 gram/sq.m (GSM) were During the fibre extraction four components are prepared with 2 levels of thickness for each GSM. obtained simultaneously i.e., fibre(600 kg/ha), Scutcher Mechanical properties of the fabrics are quite good. Some waste (30-35 tonnes/ha in wet form), Sap (15,000 to exploratory work on use of these fabrics as geo-textiles has 20,000 l/ha) and Central Core (10-12 tonnes/ha). It was shown that these fabrics have more life under ground vis-à- realized that apart from fibres, remaining components can be vis similar jute fabrics, i.e., degradation of these fabrics is at a used to prepare value added products. Vermi-compost and slower rate as compared to that of jute. This is an paper can be made from scutcher waste. Sap can be used as advantage over jute fabrics particularly for agro/geo-textile liquid fertilizer or mordant in textile dyeing and candy can be applications where bio-degradation of fabrics should be at a prepared from central core. Farmers can get net additional reduced rate. Different end uses and product development income of Rs.27,800/ha by selling vermi-compost. are being attempted for these fabrics. After attending training at NAU, one farmer, Mr. Upendrasinh Patel, of Rajpipla taluka Nandoa of Narmada district started fibre extraction using one unit of Raspador. In due course he has extended the activity to establish a small scale cottage industry in GIDC, Rajpipla. He got an additional income of Rs.1,68,000 from fibres and approximately Rs.10,000/- and Rs.10,000/- is expected Processing of Fibre to yarn income from Vermi-compost and Vermi-wash respectively. Setting up of an ancillary industry in banana growing areas for extraction of banana fibres and utilization of other bio-mass could help in enhancing the farmer income, increasing the rural employment, creating a raw material for industry and efficient disposal of the waste there by creating environmental benefits. Reference : innovation project at CIRCOT 20 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • ASSOCIATION NEWS Synthetic Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council (SRTEPC) 1. New elected members for year 2012-2014 17 as per Planning Commission Projections exports of man- Shri Rakesh Mehra (CA), Elected as made fiber textiles are estimated to touch US$ 9 billion. Chairman of Banswara Syntex Ltd. For period of This he said can be achieved only by enhancing two years. competitiveness by way of quality up gradation, moving up Shri Anil Rajvanshi Elected Vice Chairman, a the value chain, expansion of our product basket and Senior VP & Head Corporate Development introduction of more niche products. Group, Reliance Industries Ltd. 3. Organized Exhibition in Pakistan 2. Export Award Function The first-ever exclusive Indian Textile Exhibitions “SRTEPC Chairman requests for a level playing field (INTEXPO) in Pakistan was organized and were held in for man-made fibre textiles” Karachi on 30th November & 1st December 2012 and Lahore on 2nd &3rd December 2012. The Exhibitions were organized in association with the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry and with the support of the India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), India. 34 member companies and their 58 representatives participated in the Exhibitions and showcased their latest range of products: yarn, fabrics, made ups, accessories, etc. The Exhibition in Karachi was inaugurated by Mr. Siraj Kassam Teli, Chairman, Business Group & Former President, Export Award Function on 26th November 2012 at Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry (KCCI).Mr. Teli Jamshed Bhabha Theatre, National Centre for Performing said that the recent developments indicate strengthening of Arts, Mumbai and Shri Nikhil Meswani, Executive Director, economic and commercial ties between India and Pakistan Reliance Industries Ltd. gave away the awards to exporters and added that the improving economic ties shall help in of synthetic textiles for their outstanding export performance resolving the larger political issues which obstruct cordial for the year 2011-12. relationship between the two countries and lead to peace Best Overall Export Performance (Gold Trophy) was and prosperity to the region. won by Reliance Industries Ltd., Grasim Industries Ltd. Shri Ladia said “I would like to assure you that we have received the Silver Trophy and Indo Rama Textiles Synthetics come here not as competitors but as “collaborators”. This is (I) Ltd. received the Bronze Trophy. specially so, as we feel there are complementarities Lifetime Achievement Award was conferred on Shri between the Pakistani and Indian textile industries and in Virender Kumar Arora, Chairman & MD of Ddécor his view of the geographical proximity and regional outstanding contribution to the man-made fibre textiles accumulation advantages, our textile industries can co-exist, industry. prosper together and can become a force on the global Shri Nikhil Meswani, quoted Shri Dhirubhai Ambanis textile scenario” words “Pursue your goals even in the face of difficulties, Orders to the tune of Rs.14 crores were booked on- and convert adversities into opportunities.” the-spot and orders under negotiation amounted to Rs.125 Indian man-made textile industry is comparatively crores during the Exhibitions in Karachi and Lahore. young, vibrant and growing and is the only country which is Pakistans textile and apparel industry is the single largest self-sufficient across the entire textile value chain, he contributor its economy. Pakistan imported around US $ 3 observed. However, India accounts for just 2% of the global billion worth of textile in the year 2011 of which the US$ 1.5 man-made textile exports. billion were man-made fibre textiles. Pakistan has emerged Growth in non-apparel application will continue to as the leading market for Indian man-made fibre textiles and outpace growth in apparel and margins will be led by non- exports to Pakistan amounted to Rs.2341 crores during apparel segment going forward. More than 75% of 2011-12 almost double as compared to the previous year. incremental growth in fiber demand will be catered by the man-made fibers. China has started to import large quantities of spun yarn in the last few quarters and is expected to be the net importer of yarn and apparel while it will continue to be a net exporter of fabrics. to achieve the targeted growth the exporters need to think beyond the traditional markets, outdated products and archaic processes and embrace innovation to enjoy above average margins. He stated that by end of the 12th Five Year Plan in 2016- Lahore, Pakistan inauguration Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 21
    • Fig. 1: Ring yarnsequence system
    • Our Products Plain Fabrics Linen Fabrics Cotton Check Fabrics Filafil Fabrics Cationic Fabrics Polycotton Fabrics Printed Fabrics
    • YARN FOCUS Ratan Glitter Industries Limited Ms. Rupal Shah, Owner of Linen n Chair Covers, USA, Trader of Made ups, Home textiles, Accessories, many more decorative items. She has visited India in Vastra 2012 as Buyer Glimpse of Vastra 2012 organized by FICCI, costumes by Ratan Glitter Industries Ltd. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 25
    • YARN FOCUS Glimpse from Vastra 2012 Organized by FICCI at Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Mr. Paresh Shah, MD of Ratan Glitters Industries Limited with Buyers Glimpse from INTE EXPO 2012 Organized by SRTEPC at Lahore and Karachi, Pakistan. 26 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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    • FABRIC F)CUS New Age Fabric Applications and Architecture Rajul J. Shah only in protecting the finer silk beneath. It is sometimes used MFA in Textile and Fashion Design as a natural amino acid in non-textile industries such as cosmetics and pet food manufacture. The material has now been found to provide, in a natural form, qualities that are Continuing from previous editions cover story, New useful for clothing, such as moisture and UV filtration. In Age Fibres and Yarns, we carry on with fabric and Kibiso Bookshelf and Futsu Crisscross, the Japanese designer garment innovations, applications and their future. combines the material with their natural materials such as Todays textiles are customized materials with entirely raw silk and cotton. The weaving process brings together the new qualities. They can be formed or combined with other handmade (the kibiso fibre must be slit by hand) and the materials and used in ways never imagined before. Textile technical in the final weaving of the cloth. design is today a high-tech area that demands a broad multi- Schoeller Textil AG, Switzerland, make fashion disciplinary research foundation; anything from material fabrics that are breathable and water and wind repellent. science, computer science, sensor technology and textile Copper: technology to development work and experiments in textile Polyester PU and fashion design. polyamide In this article we look at innovations and applications at different stages. 1. Nano Technology: Recent developments in Misty: nanotechnology have prompted speculation that we may be 60% polyamide embarking on a new technological revolution, every bit as 30% elasthane significant as the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, 10% elasthane involving the redesign of materials on the atomic scale. Making composite fabric with nanoparticles or fibres allows improvement of fabric properties without a significant increase in weight, thickness or stiffness as was the case with Jeans Steel: previously used techniques. 45% metallic yarn Laminated Neolon® is a firm neoprene for the more 30% cotton 20% polyamide active patient, with an improved long-wearing bamboo 5% elasthane fabric cover. The covering is made from activated bamboo A 2-way stretch fabric charcoal. This gives orthotics the outstanding cushioning of Neolon and a top cover that is long-wearing, ecological, antibacterial, antifungal and deodorizing. BambooLon is 3. Sandwich Structures: A sandwich structure is where two embedded with nanoparticles of naturally grown bamboo or more different materials are placed on top of one another charcoal and is made without allergy-inducing chemicals. It is and joined together to form a new single material. The highly porous, breathable and incredibly durable. individual structures are usually different and both textile and Aspen Aerogels® has brought nanotechnology to non-textile materials can be brought together in this way outdoor apparel, footwear, and other gear. Aspens aerogel through a variety of joining processes, including heat, stitch insulation is nano-sized air pockets that block cold and heat and adhesives. Applications vary, ranging from geosynthetics and offers higher thermal performance than any other to clothing. These structures are common in geosynthetics widely used insulation material - at a fraction of the thickness industry where they are sued for road and soil reinforcement and weight. Aspen Aerogels® has proven its aerogel as well as filtration. insulation in boots, jackets, and sleeping pads tested in the most challenging environments on Earth - from the frigid summit of Mt. Everest to the blistering floor of Death Valley. 2. Weave: Reiko Sudo works on kibiso-based fabrics. Kibiso is an unusual silk made from waste silk. The kibiso outer portion of the sericin-rich silk cocoon was previously discarded as waste, useful Kibiso, Japan, 2010. Reiko Sudo with the Tsuruoka Cooperative Inside of a Transhield layered fabric 28 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • FABRIC F)CUS USA based company, Transhield produces layered Engineering, Imperial College London, Fabrican technology fabrics that can protect fragile goods in transit against has captured the imagination of designers, industry and the corrosion. The system offers a patented vapour corrosion public around the world. The technology has been inhibitor (VCI) delivery system to offer protection against developed for use in household, industrial, personal and corrosion. The outer layer of Transhield is a white healthcare, decorative and fashion applications using aerosol polyethylene shrink/ stretch film followed by a central layer cans or spray-guns, and will soon be found in products with an olefin hot melt adhesive, which is solvent free. The available everywhere. inner layer is a soft non-abrasive hydro-entangled polyester nonwoven. The covers are made with drawstrings to fit the goods. Once it is fitted, it is manually heated to shrink the fabric so it is a better fit for the boat, machinery or other objects being moved. Memory Chair, Tokujin Yoshioka, Japan, design for Parka-Air-Mattress. Manufactured by CP Company, Bologna Italian furniture designers Moroso. In the Memory Chair, cotton and recycled aluminium are brought together to create a sandwich structure. This is then formed into a dome shape which is placed over the chair structure like a sleeve. The user creates the final form to fit their body shape as the metal can be reformed by sitters to suit their shape and posture. 4. Fabric Architecture: Dai Fujiwara (Japan), Trampoline and Gemini. Made by the Miyake Design Studio 5. Treatment: 5A. Coating: 3XDRY® manufactured by Scoeller textile AG was developed in conjunction with Ciba Speciality Chemicals AG. The shirt was designed to overcome sweat-soaked armpits, a Manel Torres (Spain), FabriCan is a spray-on, non-woven fabric. problem with poly-cotton shirts. FabriCan consists of fibres and a binder; users can The cloth is finished in such a way control the thickness of the fabrics they want to achieve by that it displays both hydrophilic (moisture absorbing) and using the spray can in a particular manner. The fabric is hydrophobic (water-repellent) properties. The material formed by the cross-linking of fibres, which adhere to one allows sweat to wick away from the body comfortably and another, to create an instant non-woven fabric that can be invisibly. easily sprayed on to any surface, even directly on the body or 5B. Colour Change Textiles: Visualize a painting that mannequin. Its properties can be tailored to meet the needs changes colour. Imagine making your own designs on a of each user. From its base at the Department of Chemical regular basis without actually any effort. This is now Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 29
    • FABRIC F)CUS happening in textiles and it is possible using thermochromic inks or dyes. These inks are temperature sensitive compounds, developed in the 1970s, that temporarily change color with exposure to heat. Earlier applications were in flat thermometers, battery testers, etc. -Upholstery A single coloured tablecloth was made out of thermo- chromic screen print and the idea of using external objects to make patterns. By Exhibited at: Swedish house in USA, April. 2010 and making the tablecloth “do it Textile museum in Borås, Sweden, Dec.2010 (a) yourself” the textile pattern Researcher: Marjan Koorshnia, Photographer: Henrik Bengtsson starts to do something more than a traditional textile 6. Future: While there are no serious substitutes for textiles pattern does. Various in sight in the conventional application fields of clothing and patterns can be done interior decoration, textiles or textile-based composites are including playing games like predicted to replace many of todays metal and plastic tic tac materials used in the automotive industry, ship building or (b) aeronautics, in the machinery and machine tools industry, in Linda Worbin (Sweden): (a)“Do it yourself” ; (b) “Tic Tac” the electronics, electro-technical and medical devices sector, in construction or agriculture and to a lesser extent wooden The tablecloth (a) looks or leather materials in furniture, sports goods and other like an ordinary, boring smaller application areas. With a growing world population, tablecloth. But when hot and rapid growth in textile consumption in developing objects are placed on top countries, a whole range of new application areas for textiles the pattern not only and constantly rising user requirements in terms of seems to disappear; some functionality, variety, precision, performance, reliability, user patterns actually appear (a) and environmental friendliness of textile products, textile (b). The design of this production in both volume and value is set to rise. On a tablecloth got inspiration global scale, it will mean that the industry that produces from traditional fibres, textiles and textile based products will evolve and embroidered tablecloths. grow. A significant part of this growth will take place in those To hide a pattern within a regions of the world that experience the fastest growth rate pattern, printing needs to in conventional textile consumption i.e. Southern and be done with two (b) Eastern Asia and Latin America. These opportunities can be different pigments but Linda Worbin (Sweden), harnessed by building on Japans and Europes existing mixed in the same colours Rather Boring Table Cloth strengths which are innovation, creativity and scientific (in this case a grey thermo-chromic and a grey pigment excellence with the diversified industrial capacities, labour colour). Accuracy in designing and printing is very important and corresponding skills of the developing countries. to achieve good results. We will continue with Smart/ Intelligent Textiles in our next edition. Do keep a watch… -Medicinal This collection of masks is designed to give an aesthetic Reference: 1. Textiles Today – chloë Colchester warning if the wearer is running a fever or the concentration 2. Advanced Textiles for Health and Well-Being – Marie OMahony of allergens in the air exceeds a certain threshold. The 3. www.fabricanltd.com pattern printed with thermochromic ink changes colour 4. www.euratex.org when the exhale exceeds 27′C. The collection comprises of 5. www.transhield-usa.com a series of different prints and different shapes of masks: the 6. www.stdl.se 7. www.thesmarttime.com traditional surgical style, a wrap-around-scarf, and a full-face 8. www.understandingnano.com/fabrics.html sinus mask. The latter also senses temperature increases of 9. www.aerogel.com the forehead as well as around the mouth. The idea is to 10.www.jmsplastics.com/cushioningcovering/neolon_new.php create a stylish early-warning system at least for other people 11.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermochromism 12.http://bada.hb.se/bitstream/2320/1644/1/ctfjournal_2005F.pdf if not for the wearer. 30 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • FORECAST Colour Forecast – fall / winter 2013 Courtesy: www.ultrabright.com AUBERGINE The on-going interest in food and nutrition and living a healthy existence is inspiring a number of seemingly unrelated trends. One such trend is the Colour nuances that emerge from the so-called super-foods: açaí, grapes and berries. These luscious shades deliver a sense of tropical escape mixed balanced by the austerity and straightforwardness of the winter season. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 18-3615 TCX 19-3915 TCX 17-1710 TCX 19-2430 TCX 19-2520 TCX PINK MAROON Red continues to be an essential part of the winter palette. For the fall/winter 2013 season however, we are seeing the ecstatic shade take on a more winter-appropriate and sophisticated turn, allowing for pink and brown hues to influence its final Colouration. In-between Colours are on the rise, amid changes in the consumers perception of the world – unbiased, ever-flexible opinion and uncertainty in choice are a driving factor in the creation of these “undefinable” Colours. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 18-14363 TCX 19-1761 TCX 17-1623 TCX NEO-INDIGO The authenticity and depth and indigo are inspiring an evolution of the historically- important Colour. Purple-tinted shades are inspired by the natural yet have a profoundly man-made feel to them. Shades of purple in high and low contrast offer depth and variety for fall. The Colour purple continues to evolve from yellow-kissed shades to this seasons cooler shades saturated in magenta. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 19-3830 TCX 19-3952 TCX 19-3628 TCX 12-0304 TCX 16-3817 TCX
    • FORECAST BLUE POETICS Blue creates an emotive response that the consumer subconsciously demands, especially in emotionally and socially challenging times like today. Blue invites the calm and spiritual side of life to awaken, while the sense of hope and promise guides though to better times. The Colour poetic qualities are redefined season after season and for fall/winter 2013 the focus will be on rich, true blue shades alongside purple-kissed hues. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 16-4020 TCX 18-4245 TN** 19-3952 TCX MYSTIC BLUE The man-made and the natural inspire this autumnal blue direction. The known side of the ocean, the sky and space inspire these washed-out, almost-grey shades of blue that come as a replacement for more traditional neutral shades. The mystic associated with blue is replaced by a realistic overtone of dull, worn-out tonality. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 19-3926 TCX 19-3929 TCX* 18-4434 TCX* UN-REALITY Artificial brights are counter balancing the all- natural Colour offerings for the fall/winter 2013 season. The need for balance between the unreal and real is resulting in fresh, almost unexpected, shades of hyper-real Colours. The soft, pigmented quality of bright Colours is transitioning into vibrant, yet familiar, shades. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 15-5516 TCX 18-1651 TCX 18-3949 TCX WINTER PASTELS Sun-kissed brights are transitioning into the fall season in a dustier, less prominent offering. Pink continues to evolve from season to season, establishing itself in both the commercial and directional sides of the business. These soft pastels will continue to pop in winter and overtake the Colour palette in summer. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 16-3116 TCX 13-2802 TCX* 12-0418 TCX
    • FORECAST NEO-TEAL Winter teal shades recall the summer days and reflect them enveloped in subdued turquoise Colours. Teal, turquoise and alpine green create a fresh hybrid for the winter. The appeal of teal lays in its connection to past times, recalling the 1970s. The new seasonal teal Colours are more sophisticated and are moving away from the playful, tropical sea- foam shades. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 19-0509 TCX 19-5350 TCX* 16-5425 TCX 12-4607 TCX FOREST GREEN Green shades evoke a feeling of familiarity and rest. The Colour of nature is inspired by the on-going interest in utilitarian wear and the need to blend in with the environment. For the fall season we are seeing renewed interest in duller, almost worn-out shades that draw inspiration straight from the woods. The current interest in bright, almost neon-like Chartreuse shades will evolve into a more subtle and sophisticated acid green shade. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 18-5621 TCX 16-5109 TCX 19-0915 TCX 13-0630 TN** AUTUMNAL GOLD Sun-filled yellow shades will brighten up the summer horizon. These supple, playful shades recall summer days spent in the tropics. The need to escape is still lurking in peoples minds and they respond positively to Colours that a momentary journey to distant land. Warm yellow shades transition from orange and sepia. PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® PANTONE® 16-1360 TCX 13-0947 TCX 12-0826 TCX 15-1049 TCX Your search for staff training provider and staff requirements ends here. We can help you in searching skilled staff at all level amtavali Innovators and traders pvt. Ltd. Regd. Off. and Training Division : aves, division of amtavali innovators and traders pvt. Ltd 5, Tejkamal Society, 12th Nehru Road, Santacruz (East), Mumbai : 400 055 E-mail : avesyear2000@gmail.com amtavali@gmail.com Tel./ Fax : 91-22-26127046 Mobile : 91-9892106768
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    • TECHNICAL TEXTILE SPORTSTECH This "next-generation" turf was invented by FieldTurf in Mr. Anil Kumar MD of Great Sports Infra the early 90s with the objective of creating artificial turf that mimics natural grass in as many aspects as possible (look-n- feel; bio-mechanics of ball movement and body movement) and yet, with the advantages that it can be used for years and What is Artificial Turf? years with virtually no maintenance, can be relatively injury- In recent years, many of you may have come across free, dust-free and provide world-class sports surfaces at far lush-green lawns at a home, restaurant or office that lesser cost of ownership. As world renowned Architect seem absolutely perfect all around the year, or a large and Landscapist Mr. Kishore Pradhan says, “Its about as school playground of flawless turf. Or for those who much like grass, as you can have a synthetic surface be”. watched the first-ever FIFA International Football match in How is Artificial Turf Prepared? India last year at Salt Lake stadium and marvelled at the The product is usually made of UV-resistant PE beautiful, world-class grass. If you are wondering how (polyethylene) yarn, though some varieties are of PP difficult it must have been to create and maintain such (polypropylene), and to an even smaller extent, Nylon. The beautiful landscapes and sports fields, how much water, yarn is extruded, and then tufted into a latex or PP backing. pesticides, and general maintenance it may take...you will be The kind of yarn, the density of the tufting, stitch gauge, pile surprised that none of those assumptions are true. height are the various factors that determine what is the ideal Welcome to the new world of next-generation artificial application for each variety of these artificial turfs. grass! Unlike the old-generation "Astroturf" (as many Apart from the above factors, it is equally important that people know it as), the current artificial grass products are the gaps between the fibres are infilled with suitable material grass-like in appearance; need virtually no-maintenance, are (typically silica sand and rubber granules) in a correct ratio lush-green for over 15 years, and various varieties have been and quantity. This infill provides the exact cushioning that engineered to suit purposes not only like landscaping but replicates the playing properties expected of an ideal natural meeting the stringent criteria for each sport like football, grass sports turf. rugby, golf, hockey, cricket pitches etc. Some varieties of turf have 2 shades of green alternately tufted so that it gives a more natural hue. The yarn is also available in multiple colours (white for line marking; various colour combinations for logos; the recent Olympics Hockey field using Blue turf for the play area and Pink for the run-off area), etc. Even more recent advances in this industry include turf which does not need infill (but obviously suitable only for very light usage or almost no foot-traffic). There is an additional yarn (typically of sandy colour) also called "thatch" that is very short and is intended to substitute the need for sand and rubber. Though it is not as effective as the real infill, it is useful in applications where infill is not possible (sloped surfaces, compact indoor surfaces etc). Why Artificial Turf? Apart from player comfort (in terms of restitution energy, "give", GMax rating) it also meets the stringent standards of say FIFA in terms of ball bounce, ball roll, shock absorption, vertical rebound etc. In fact, this is the method followed to test each field before certifying that it meets the FIFA standards to host National or International level matches. The many Benefits of Artificial Turf are listed below: Ÿ Virtually ZERO-maintenance Ÿ Aesthetically very pleasing Ÿ No-watering, mowing, weeding, fertilizing Ÿ Lush Green even with daily, extensive usage Ÿ No Herbicides and pesticides Ÿ Up to 8-Year warranty; life 15 years+ Ÿ Non-toxic, non-abrasive, non-allergic Ÿ UV Treated to resist fading; outdoor grade Ÿ No thatching and aerating Ÿ Fire-retardant Ÿ Environment- friendly Ÿ Use of Recycled Materials Ÿ Structurally safer Ÿ Safer for children to play 36 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • NEWS Presence in India players - Lionel Messi - playing on artificial turf. Now over a India has had the old-generation Hockey turf for over 30 dozen stadiums in India have these turfs and most of the I- years now. But those could be used only for Hockey, needed League matches are also played on these. Many states have a water-sprinkler system during use and basically had very found such great acceptance of these fields that they have limited, expensive usage. installed multiple fields. Today, in India, there are over 5,000 The next-generation artificial turf was introduced into landscaping installations and over 200 sports facilities with India (or rather, SAARC region) in late 2004. By 2005, there the next-generation artificial turf. Compared to the hard were dozens of homes, offices, showrooms, childrens play dust-bowls a generation ago, children get to play on injury- areas that installed these turfs and there was a very positive free, dust-free, world-class turf. response. Users could see that the turfs could deliver all that Artificial Turf in Landscaping… it promised. By late 2005, SAARC regions first artificial turf Rooftop gardens / Balconies football field was installed at Chowgule College, Goa. It Atriums, Courtyards attracted nation-wide interest especially among the football Jogging / Walking Tracks / Playgrounds / Cafeteria community. The national football team and various I-League Road Medians, Traffic Islands Clubs started using this facility for practice and with positive Hotels, Resorts, Clubs, Malls results. Club Houses, Party Lawns In 2009, Indias iconic Salt Lake stadium also installed this Wherever it is difficult to grow grass…or impossible to turf and went on to host the Argentina-Venezuela FIFA maintain it. match, which also saw one of the greatest-ever football Corporate BGSNPS School Cricket Grid Clients in India include the Whos Who of corporations still primarily imported. It is mainly manufactured in China, (Hero Honda, Reliance, NSE, Infosys), hotels (Taj Mahal Middle East, Europe, Australia and USA. India is just about Palace & Towers, Sheraton, Radisson), celebrities (Mukesh beginning to start production of these turfs with a couple of Ambanis office & home; AP Governor & CM, VVS facilities having trial production currently. Lakshman, Rajan Bharti, Chiranjeevi), Indian Air Force, Overall, there is no doubt that these new-generation Apollo Hospitals...Globally, the market size is a few hundred artificial grasses are here to stay in India and will play a larger millions sqft annually. In India, the cumulative installed area is and larger role in our lifestyle. In the near future, we will have estimated to be about 5 Million Sqft and annually at about 1 tens of thousands of installations of every type and Million Sqft now and growing each year. While this is not a application. very large number, it has to be seen in the perspective that in Author views are personal. 2004, it was zero. The entire supply of artificial turf in India is Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 37
    • ASSOCIATION NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILE NEWS Technical Textiles and Nonwovens industry is definitely booming and this was evident from the presentations and discussions that were held at the two-day Techtextil India Symposium held on 30 – 31 October 2012 in Mumbai. Amongst the industry doyens were the policy makers such as the Chief Guest, Shri Sujit Gulati, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Textiles, the Guest of Honour Shri A.B. Joshi, developed markets the per capita is 3.5 kilograms. Estimated Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles and Mrs Shashi that 2040 the per capita consumption will rise to 4 kilograms Singh, Executive Director, Indian Technical Textile per capita and by 2050 India will surpass U.S.” He also Association (ITTA). Mr Michael Jänecke, Director of stressed on the importance of having sound knowledge of Techtextil, Messe Frankfurt GmbH was also present the end use of products. representing the largest exhibition in the industry around the Each speaker insisted that Technical Textiles and globe. Nonwovens industry is a knowledge driven industry. In Mr Sujit Gulati said, “Making mandatory use of Technical order to grow & survive in this industry one needs patience, Textiles and Nonwovens in a government agency is passion to consistently innovate, Strong R & D is the key. imperative. New initiatives in the Nonwovens and Optimistic about the industry, Mrs Shashi Singh, Composites segments are also essential to set standards and Executive Director of Indian Technical Textile Association to ensure a good momentum of growth.” As per him, India is (ITTA) summed up “According to our assessments high-end about 50 years behind in comparison to other developed products will see growth later whereas, the commodity countries. Mr A. B. Joshi added, “Even if India is decades market will witness sound growth. In order to progress of behind developed nations it still has a growth potential like the industry & bring regulations, we are submitting a white none other. India is an untapped market and has a strong raw paper to the Ministry of Textiles & related ministries on the material base. Technical Textiles and Nonwovens industry regulations across world. will see a 20% growth of Rs 158000 crore by 2016-2017 Mr Kusumgar conveyed opportunities available in india. from Rs 63,000 crore in 2011-2012.” If we reduce import and increase exports. Accreditation and On the basis of the growth potential in India, the certification of products will help in the long run. The industry symposium began with Global Scenario and Opportunities. needs to have intensive curriculums and degree courses in Mr Francesco Marchi, Director General, European Apparel the Technical Textiles and Nonwoven Industry.” and Textile Confederation (EURATEX), Belgium said, Techtextil India Symposium closed on a high with “There are three things that go hand in hand contributing to growth momentum of the industry. This race to the peak of the growth of the industry, namely, legislation, standards and success will be continued at the Techtextil India exhibition good partnerships. Presently the consumption of which will be held from 3 – 5 October 2012 at Bombay Nonwovens in India is 100 grams per capita whereas, in Exhibition Centre, Mumbai. ITAMMA (The Indian Textile Accessories & Machinery Manufacture Association 1. B2B Meeting & MOU principle” from National Productivity Council for forming ITAMMA held Business to Business meeting at ITME DPG to take part in the Lean Manufacturing which also saw the exchange of Memorandum of Competitiveness Scheme (LMCS) for Textile Machinery & Understanding between the associations, represented by its Accessories Manufacturing Cluster at Ahmadabad. For President, Mr. Naresh A. Mistry and International Textile implementing Lean Manufacturing (LM) Competitiveness Manufacturers Association represented by director Scheme on Pilot Basis (100 Nos.) in India was received from General, Dr. Christian Schindler. National committee National Monitoring & Implementing Unit (NMIU) of NPCL, member Kaizar Z. Mahuwala said” this gives a platform for an New Delhi; informing about the details of the appointed Indian companies & foreign companies and association to set Consultants and the procedures for undergoing Tripartite up technical collaboration and Joint ventures” Agreement. ITAMMA claims to be the worlds largest association of Mr. N.D. Mhatre, Dy. Director General (Tech.) Textile Machinery & accessories manufacturer with 500 informed that the suggestions made by Lean Manufacturing / members. Design Clinic Team for the development or designing of any 2. ITAMMA puts one step- ahead in Cluster assembly or parts or machines if are in the category of energy Development Activities conservation, then ITAMMA can perform a role of catalyst ITAMMA Lean Manufacturing Forum (Ahmedabad) for submitting the project for such developments to the signs Tripartite Agreement on 29th October, 2012 Government authorities like DST / PCRA, etc. for part ITAMMA took initiatives under the umbrella of its funding the project. Cluster Development activities and received an approval “in 38 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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    • RETAIL Visual Merchandising & its Effects on Sales Dr. Sabita Baruah Materials & Methods Department of Textile & Apparel Design A sample of 100 garment retailers from various suburbs SVT College of Home Science of Mumbai was randomly selected for the study. From SNDT Womens University different suburbs of Mumbai, 210 consumers were selected. Based on their economic background as either middle class Introduction or upper middle class, the consumers were further divided Retailing is on the verge of a great future. Consumerism into two categories. These two categories were then further is driving society to become increasingly brand conscious classified into 3 age groups; 18-25yrs, 25-40yrs and above while being obsessively mindful of fashion trends. As foreign 40yrs. Questionnaires and interviews were used as research clothing brands make a foray into the upscale urban Indian tools for data collection. Based on the above classification, market, retailing is poised for a major makeover in India. the data collected was analyzed and the results were Shopping malls and department stores are springing up in interpreted by use of statistical methods. major cities and towns to create a magical ambiance that is intended to make everyday shopping a pleasurable Results & Discussion preoccupation. In the clothing industry, mass production Retailers opinion: based on the economics of scale invariably results in surplus It was found that 92% of the respondents believed that production that markets cannot easily absorb. Therefore, effective window displays were essential for survival in retailers have to fiercely compete with each other for todays market. In their opinion, window displays were consumer attention and loyalty. In this rat race for survival, important as competition from local brands and foreign many retailers seem to be mimicking each by utilizing similar brands was intense. However, 5% of the respondent strategies for mass marketing, and offering merchandise that is shockingly identical. Therefore, the retail space is in dire expressed the opinion that need of innovation that can effectively highlight the visual merchandising was, distinguishing characters of specific brands and products. To indeed, an important enhance consumer appeal, retailers need to present a promotional tool, but not clothing products uniqueness in a more intelligent manner. essential for surviving in the For this, retailers need to turn to revolutionary and creative market (Fig:1). visual merchandising. The present study wishes to assess the It was also found that 85% of the respondents believed that visual displays played a major role in attracting the attention of consumers. However, 9% of respondents felt that visual displays were essential only during the festive season, and that such displays were not necessarily a major influencing factor (Fig: 2) at other times of the season. The data obtained from the survey also revealed that, 67% shopkeepers received impulsive buyers often, while 25% of the retailers received such consumers only Window display occasionally. The rest 8% of the consumer importance of visual merchandising in todays competitive priorities were budget, market, and redefine its boundaries in the process of “sale”. design, and quality. Last The research study is based on a survey to find out the category of consumers impact of visual merchandising on the consumers psyche. was categorized as This survey report also presents first hand information on the shopping planners rather expert opinions of retailers and consumers towards visual than impulsive buyers merchandising. Data from the survey also reveals the (Fig: 3). effectiveness of visual displays in increasing the sales, while What was now significant was that 71% of the factors such as price, brand image, and festive sale respondents reported that the increase in sales was due to occurrences remain in the foreground. the display of the garments or textile products. They also 40 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • RETAIL expressed the view that products had to be displayed in an backgrounds was that they were impulsive buyers who were appropriate manner to attract customers into the store. A strongly influenced by the window displays and interior window display was being interpreted as the face of the ambiance of the store. shop, and had the power to make the first impression on Apparently, consumer potential customers. from all 3 age groups and However, 9% of the two different categories of retailers mentioned that it economical backgrounds had no effect in sale of the showed a very high degree textile product, as they of interest in window had a guaranteed pool of displays. This was followed regular customers of the by colours, styles, and retail outlet (Fig:4). brands. Conclusion Consumers Opinion: The textile marketing scenario in India is rapidly The report obtained from the survey indicates that 60% changing. Retailing is now read as “detailing”. Good location of customers from the middle class strata who engaged in of the store, good products, visually pleasing interiors, well- window shopping were female customers. These female coordinated visual merchandising props, and quality of customers were from the 18-25 years age bracket. From the customer service go a long way in enhancing the shopping upper middle class social strata, 63% of the same sex and age experience. It is not only the product that is important to a group frequently indulged in window shopping. consumer, but also the entire shopping experience. From the data (Fig:5) it Therefore, the retailing industry might have to follow some was also evident that 94% of the norms of the hospitality industry, where quality of of the customer constantly service is important. observed window displays In the retailing business, presentation of clothing while moving around products is more than just arranging product as lifeless casually near shopping exhibits. Products need to flaunt their very best character in a areas. Maximum comforting ambiance that enhances their appeal though an respondents from both the inner emotional connect. At one level, the present study was categories i.e. middle class undertaken to ascertain consumer preferences in the and upper middle class showed similar trend of behavior context of visual merchandising and the strategies utilized to (Fig:6). However, college going teens were more strongly grab the attention of consumers. At another level, the study influenced by brands, advertisements, and attention wished to examine the impact of window displays on the sale grabbing window displays. The data also confirms that both of clothing products. the categories of respondents from the two different The study reveals that visual displays play a crucial role in economical strata have similar shopping inclinations. This attracting customers and possibly initiating a sale at the retail leads us to conclude that more than 60% consumers with level. Customers of all the age groups are attracted towards age group of 18-25yrs enter shop by seeing the display. the display, although their criteria for purchase and choices It was also found that differ according to the age and income groups. Furthermore, consumers from first two the self-help window displays in retail outlets or a boutique age groups of both makes it easier for customers to select the right product. categories of economical Meanwhile, innovations evolving in e-commerce platforms background believed that and technologies are also changing the scenario of retailing. window displays were the References most effective 1.Mills and Kenneth, Applied Visual Merchandising, Prentice Hall Inc publishing, New Jersey,(1988) promotional media. In 2.Singh, D., “Art and Science of Visual Merchandising”, Images Retail, contrast, consumers aged Vol.7, No.1.pp.60-80,(2008) 3. Anon, “Step to effective visual merchandising”, Home Fashion, Vol.9, 40 and above felt that television was the most effective No.3, No.6, pp.12-13(2009) media, as it succeeded in informing them and influencing 4. Dalal, M., “Mechanics of visual merchandising”, Apparel, Vol.30, Issue7, them the most. However, consumer aged between 25-40 pp130-164(2010) years from both the categories of economical background 5.Bapna.M.,“Window shopping”, Apparel,Vol.30,issue2,pp.70-73(2010) planned their shopping often and were frequent window 6. Anon, “Visual merchandising: key to better retail sale” Home Fashion India, Vol.9, No.4.pp.64-67(2010) shoppers. Consumers aged above 40 years gave first Websites www.getcreative.com preference to the quality of the garments and textile www.visualstore.com www.ddimagazine.com merchandise. Colour and pattern followed much later. www.fashionwindows.com www.google.com/retailstors However, the most significant factor found in consumers www.google.com/visualmerchandising www.indiaretailing.com between the age of 18 and 25 years from both economical www.fibertofashion.com/windowdisplay www.thewindowshopper.co.uk www.visualreference.com Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 41
    • Yarn Dyed Fabrics Indigo Shirting KLASSIC FABRICS75/79, PK Building, Shop No. 15, 1st floor, Old hanuman lane, Kalbadevi, Mumbai- 400002. Tel : 022-22000099, 022-22000077, email : fabric4fashion@gmail.com Direct : +91-9820120561 advt. Contact Person : Mr. Jitendra Kanabar
    • FUUTURE TRENDS Development of Software to Engineer Cotton Knitted Fabric not shrink any further and this state is achievable after one cycle of washing Kalyan Roy and tumble drying followed by four cycles of wetting and tumble drying. Dept of Textile Eng., Subsequent researchers(3,4,5,6) have confirmed these relationships in the Punjab Technical University reference state, although, the exact values of kw, kc and ks, commonly Giani Zail Singh Campus known as k-factors, have been a matter of contention. Some workers(7,8,9) have reported different values of k-factors for different materials, like wool, Introduction cotton, polyester, etc. However, it is generally recognized(10) that the The problem of unpredictable shrinkage of cotton dyeing and finishing routes have their roles to determine these values and knitted fabrics is a serious and recurring one. Like any the above relationships work satisfactorily for a particular group of wet engineered product the dimension of a knitted fabric is processing machines for a particular material. With these understandings, mainly influenced by the constructional variables like yarn it can be said that the values of k-factors remain constant for a particular material and group of wet processing machines and, if material and wet count, twist, wales and courses per unit length, stitch length, processing route change, the values of k-factors will change, thereby, etc. In a knitted structure, these variables keep on changing necessitating the establishment of k-factors by individual knitted fabric from the grey fabric stage in machine to grey relaxed state processor/ manufacturer for a particular wet processing route and and to the finished state after dyeing and finishing due to material. relaxation of fabric which alters the stitch length (or loop In the present experimental programme, 288 cotton plain fabric samples are knitted (144 for dyed and 144 for bleached variety) with four length) which is the basic unit of a knitted fabric. This problem different counts of yarn, three twist multipliers, three machine gauges and is more pronounced with cotton fabrics than fabrics four stitch lengths and finished by identical compaction process. manufactured with thermoplastic synthetic yarns since These samples are brought to reference state by the repeated cotton cannot be heat-set making the problem more washing and tumble drying processes and their wales per inch, courses per inch and stitch lengths are measured. The values of k-factors are pronounced. shown in this table. The knitters and garment manufacturers specify two K-factor Plain bleached fabric Plain dyed fabric basic parameters of a knitted fabric, namely, shrinkage and fabric weight (in g/m2 or GSM). While the GSM changes Kc 5.78 5.84 with shrinkage rendering the two parameters interrelated, it Kw 4.41 4.23 is rather difficult for the knitters to satisfy the garment makers Kc/Kw 1.31 1.38 in absence of the knowledge about the exact relationship The scatter plots of wales per cm (wpcm), courses per cm (cpcm) between the two since an intolerable high value of shrinkage against reciprocal of stitch length (cm) and stitch density against reciprocal means serious problems in size and fit of the garment. of square of stitch length (cm2) are given in Fig.1. The co-efficient of Frequently, the knitters set the machine and constructional regression obtained are very high. parameters by trial and error from their experiences which lead to customer complaints of high shrinkage of garments and difficulties in cutting during garment manufacturing. Moreover, the overseas customers may not tolerate the delay and quality problems. The objectives of the present study are exploring a reliable relationship to predict the fabric dimensions (and therefore, shrinkage) and fabric weight (or GSM) and, based on this relationship, developing a software to obtain the machine and fabric constructional parameters quickly and reliably to satisfy the garment manufacturers and specially the overseas customers. Fig.1: Scatter plots for plain cotton knitted finished fabrics in reference state. 2. Methodology and experimental procedure In the present experimental set-up, the relationships for wales per Munden(1) established that stitch length is the most cm (wpcm) and courses per cm (cpcm) becomes:- fundamental variable in a knitted fabric and the fabric - For bleached fabrics, wpcm = 4.41/l and cpcm = 5.78/l dimensions are influenced by the stitch length through the - For dyed fabrics, wpcm = 4.23/l and cpcm = 5.84/l The fabric weight is introduced in the programme by the relationship:- relationships:- Fabric weight in g/m2 or GSM = wpcm x cpcm x stitch length (cm) x Wa l e s p e r i n c h = k w / l , …………….(1) tex/10………..(4) where, tex is the linear density of the yarn and Courses per inch = kc/l …………….(2) obtained by tex = 590.5/count. 2 Stitch density = ks/l ..…………….(3) In order to obtain fabric weight, a new constant of proportionality, ky, where l is the stitch length and kw, kc and ks are constants of is introduced using Eq.(4) GSM = ky x tex/l ……………..(5) proportionality. and the following relationship is established after subjecting the fabric a Corresponding author, e-mail: kalyankalyan1@yahoo.co.in samples in reference state in the present study:- Munden determined these relationships after considering the GSM = 21.44 x tex/l …………(6) empirical data from a large number of knitted fabrics at grey relaxed and The scatter plot drawn by the calculated values of fabric weight (or GSM) finished relaxed states. Heap, et al.(2) put forwarded the concept of obtained by Eq.(6) in the y-axis and the measured values of fabric weight in Reference State in which the substrate assume a dimension when it will the x-axis is shown in Fig.2. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 43
    • FUUTURE TRENDS 3. Details and demonstration of software The software is developed with the help of VISUAL BASIC 2008 platform after analyzing the nature of the problem of shrinkage and fabric weight (GSM) in the shop floor of the industry. The basic Fig. 3: Screen display with initial set of data consisting of shrinkage% and stitch length Fig.2: Association of calculated and measured values of weight (in g/ m2) plain cotton fabrics in reference state The data shows that with the specified stitch length and yarn count, fabric GSM of 143.49 at 23.56 inch tubular width consideration is that the kc, kw and ky factors are unique for a will be delivered to give shrinkage of 5% and 3%. It is pertinent knitting and finishing plant which are required to be established for to mention that this fabric is not acceptable since, a fabric with a particular combination of material, knitting machine and wet GSM of 140 and width 23.5 inch tubular is specified to be processing route and parameters by every plant. produced. 3.1 Material, knitting machine and fabric specifications In the next attempt, the method B is used in which the It is desired to produce a 100% cotton single jersey fabric on a targeted width of 23.5 inch is entered into the programme with 24 gauge knitting machine of 24 inch diameter with1800 needles the same desired shrinkage of 5% by 3%. Based upon these using a 30s Ne (or 29.5 tex) combed yarn at a stitch length of 0.11 delivered width and shrinkage, the method B shows that the inch. The targeted width and weight for the fabric after bleaching required stitch length has changed to 0.105 inch. However, the and finishing will be 23.5 inch tubular and 140 g/m2 with shrinkage targeted GSM is not reached. This is shown in Fig.4. of 5% by 3%in length and width. The wet processing route consists of scouring and bleaching in a soft flow machine, followed by hydro-extraction and pole drying and compaction in the final finishing step. 3.2 Features of display screen Fig.3-5 shows the display of the screen. The programme permits the parameters of gauge, diameter, needles, yarn count, stitch length, the values of kc, kw and ky to be entered as given values shown in the upper portion of the screen. The course length required to be produced for one revolution of knitting machine for specific stitch length is calculated and displayed below Fig.4: Screen display with shrinkage and targeted delivered width the stitch length, if desired, with the click of SHOW button. The software can calculate the REFERENCE STATE values of fabric width (tubular in inch), wales per inch (WPI), courses per inch (CPI) and fabric weight in g/m2 (GSM) and show under method A on the left hand bottom corner. Below the DELIVERED section, method A displays the width (tubular), WPI, CPI, and GSM as obtained after bleaching and finishing on entering the desired shrinkage values together with the parameters already entered. The values under method B and method C, both in REFERENCE STATE and DELIVERED section are described the following text. The buttons of RESET, RESET ALL and EXIT are provided to Fig.4: Screen display with shrinkage and targeted delivered width erase the data in case of a wrong entry or after completion of In the method C in the DELIVERED section the targeted whole cycle of operation and to log out from the programme. width (tubular) and GSM are entered and, obviously, the Fig.3 displays the screen with the data entered for an existing shrinkage values change to 7.31% and 4.51% in length and machine in which the experiment is conducted with yarn of count width. This is shown in Fig.5. 30s, stitch length 0.11 inch and desired shrinkage of 5% and 3% in Therefore, the present software provides various options, length and width. The machine is set to give the course length 198 which are: - inch with the help of a course length meter. In the present 1. If the shrinkage and stitch length are specified, method A is experiential programme, the values of kc, kw and ky are suitable, determined beforehand and entered in the screen. The 2. If the shrinkage and delivered width (tubular) are specified, specifications of the fabric that will be manufactured is displayed in method B is suitable, and the DELIVERED segment under method A with the click of 3. If the delivered width and GSM are specified, then method C SHOW button under this column. is appropriate. ...continued on pg53 44 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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    • SKILL GAP ANALYSIS Skill Gaps and Requirements in Fabric Processing ICRA Management Consulting set of spiral blades whereby such loose threads are cut and Services Ltd. (IMaCS), separated. o Singeing: Removal of threads/protruding from the www.nsdcindia.org surface by application of heat. o Desizing: Removal of the sizing agents added during Continuing with our section of Skill gap Analysis, we fabric manufacturing. The sizing agents are hydrophobic in carry on with Fabric Processing. nature and hence interfere in dyeing/printing. Fabric Finishing/ Processing Units o Scouring: The fabric is treated in alkaline conditions at Fabric Finishing Units include dyeing, printing, and other boiling temperature and/or under pressure whereby cloth preparation prior to the manufacture. This sub- saponification and emulsification makes such fats/waxes are segment is also dominated by a large number of removed from the fabric. independent, small-scale enterprises. o Bleaching: Bleaching agents are used to improve the These units can be broadly divided into following three whiteness of the fabric. segments: 2. Dyeing Processing facilities attached to composite textile mills The dyeing process can take place at different stages of the (Hi-Tech Segment) fabric development. However, dyeing of fabric is the most Non-SSI independent power processing units (Medium common dyeing method. Dyeing is performed in to Advanced Technology) continuous or batch modes. In the continuous dyeing Small scale processing units (Hand operated / process, the fabric is passed through a dye bath of sufficient motor operated primitive technology locally fabricated / length. The dye is fixed to the fabric using chemicals or steam power operated low technology machines) followed by washing to remove any excess dyes and The census of the power processing units by the Textiles chemicals. The batch dying process is similar, though the dye Committee during the year 2005 has revealed that there application stage occurs in a dyeing machine where the were 2,510 power processing units in the country textile and dye solution are brought to equilibrium. The use compared to 2,324 units in 1999-2000.Out of the 2,510 of chemicals and/or heat optimises the batch process. This is power processing units, 59 units are composite, 167 semi- followed by washing. Jiggers are commonly used for batch composite and 2,284 the independent processing units. The dyeing. There are several different classes of dyes used in major clusters of processing units are Mumbai, Surat, textile dyeing and printing operations. The most commonly Ahmadabad, Delhi, Ludhiana, Amritsar and Tirupur. used dyes are reactive and direct dyes for dyeing cotton and disperse dyes for dyeing polyester. An important property of Production processes involved in fabric processing a dyeing is its levelness i.e. same depth of colour all over the The various activities involved in fabric processing are material along with good penetration of the dye. shown in the following figure: 3. Printing Unlike dyeing, where the whole fabric is dyed, printing Preparetory Dyeing Printing Finishing involves one or more colours in certain parts and in particular patterns. Production processes in fabric processing 4. Finishing 1. Preparatory Finishing is performed to improve the appearance, Preparatory processes include the following: texture or performance of a fabric. Qualities such as softness, o Shearing: Removal of loose and broken threads. These lustre, durability and sometimes water repelling and flame loose threads give a shabby look to the fabric and interfere in resistance of fabrics are increased with finishing processes. the process of dyeing/printing of the fabric. The fabric is Both chemical and physical methods are used to finish passed through shearing/ cropping machine consisting of a fabrics. Skill requirements and skills gaps in Fabric processing Function Level Skills Required Skill Gaps Production Ÿ Inadequate Manager/ Ÿ Technical competence- Very strong knowledge of both textile Production Shift In charge/ understanding of both fabric and chemicals. manufacturing and Supervisor chemistry in combination 46 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • SKILL GAP ANALYSIS Function Level Skills Required Skill Gaps Ÿ Process improvement skills waste control, finding solutions to maintenance and engineering related problems as most of the Ÿ Inadequate of units do not have a dedicated R&D for process cross-functional improvement. knowledge especially Ÿ Need for understanding quality requirements of customers knowledge of effluent Ÿ Problem solving skills, good communication treatment processes. Ÿ Insufficient soft skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated. skills to manage shop Ÿ Knowledge of vernacular language floor personnel. Ÿ is essential to communicate with the Ÿ workers Production Ÿ Operating knowledge of bleaching and Ÿ Insufficient availability of colouring, jet dyeing machines, jiggers, soft flow personnel who can work in dyeing machines etc. boiler operations. Ÿ Knowledge of various type of Chemicals Ÿ Inadequate knowledge used in processing. of various machines and Operator Ÿ Ability to identify and differentiate colours. chemicals. Ÿ Need for Certification of skills - The Ÿ Insufficient knowledge of operators working on boilers need to have effluent treatment certification. processes Ÿ Understanding of waste treatment Ÿ Inadequate knowledge operations of CNC machines. Ÿ Understanding of the customer requirements and communicating the quality Ÿ Inadequate parameters to Lab assistants. Knowledge of understanding of the buyer international standards is desirable. requirements and their Quality assurance/ Ÿ Knowledge of in line and final quality testing relationship to quality Quality control procedures. parameters. (translation of Ÿ Ability to understand and prevent defects buyer requirements to such as shade variations, patches, etc. For e.g. Testing / Quality quality parameters). in case of dyeing, loose threads in the fabric would impact the quality of the dyeing. ŸKnowledge of laboratory outines & practices. ŸInadequate knowledge of Lab ŸMaintain records of testing results, routine logs various chemicals vis-a-vis Assistants and laboratory notes, etc. processing of fabrics. ŸKnowledge of various chemicals and dyes. In our next issue we will continue with Skill Gap Analysis in the Clothing/ Garmenting Sector which is the final stage of the textile value chain. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 47
    • SKILL GAP ANALYSIS Setting up of Skill Development Project for Textile Industry The Government has a scheme namely, Integrated outlay of Rs. 594.84 crore targeting 5.87 lakh trainees Skill Development Scheme (ISDS) to cater to skilled have been sanctioned. As on October, 2012, 74094 manpower needs of Textile and related segments persons have been trained under the scheme. through skill development training programmes. The Under the scheme, funds are not released state wise but scheme envisages participation of training institutes are released directly to implementing agencies. These associated with the Ministry and the private sector as implementing agencies establish training centres across implementing agencies. The scheme has two Components different states. The scheme has covered 24 states in all the – Component-I for training Institutes within the Ministry and sub-sectors of Textiles and clothing. A list of training centres Component II for private sector. The Government meets set up in different states is given at Annexure-I. As of August, 75% of the total cost of the project with balance 25% to be 2012, Government grant amounting to Rs.149.81 crore has met by the implementing agencies with a provision of been released to implementing agencies for implementation enhanced level of government assistance in certain of the projects under ISDS. In the 12th Plan, the ISDS has an circumstances. The average cost per trainee to be borne by allocation of Rs. 1900 Crores and seeks to train 15 lakhs the Government is limited to Rs. 7300 for Component-I and textiles workers. Rs. 7500 for Component-II. So far, 30 projects with an Reference : Ministry of Textiles Component - I Annexure-I Implementing Agency/Sectors State /UTs Covered ATDC - Apparel / Garmenting Pan India ATIRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Spinning, Weaving, Processing, Technical Textiles, Textiles / Apparel Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Maharashtra. Designing BTRA-  Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Processing, Technical Textiles Maharashtra. NITRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Textile Technology, Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan. Control, Processing, Technical Textiles SITRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Textile Technology, Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Tamil Nadu Control, Textiles / Apparel Designing, Technical Textiles Textiles Committee -  Textiles / Apparel - Quality Control Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal IICT, Bhadohi -  Carpet,  Manufacturing Uttar Pradesh. IJT -  Jute West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh. IJIRA - Jute West Bengal, Assam SASMIRA -  Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Knitting, Textiles / Apparel - Quality Control, Textiles / Apparel Maharashtra. Designing, Technical Textiles MHSC -  Metal Handicraft Uttar Pradesh MANTRA -  Non-Woven Gujarat IICT, Srinagar -Carpet  Manufacturing Jammu & Kashmir CSB -Sericulture Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Assam, Orissa, Chhattisgarh. O/o TxC -  Apparel / Garmenting, Weaving, Textiles / Apparel Designing Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal. DC Handlooms -  Handlooms 25 WSCs and 5 IIHTs across India EPCH - Handicrafts Delhi, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh PDEXCIL -  Spinning, Knitting, Technical Textiles Tamil Nadu Component - I1 Implementing Agency/Sectors State /UTs Covered Modelama Exports Ltd. -  Apparel/ Garmenting NCR, Rajasthan IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. -Apparel/ Garmenting Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, NCR and Andhra Pradesh. Technopak Advisors Pvt. Ltd. -  Apparel/ Garmenting Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra ALT Training College Foundation -  Apparel/ Garmenting Karnataka, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu Sri Karthikeya Spinning and Weaving Mills Private Ltd. -Spinning and/or Weaving Tamil Nadu Southern India Mills Association -Spinning and/or Weaving Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. - Spinning and/or Weaving Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu Matrix Clothing Pvt. Ltd. -  Apparel/ Garmenting NCR, Rajasthan, Haryana Lakshmi Cotsyn Limited -  Apparel/ Garmenting Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh Modelama Exports Ltd. -  North East and J&K North East and J&K West Bengal Consultancy Organisation Ltd. -Jute West Bengal and Sikkim IL&FS Cluster Development Initiative Ltd. -Handloom and/or Handicraft Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat, West Bengal, Orissa, Tripura 48 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • CAREER FOCUS Home Science course in Textile / Garment / Fashion / Retail Home Science course which gives not only holistic, complete development of individual but also provides Good Career Opportunity. Career opportunity in Textiles, Garment, Fashion & now Organized Retail gives scope for women to join industry or start their own business. We had asked a college of Home science in Mumbai to share their experiences & opinion on whats career opportunity after studying Homescince courses and how its competitive Interview with Dr. Machado, Principal of College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, Mumbai Nirmala Niketan College of home UDCT), VJTI, NIFT. science is affiliated to university of Placement Scenario: We have 100% placement, we get Mumbai. This is the only home science more offers for our students, but we dont have students to suffice. college affiliated to Mumbai University. Few companies which comes for placements are Dystar, Vrijesh College has Bsc, Msc, PHD courses textiles, Creative Garments Pvt. Ltd., Ciasons Exports, Clariant related to home science. College offers Chemicals, Texan lab and many more in other course. We are Dr. Machado, a course which provides holistic and regular in touch with industry & have very active alumni Principal of Nirmala Niketan complete development of Women. association, nearly 1000 + members. They are our resource for Our home science college offers specialisation subjects like Food, placement. We dont work in isolation, we have research projects Nutrition & Dietetics; Human Development; Textile & Fashion with BARC, CIRCOT, Textile Committee and many more. We Technology; Community Resource Management. have special research cell which consist of teachers, students, Educational institute is the backbone of any industry & plays a very industry participants, who constantly develop syllabus with sync important role in industry and over all development of individual and with industry guidance. industry. In the textile stream we have 50 students for Graduation & PG Special activity like Personality and 8 students for PHDs, 30 students for Value added Courses like Development, CV Writing & Visual merchandiser, fashion design. We have Quality teachers working Face interview is conducted with us. 8 teaching staff and 10 visiting faculty. 3 PHDs + 2 PHDs (in by full time counsellors. process) we have quality faculty who visits regularly to ICT ( Former Dr. Ela Dedhia, Associate Professor with College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, Mumbai CAREER opportunities are found easily in the Textile/Apparel sector of how to set quality systems. Responsible for production planning and which more are found today in Apparel/ Garment sector compared to execution, efficient running of entire manufacturing operations from Textiles, Home Textiles, Fashion and Retail. Job profile availabe are Cut to Pack and ensuring on time deliveries. Ability to plan and forecast more for Managers, Designers compared to marketing, quality control requirements for new styles. Daily analysis of production is a must. etc. Job titles include Quality Controller, Production Manager, etc. 15 Production Supervisor able to take charge of the entire shift and to 25 years work experience in similar job profile is expected at higher organize manpower required for the particular shift. Supervise the positions in India and overseas in countries such as Bangladesh, production and ensure quality of the material. To manage manpower Hongkong, Bahrain etc. of all machines and responsible for shift planning. To plan entire I Production Section: production. Purchase Manager- To choose the suppliers of the product or service, General Manager - Operations: Increase productivity and quality. negotiate the lowest price, and award contracts that ensure the correct Meet the order deadlines within the provided cost. Maintain the amount of the product or service is received at the appropriate time. compliant environment in factory. Managing a workforce of highly Vendor Manager: Responsible for vendor development, vendor skilled and trained professionals, which includes shop floor. selection, vendor assessment, and vendor credit management. General Manager - Production Responsible to develop a process and mechanism to capture Production/ Manufacturing/ Engineering Responsible for the efficient competitive rates in the market. To be capable of developing good running of entire manufacturing operations from Cut to Pack and negotiation processes and strategies. ensuring on time deliveries. Ability to plan and forecast requirements Designing for Mens, Womens and Infant/kids Wear for both Indian for new styles. Daily analysis of production, efficiency and quality. and Western wear and for Liaison Offices in other parts of the country. Manager - Maintenance (Garments) responsible for plant and Must have knowledge on Trend analysis and forecast, creating of new machine maintenance, operation, material management, and designs that reflect the brand image, represent new and innovative inventory control and manpower management in Garment product that is commercially viable. Need to be technically very strong manufacturing industries for Woven, Denim, Knits. Programming and in Knits & Wovens, responsible for entire design- Recommending, modification of designs in machines. Analyzing & developing colors, trends, washes & fits for the season as II Merchandising/Marketing section: per the global trends. Contributing to business focused design delivery. Junior Merchandiser: assists the Sr. Merchandiser in day to day Knowledge of costing, budgeting & efficiency. activities of handling the client, needs to co-ordinate with the factory, Senior Designer handling a team of 3-4 or more designers, etc., reporting to the Senior Merchandiser, from Sampling to conceptualization of designs keeping in mind the current shape and Production, Preparing Reports, Computer savy, good communication form of garments in reference to current trends. Handing fabrics to the skills, Presentable, etc fabric manager for the print developments. Personal Assistant, Business Assistant/Executive, Assist in work, Production Manager has to ensure maximum production with prepare word and Excel statements and do required clerical topmost efficiency. He should know about best practices in labour, and calculations, preparing sample folders etc. Assisting Seniors for their Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 49
    • CAREER FOCUS day to day work, Organizing meetings knowledge about domestic customers in terms of product profile, The Senior Merchandiser Production should be able to payment positions, etc. conceptualize season wise merchandise planning, have a strong General Manager - Export Marketing - Sales & Marketing Develop understanding on stitching, design & sampling, costing, MRP brand , relationships with key decision-makers in target organizations for margin, accountability & merchandising business development in pre-sales & post sales negotiation stages. Merchandising Manager: Merchandising managers are expected to Develop, negotiate and enter into business. be knowledgeable about company needs and goals. Keep a close Export (Textile) Responsible for Textile Sector Export Sales & watch on inventory levels and the needs of clients. Monitoring sales Marketing. Business Development, Key account management for histories of various products. The ability to negotiate favorable terms Fabric & Textile Marketing, International marketing. should be high. Helping documentation department, preparing Chief Operating Officer - Senior Management-Operation internal order sheets, preparing purchase orders, advising and assisting Apparel operations and management, brand development, product production, advising production and quality department about quality management, manufacturing and distribution, strategic alliance and level, to follow up budgeting partnership management, entrepreneurship and early-stage growth of GM - Merchandising Deliver goods before delivery deadline. direct, wholesale and online sales. Coordinate & supervise production, sourcing & sampling of new CEO (Textile Unit) Senior Management/ General Management: products. Share new fashion designing ideas. Expand market share, and set-up & achieve benchmarks across textile Head - Retail: Develop strategy and sales schemes. Be responsible to manufacturing. Track record in leading large expansion projects, achieve sales targets. Increase turnover of the company marginally. Capability on finance, HR (team building) and admin skills. Manage operations, Implement systems, controls and processes in Manager Projects areas like: - Cash management, depositing etc. Project/ Program Management non IT Sales Manager Responsible for selling, analyze trends and identify Hands on experience in execution of project and development opportunities, identify various players in Textile value chain. activities, Person should be capable of finalizing technology transfer SCM - Lead - Logistics / Supply Chain Management Provide vision agreements, set up the entire plant and machinery and create a team of and leadership to developing the supply chain strategy in consultation required subordinate staffs for product. with the customer key stakeholders, design/planning team and General Manager - Business Development executing to customers expectations. Engage with senior leader. Sales/ Business Development/ Account Management Head/ Deputy General Manager - Trade Sales With Top Retail Completely responsible for business development, complete Brand Sales Forecasting & Strategic Planning, Revenue Generation responsibilities of lab, marketing strategy, organizing seminar/exhibition Management of Trade Partners, Business Development, Team etc., Any problems in trials at customer end to be managed. Management, heading the Wholesale & Exports division (PAN India) Factory Manager - Garment Head - Marketing Production/ Manufacturing/ Engineering Machine and product Senior Management-Marketing Design, facilitate, implement technology, Team Management and development of II line, Productivity marketing plan for the firm. Plan and administer the organizational and Quality improvement methods, Hands on experience on shop marketing operations Budget. Facilitate Public Relations Efforts, floor management, Compliances, Budgeting and control of operational Manage external vendors and consultants, Make staffing and hiring expenses. decisions within marketing. Sr. Manager- Technical Department Ensure quality of Garments, Managing Seasons range- Vendor Management and Development: Should have good knowledge on fabrics construction, accessories, Plays important role in sales /promotion and marketing of the sample, chemical treatment & Patterns, Should have good knowledge developed product in domestic and International market, Working on woven and knit garments manufacturing, Pattern & Sampling, closely with Fabric Merchandisers. Cutting, Sewing, Finishing and Exports of Garments. General Manager - Domestic Marketing Responsible for Channel Careers grow in apparel industry. Academic Institutions need to gear Sales, Client Servicing, Corporate Sales, Institutional Sales, up to the needs of the industry. Professionals with sufficient work Merchandising Marketing & selling of yarn products. Should have full experience need to explore and embrace the growing opportunities. Mrs. Armaiti Shukla, HOD, Textile & Apparel Designing Department of SVT college of Home science, Mumbai. The Textile and Apparel Designing Department plays a vital role in textile manufacture and providing it to the consumers through various grooming the students, to take up professional jobs in the Textiles and outlets. Apparel manufacturing industry as well as in Fashion and Retail Students belonging to Department of Textiles and Apparel Design are Merchandising. Our strength lies in providing a sound scientific base successfully engaged in various jobs such as:- which helps students to take up job in technical laboratories/ Designers: Home Textiles and Made up, Fashion Designers, manufacturing units. Training in appreciation, creation and application of Costume Designers [Television, Films & Theater], Printed and Woven traditional arts, crafts, textiles and costumes provides an endless Textile Designers, Accessory Designers, Computer Aided Textile resource of design which can be incorporated into contemporary Designers, Developing high end Fashion Designs with Traditional textile and garment design. Embroideries and Textiles, Fashion Stylist, Design Manager, Academic autonomy for the last 15 years has allowed us to Fashion Forecaster constantly upgrade and fine tune our syllabus and Introduce new Merchandisers: for Retail, Fashion, Export houses, Visual courses which is relevant to industry needs & alumni feedback. The Merchandisers. retail industry is booming in India and expected to create a number of Sourcing Experts, Buyers, Floor Managers. job openings in the next five years. Lacunae in the job market is filled by Quality Controllers in Garment manufacturing units and Textile our students who are not only aware of retailing strategies but also be testing laboratories. abreast with the latest fashion trends and styles. Its merchandising and Entrepreneurs. retail orientation helps successfully bridge the gap between fabric/ Teachers and Trainers in Schools and Colleges 50 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • GOVERNMENT POLICY Good Economics is Good Politics Shri V.Y.Tamhane The growth in imports was of the order of 49 per cent in Secretary General of MOA 2010-11 and 61 per cent in 2011-12. The weak rupee has Actively associated with; Indian Spinning Association, failed to check import of readymade garments, which surged FAITMA, Narrow Elastic Manufacturer Association. to Rs. 824.61 crore in April – September 2012 from Rs. I am sure, on reading the title of the Article, some 681.50 crore in the same period of 2011, an increase of 21 readers might have felt that there has been a typographical per cent. mistake. The popular adage is that good economics is bad Import of fabrics in India has been as under: politics. But the textile industry may prove that, it is an Year Import of Fabrics[Million US $] exception, if its legitimate demands for survival and growth are conceded. 2009-2010 355 It needs to be appreciated that, an investment of Rs 10 2010-2011 421 crore generates 30- 40 additional jobs and earns additional foreign exchange. Furthermore, the additional jobs are more 2011-2012 479 likely to be created in rural and semi-rural areas, thus Imports of readymade garments have been mainly from bridging the wide chasm in the economic condition of urban Bangladesh which increased from US $ 128 Million in 2010- and rural areas. What is more important is that every 11 to US $ 183 Million in 2011-12. The other countries are additional rupee invested in the textile industry creates more Sri Lanka, Singapore etc. Bangladesh has emerged as one of ripples in the economy than any other industry. Thus, a the most aggressive exporters in the world. Suffice it to liberal approach towards the textile industry is in national recall here that Bangladesh has posted positive growth of 8.8 interest. per cent in export of readymade garments, despite debt But, where does policitis step in? Yes, India is not only a crisis in several European nations, the traditional buyers of big brother, but also a leader of South Asia. All South Asian Bangladeshi garments. countries are textile manufacturing countries, like their Customs duty-free access has been given for all goods neighbouring countries in South East Asia. In the role as a big imported from LDCs of SAARC. Exemption from the whole brother, India is perforce required to provide duty-free of customs duty has also been given on some items of textiles access to textiles and clothing manufactured in the least and apparels imported from Singapore, and 50% developed countries (LDCs) of South Asia. Such a role hurts concession in some other items. Concessional rates of the domestic textile industry immensely, because LDCs give customs duty is charged on certain items of fabrics and cut-throat competition, taking advantage of low wages apparels imported from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. coupled with duty – free access provided by India. The documented figures of imports fail to spotlight the India cannot afford to destabilize the domestic textile ground reality, because cross-border trade of fabrics and industry, which is providing direct and indirect employment readymade garments from China, Bangladesh, Myanmar are to about 10 croer of people and earning precious foreign reported to be quite significant. exchange currently to the extent of US $ 30 billion [including Increased imports of garments have taken a toll on the fibres etc]. garment industry in India. The index of production of The solution lies in providing fiscal and financial support garments which showed a rising trend upto 2010-2011 to the textile industry for enabling it to absorb the shock of dipped in 2011-2012 and remained flat in November 2011 cheap imports, particularly of clothing from LDCs and fabrics to October 2012. Attached Tables I and II illustrate this from China. Additionally, such duty-free access should be point. given only on the condition that products contain Indian raw It is necessary to take note of the fact that exports of materials. If this happens, despite political compulsion, the MMF textiles have been continuously trailing, year after year, textile industry will grow and bring rich dividends to the exports of products of cotton, despite distinct preference for national economy. MMF textiles in the international market, where the share of Aggressive imports from LDCs man-made fibres is 60 % [ against 38% in India]. No The dimension of aggressive imports of readymade wonder exports of cotton textiles and garments which scaled garments can be judged from the following data: US $ 17 billion in 2011-12 far exceeded export of synthetic and blended textiles and clothing at US $ 7 billion. Import into India of Readymade A new slant on the policy Year garments [In Million US $] The present textile policy is more in favour of cotton textiles to protect growers. But, account must be taken on 2009-2010 108 the pressure of land in the country. 2010-2011 197 More Land is required for agriculture to ensure food –security. More land is also required for new industries on 2011-2012 317 which economic growth of the country depends. More land 52 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • GOVERNMENT POLICY is also required for infrastructure facilities like, construction of This can be achieved if, customs duty and SAD on MMF is roads, airports, railways, educational institutions, health care, abolished. power generation etc. The availability of additional land for What needs to be done cotton cultivation is thus limited. Cotton crop requires To protect the domestic textile industry from surging substantial quantities of water. The quantity of water needed imports and to make it competitive in the international to grow one kg of cotton fibre is 11,700 litres, whereas for market, it is necessary to keep excise duty at 6 % optional, if one kg of cellulosic viscose fibre, it is 445 litres. Reports keep not 4 % which is the request of the industry, through out the pouring in about scarcity of water in several cities, towns and textile value chain i.e. on all man-made fibres, filament yarns, rural areas, where are we going to get water on that scale. all textiles and made-ups and garments and SAD on man- Undoubtedly, water is becoming scarce. made fibres and filaments must be abolished, if not customs Scarcity of water and limited availability of land duty. necessitate the provision of a level – playing held to man – At present the concessional rates of customs duty are made fibre textiles and clothing. extended to components and parts of such machines as are Why no to SAD (Special Additional Document) eligible for concessional rates, if such components and parts 1. SAD which is charged at 4 per cent is not a revenue are to be used for the manufacture of machines. measure of Central Government, but it is a tool for counter – The typical expression used in the customs tariff can be balancing VAT payable on domestic production of MMF. appreciated from the wording of serial No. 406 of 2. When GST will come into effect, SAD will automatically Notification No. 12/2012-CUS dated 17-3-2012. disappear. The introduction of GST may take place at the The following goods (other than old and used) for use in most one or two years. Hence the abolition of SAD is for a the textile industry namely: short period. (i) Shuttleless looms; 3. While a trader importing MMF gets refund of SAD paid by (ii) Parts and components for manufacture of goods it, the manufacturer is denied the refund, although blended mentioned at (I)’ yarn containing imported MMF is cleared from the factory of The textile industry is upgrading its technology in a big manufacture on payment of VAT. Thus, fibres imported by way under TUFS, the flagship scheme of the Ministry of manufactures for consumption pay VAT, but only one stage Textiles. Hence the textile industry is obliged to do need- later. based import of parts and components of imported 4. The domestic manufacturers of MMF are enjoying machinery, but the benefit of concessional duty is denied to it monopoly or near monopoly. The advantage of monopoly because of the above wording in the customs tariff. is fully exploited by the domestic manufacturers who adopt Hence the wording should be parts and components for import – parity as the basis for pricing. manufacture or maintenance of goods mentioned above.’ 5. As a result, costing of manufacturers of blended and To sum up synthetic yarns and fabrics go awry and their competitive Textiles are the basic need of the humanity. India is home position is severly affected. This explains why export of to cotton and hence a Textile country since four to five MMF textiles and clothing is only US $ 7 billion, against US $ millennium before the Christ. Encouragement given to the 17 billion of cotton textiles and clothing. textile industry in the forthcoming Central Budget is in the 6. The crying need is that the forces of competition must be natural interest and will promote the Aam Admi. strengthened. Views expressed is author own views Prediction of Finished Weight and Shrinkage of Cotton Knits–The Starfish ...continued from pg44 Project, Part –I: Introduction and General Overview,Textile Research Journal, 55,211–222,(1985). 4. Conclusions 3. Hepworth B and Leaf G A V, The Mechanics of Idealised Weft Knitted 1. The knitted fabric specifications, in terms of shrinkage, Structure, Journal of Textile Institute,67,241–248,(1976). delivered width and GSM, can be predicted instantly with the 4. Nawaz M, Shahbaz B and Gill U D, Dimension Control of Double Knit help of the software that is demonstrated taking the values of Fabrics, Indian Textile Journal,177–183,(2000) 5. Onal L and Candan C, Contribution of Fabric Characteristics and kc, kw and ky into consideration in the reference state for any Laundering to Shrinkage of Weft Knitted Fabrics, Textile Research particular knitting machine and wet processing sequence. Journal,73,187–191,(2003). 2. Therefore, this software will assist the knitter and 6. Postle R, Dimensional Stability of Plain Knitted Fabrics Journal of Textile finisher to develop specific products for particular customers, Institute,59,65–77,(1968). fine tune specific wet processing equipment and will reduce 7. Burnip M S and Saha M N, The Dimensional Properties of Plain Knitted Cotton Fabrics Made From Open-end Spun Yarns, Journal of Textile the time to develop a specific product substantially since, this Institute, 64, 153 – 169, (1973). systematic approach will eliminate the expensive trial and 8. Gowers C N and Hurt F N, The Wet Relaxed Dimension of Plain error efforts. Knitted Fabrics, Journal of Textile Institute,69,108–115,(1978). Reference: 9. Knapton J J F, Ahrnes F J, Ingenthron W W and Fong W, The dimensional 1. Munden D L, The Geometry and Dimensional Properties of Plain Properties of Knitted Wool Fabrics, Part–I, The Plain Knitted Structure, Knitted Fabrics, Journal of Textile Institute, 50,T448–T471, (1959). Textile Research Journal,38,999–1012,(1968). 2. Heap S A, Greenwood P F, Leah R D, Eaton J T, Stevens J C, and Keher P, 10. www.cottoninc.com Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 53
    • ASSOCIATION NEWS Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) FICCI (Federation of Indian chambers of commerce and Industry) organized its annual conference on textile and apparels TAG 2012 at Hotel the Lalit on 10th October 2012. The conference was graced by the presence of Mr. S. P Verma, Deputy Director, Ministry of textiles, GOI & . many of the industries dignitaries from Corporate World. A white paper on “Challenges in the Textile and Apparel Industry” Prepared by FICCI and technopak was also released during the conference. Mr. S. P Verma Deputy . Director, Ministry of Textiles, GOI in his presentation highlighted the initiatives taken by government in this industry and explained about various new and existing disposable income and increase appetite has led to more schemes. Speaking on the occasion he said “Investment in value for money. weaving and processing segments is required to strengthen Throwing a light on challenges he said “rising cost, raw value chain and bankers commitment level to serve the material cost and increase in volatility in raw material prices. client. He also said that “Important thing is to meet the Labor unrest, poor work environment and supply chain challenges that have proposed on infrastructure problem (lead time) are few challenges which can be solved development, recycling and textile economic processing”. by sincere efforts. India has to focus beyond EU and US. He highlighted on new segment - Technical Textiles. China in near future can also be our market. Learning from The 12th Plan estimation – Total Business of Rs 36.03 billion other industries, understanding supply chain management by 2010 & 2017.The global share of textile industry was and focus on overall business efficiency will help in going a 4.5% in 2011 and is expected 6% in 2016 and 8% in 2021. way forward”. Globally apparel industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of The theme of this year conference was “Thriving in the 6%. era of constant change: Challenge in textile & apparel He said “EU and USA has still not recovered from 2008 industry. One day long conference included sessions on crisis and trend is likely to continue. China and India is an Trends in Fiber demand, consumption and availability, emerging hub in apparel industry. India has to go far beyond Innovation in products and machinery, Building a more China. Brazil, China, India clusters have major growth in this efficient supply chain, Improving Indias share in International sector and is expected to grow to 20% in 2020.The growing trade and leveraging domestic business.. Confederation of Indian Textile Industry (CITI) Session on “Opportunity for Textile & Clothing industry” opening remarks given by Mr. B.K. Patodia, Past chairman CITI then Mr. Harminder Sahni, MD, Wazir Advisors Ltd., shared about sourcing & supply chain management. Mr. Chandan Chattergee, Director of Intextb in Ministry of Gujarat government pointed Vastra Niti and Emeging Opportunity in Gujarat State and discuss New Gujarat Textile policy. Mr. Prasanta Deka, VP Rieter India shared , Indian Textile Summit Organized by CITI( about Com4, different spinning technology. Confederation of Indian Textile Industry) at Trident Hotel, Session on, “Strengthening Value Chains: Optimizing Mumbai on 27th Sep, 2012. This is an annual meet of CITI Trade Benefits” opening remark given by Mr. S.V. members. Deputy Chairman Mr. Prem Malik welcomed all Arumugam, Chairman, CITI followed by Dr. Palaniswamy speakers, delegates of the conference. Pachagounder, BCI shared knowledge about approaches to Session on, “Textile industry : Growth Perspective”, few improve cotton production. Prof. Abhijit Das, head & speakers shared their opinions are Mr. R Raghuttama Rao, professor, Center for WTO, IIFT shared few datas on MD, ICRA Management Consultancy Services; Mr. Deep International tradein Textile & clothing & its Emerging trend. Mukherjee, MD, Fitch Ratings India Pvt. Ltd. aptly said that Dr. Chandrima Chattergee, Director- compliances, AEPC, rating improves the Quality of the manufacturer, Rating shared new project, DISHA initiative and Export opportunity should be part and parcel of the Business, Textile industry and sharfall. Mr. Rohit Pandit, director, Intex consulting lacking now. Mr. Tomas Verghese, Business Head, Textile, pointed out importance of IT( Information Technology) in Aditya Biral Nuvo ltd. shared his views on multi brand Textile value Chain. retailing and its opportunity in Textile / clothing industry. Mr. Program is concluded by good note of development of Murlikrishanan, VP LMW given successful spinning solution. , industry and Future planning..!!! 54 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • ASSOCIATION NEWS Textile Association of India (TAI) On the occasion of Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of The Textile Association (India), Mumbai Unit, the 10th International & 68th All India Textile Conference was organized by TAI, Mumbai Unit jointly with Central Office on 30thNovember & 1st December 2012, Hotel ITC Maratha, Sahara, Andheri (E), Mumbai – 400 099. The theme of the Conference was “World Textiles – Challenges towards Excellence”. Mr. C. Bose, President, Mumbai Unit welcomed the gathering and briefed about the theme of the Conference. The Office Bearers & representatives of TAI, Ahmedabadb Unit receiving the Best Unit Trophy in Larger Unit category by the hands of Chief Guest, Mr. D. R. Mehta, National President, in his presidential Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India. address said that Indian textile industry is facing several challenges in terms of quality and productivity and these the cost. Indian have advantage over lower labour cost. need to be addressed to achieve the goals. Mr. A. B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner, value addition is Mr. V. C. Gupte, Chairman, Mumbai Unit informed that key to achieve excellence. Today 97% of the textile there has been total evolution of global textile industry production is under SMEs and they have limitation of Initially, US & Europe textile business moved to China, India, achieving the required Brand and R&D. He listed the key Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & other Asian Countries, so drives to achieve excellence as Quality, Design, Technology much so that Bangladesh even overtook India. The focus and high value added products to show case. He assured the further moved to African countries and now Burma is industry that government is committed to create all required becoming a hot spot for textile processing, Increase in the oil policy support in context of global competition. various price is changing the logistic cost every day. Textile Industry is schemes include TUFs, Technical Textiles, Integrated Textiles heading for a situation where the costs are increasing every Park and Special project on use of Geo-textiles and Agri- day. the fluctuation in the currency is making business textiles in North Eastern States and ISDS to create skilled unviable, the fact is that the textile industry will survive and man power. remain in demand so long the mankind exists. Mrs. Jaya Row, Founder of Vedanta Vision said that Mr. Dilip Jiwrajka, MD, Alok Industries Ltd. Thanked leadership is key for achieving excellence in every walk of life TAI for conferring the Honorary Membership and said that it including industrial development. was a emotional moment for him. India needs excellence in There are 16 Speakers from India & abroad paper innovation, Eco-friendliness, social compliance, Skill presented during the conference. The two-day Conference development to suit to the level of technology and R&D. was attended by over 500 participants. The organizers of the Some of major concern to achieve the desired results is conference were happy to note that the objectives of the All currency fluctuation, raising interest rates, energy crisis and India Textile Conference are fully achieved. Hindustan Chambers of Commerce (HCC) welcomed in Indian traditional way. The Chamber Vice President and members spoke on the business opportunity with Chinese Companies. It was informed during the discussion that the Chinese labour cost has increased from the last 2- 3 years. The industry in China is feeling the labour shortage crunch. The Chinese Federation expressed the Indian Industry to come forward for JVs (joint ventures) in China. The delegation visited some Interactive business session with the Delegation of Shao modern Textile Units in Tarapur Cluster. Shri Ramesh Poddar Xing Federation of Industry and Commerce from CHINA. of M/s Siyaram Silk Mills was the Chief Guest of the meeting Hindustan Chamber of Commerce an eminent and Shri Ramesh Jain Director of M/s Optus Impex was Association of Textile Trade and Industry and Shao Xing Guest of Honour. The meeting was conducted by Shri Federation of Industry and Commerce from the famous Uttam V. Jain, Vice President and it was concluded with Vote textile Hub of China had an Interactive business session at of Thanks by Shri Hariram Agarwal Hon. Secretary of the the Birla Kreeda Kendra Mumbai on 22nd Oct. 2012. The Chamber. Chinese delegates 25 in numbers of the federation were Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 55
    • ASSOCIATION NEWS Mill Owners Association (MOA) A Fruitful Journey through 137 years of crème de la Crème Associations became active all over the country. [Still enthusiasm bubbling with new ideas, MOA still continues to serve the textile industry with the enthusiasm and missionary zeal ] same missionary zeal and enthusiasm. Present activities The Millowners Association Mumbai is more known by MOA gives full fledged service to its members in the its acronym MOA. It has the distinction of being the first spheres of finance (taking up the matter with RBI), TUFS Industrial Association in the Country having been established (covering of new machines, equipments, problems of on 1st February, 1875. receiving subsidy), Indirect taxes (prompt advice on all The phase of Industrialization started in the country with changes in taxation, taking up matters with the Central Board the setting up of a successful spinning mill, the first factory, of Excise and Customs), Labour matters (Industrial relations, way back in 1854. The first successful venture proved compliance with Labour laws) problems relating to inputs, contagious and soon a number of entrepreneurs came power etc.) forward to establish new mill companies, which witnessed a Taking advantage of new textile policy, MOA has made surge of industrialization. suggestions for relaxation in labour laws and for making MOA had a difficult task to perform. The first crop of available skilled staff for textile mills. MOA is actively industrialists was keen on starting on the strong ground of considering a minor irrigation project in village of Vidarbha to ethics and probity. Everything started on a new slate as demonstrate how rich soil of Vidarbha can yield higher there was no precedent for anything. production of cotton. MOA did a marvelous job. Without any legal obligation, Detailed Circulars of MOA are its specialty. Circulars MOA, on its own, made it compulsory for every member explain meaning and impact of changes in Acts, Rules, and mill to start a crèche, a fair price shop for the benefit of Regulations etc. MOA is also known for making prompt workers, the system of staff promotion, bonus, and dearness representations to protect bonafide interests of the textile allowance linked to the cost of Living of Index etc. industry. Above all, its fight with the alien Government to stop MOA is the voice of the industry for ushering in changes dumping of cheap fabrics from Manchester has a special in the policy mix. place in the history of freedom. Membership Fees.Rs. 20,000/- per member per annum. There was a time, when every mill in the country was a Address Dhuru Building, 4th Floor, Near Portugese member of MOA. Church, Opp. Foroze Classes, Gokhale Road With the rapid grown of the textile mill industry (North), Dadar (West), Mumbai – 400028 throughout the length and breadth of the country, new Telephone no.s 24314704/55 (Dir) 24314939 Fax: 24314869 textile centers were developed and so a number of Regional Email moa@vsnl.net Bharat Merchants Chamber (BMC) Shir Ramesh Poddar, MD of Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd., emphasized the need to glamorize the Textile Trade, so that our young generation is attracted towards it, as a career option. He added that the scope of Textiles is vast and never ending. Program conveyor Shri Shiv Kumar Kanodia and Mr. Niranjan Davkhare reiterated that applying VAT on Bharat Merchants Chamber, a prestigious textile Furnishing cloth makes cloth merchants and manufacturer association celebrated grand Diwali get together held on unviable in Maharashtra, and business will shift to 22nd Novmber, 2012 at Jugilal Poddar Sabhagrah, kalbadevi, neighboring states. Mr. Davkhare promised that he will Mumbai. In these event prestigious personalities, members, discuss this matter with Maharashtra Finance Minister and associate committees and Media associate were present. In will seek an early appointment for discussing this burning this occasion, Vidhansabha Vidhayika Mrs. Anee Shekhar, Mr. issue. Shri Shiv Kanodia pointed to several suicides of Cotton Niranjan Davkhare, Maharashtra Pradesh Congress farmers, cloth weavers and textile workers of Maharashtra Secretary Mrs. Summan Agarwal and Siyarams MD Mr. state, and sought early intervention of the Maharashtra Govt. Ramesh Podar presence graced the celebration. Chambers President Mr. Yogendra Rajpuria requested On this occasion, chamber Trustee, Shri Rajiv Singal Mrs. Summan Agarwal, MPCC Sectretary, about brought important issue in notice to Mrs. Anee Shekhar and businessman worries about VAT on furnishing fabric, it has Mr. Vinod Shekhar about furnishing cloth VAT problems and created uncertainty in the market. Mrs. Summan Agarwal situation in cloth market. Mrs. Anee Shekhar said that she will also gave assurance that she will speak to MPCC Chief Mr. discuss this issue with chief minister and will try to end VAT on Manikrao Thakrey and try to end VAT in furnishing fabric. furnishing cloth. 56 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • TRADESHOW Trade Show Details Vibrant ITME 2013 Technotex India 2013 th th Date: 8 -13 January, 2013 Date: 17th-19th January 2013 Venue: Helipad Ground, Gandhinagar,Gujarat Venue: pragti maidan, new delhi Organizer name: Indian Textile Machinery Exhibition Society Organizer name: FICCI Contact details : www.india-itme.com Contact details: www.technotexindia.in Exhibitors profile: Textile Machinery segment contributors Exhibitors profile: Technical Textile segment contributors th T- EX- 2013 50 India International Garment Fair th th Date: 24 -25 January, 2013 nd th Date: 22 -24 January, 2013 Venue: Rotary Community Center, Junagadh Road, Venue: Pragti maidan, New Delhi Jetpur, Gujarat. Organizer name: AEPC Organizer Name: Rotary Club of Jetpur Contact details: www.indiaapparelfair.com Contact Details: www.rotaryjetpur.org Exhibitors profile: Garment Exporter, Manufacture contributors Exhibitors Profile: Manufacturer of Dyes, chemicals, Auxiliaries, many more. India International leather fair Date: 31st jan- 3rd feb, 2013 th 56 National Garment Fair Venue: Chennai trade center, Chennai, tamilnadu Date: 28th - 30th Jan 2013 Organizer name: India Trade Promotion Organisation Venue: MMRDA Ground,Mumbai. Contact details: www.iilfleatherfair.com Organizer name: CMAI Exhibitors profile: Leather segment contributors Contact details: www.cmai.in Exhibitors profile: Local Brands of Garment Contributors KNIT TECH 2013 Date: 22nd – 25th Feb, 2013 IGMATEX PANIPAT 2013 Venue: Hitech Tirupur Exhibition Center, Tirupur st rd Date: 1 - 3 Feb 2013 Organizer name: Hi Tech International Trade Fair India Pvt. Ltd. Venue : Huda Ground, Panipat. Contact details : www.hitechtradefairs.org Organizer name: Igmatex Fair Exhibitors profile: Knitting Technology segment contributors Contact details : www.igmatexfair.com Exhibitors profile: Textile Machinery, Yarn contributors In Fashion 2013 Date: 20th- 22nd March, 2013 Garment Technology Expo 2013 International Venue: Bombay Exhibition Center, Mumbai. Date: 1st- 3rd March 2013 Organizer name: Images Group Venue: NSIC, Okhla, New Delhi Contact details: www.indiainfashion.com Organizer name: Garment Technology Expo Exhibitors profile: fiber, yarn, fabric, Value added products Contact details: www.garmentechnologyexpo.com Contributors Exhibitors profile: Garment Machinery segment Conributors Fibers & Yarns 2013 INDIGO 2013 th th th th Date: 11 - 13 April 2013 Date: 19 -20 April, 2013 Venue : World Trade center, Mumbai Venue: International Trade Expo Center, Noida Organizer name: Tecoya Trend Organizer name: Denim Club India Contact details : 022-66978535, tecoya@vsnl.com Contact details: www.indiadenimexpo.com Exhibitors profile: fiber and yarn segment Contributors Exhibitors profile: Denim industry Value Chain contributors Vastra 2012 FICCI organized Vastra 2012, An International Textile & Apparel Fair on 22nd to 25th November, 2012 in Jaipur, Rajsthan. Show has all participants from across industry. its 1st time show organized show by FICCI in Jaipur related to Textile. Quality International visitors presented at show. Chief Minister shri Ashok Ghelot presented during inaugural of the show. Main attraction in the show is Buyers & seller meet and Fashion show. International buyer and Domestic Seller have done good exchanges of business. 4 days fashion show had a huge success, where wester, Indian, indo western dresses collection and Model attracted visitors & exhibitors. Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 57
    • TRADESHOW India ITME 2012 Show Report IIndia ITME Society, organized the 9th India senior government officials. Several high value orders have International Textile Machinery Exhibition from 2nd – 7th been concluded at the show, while many more are in the December, 2012 in Mumbai. India ITME 2012 bought a offing. very unique and unparallel opportunity/platform to serve the Some of the spectacular developments at ITME 2012 textile industry of the World, to do business networking, are as follows: explore new products and technologies, new partnerships, Indian Machinery Company, LMW, has launched Card joint ventures, manufacturing opportunities and discovering LC636 at the event.Card LC636 is designed for higher new markets across the globe. production of up to 250 kg an hour. Exhibition inaugurated by Rajashree Birla, the chief guest Oerlikon has signed an agreement to divest the Natural of the occasion. Gujarat day celebrated followed by a Fibers and Textile Components Business Units from its seminar on how Gujarat as a state is poised to grow and Textile Segment to the Jinsheng Group of China. contribute to the economic growth of the country. Technical Kirloskar Toyata Textile Machinery (KTTM), has officially Textile Seminar, Professor Roshan Shishoo commented launched the new RX1240e Ring Spinning Frame, which is “India will invest US$ 1 trillion in infrastructure in the country claimed to be Indias longest ring frame. over the next five years, to highlight the potential for A .T. E.s principal Karl Mayer launched specifically for the technical textiles.” He stated the banks should take serious Indian market a machine – Fascination Lace. Interesting interest to enhance this sector. He urged the textile industry machine, which produces a designer saris. to grow in organized clusters. India International Tex summit With 820+ exhibitors from 51 countries, covering over had a huge response, many national & international speakers 100,000 sqm. of exhibition area, 10 new country & delegates attended the event. participation, many delegations from new textile markets, Many exhibitors showcased a range of latest eminent technocrats and textile experts speaking at the technologies across the textile segments. A.T.E, Benninger Seminar, and 100,000 visitors, this event will be the largest AG, LMW, Rieter AG and many other companies received so far India has ever hosted with the complete exhibition an overwhelming response. Visitors included mill owners space of Bombay Convention & Exhibition Centre booked and senior executives from a number of leading mills, and from mid-November 2012 to December 10, 2012. Oerlikon at ITME 2012 New Machine by LMW ATE at ITME 2012 Dynamic Autoloom at ITME 2012 Ms Rajashree Birla & Mr R Backaniwala, Chairman, ITME Sanjay plastic at ITME 2012 58 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • 589, Narayan chowk, M.J. Market, Mumbai- 400002. advt. Tel : 022-40045784 / +91-9920236702 Email: violla@live.com
    • EFFLUENT CONTROL Approaches towards effluent control in Textiles Prof. (Dr.) M.D. Teli & incurred for its treatment will be much less. The paper Javed Sheikh explores some of the probable reasons for higher effluent Dept. of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, generation and indicates techniques that can help to reduce I.C.T., Mumbai the same. Incomplete exhaustion of dyes Abstract As far as dyes are concerned, many classes of dyes are Textiles forming the basic need of humans are used in textile process house, such as direct, reactive, acid, consumed on large scale. In order to convert textile fibres, basic, vat, disperse, etc depending upon the product mixes. yarns and fabric into the forms suitable for the human use, Complexities arise due to the wide variation in structure and they are required to be processed and hence have to pass properties of about 3000 dyes which are used in the process through a number of dry and wet processing steps. Wet house. processing of textiles consumes a lot of water and energy and also generates a lot of effluent. This effluent cant be Exhaustion Dye Class Fibres applied discharged until it is properly treated, and hence more the Degree % effluent more will be the cost incurred on its treatment. The Direct Cotton, Viscose, Linen 64 – 96 best practice in such cases is to manage the load on effluent Reactive Cotton, Viscose, Linen (wool) 55 –97 to a minimum and hence reduce the quantity as well as load Vat Cotton, Viscose, Linen (Silk) 75 – 95 in effluent. The current paper explores the various Cationic Polyacrylonitrile 96 -100 techniques of effluent management that can help in reducing the effluent load. Disperse Polyester, Polyamide acetates 88 –99 The mother industry of the country occupies an Metal Complex Wool Polyamide 82 – 98 important place in the economy of India and so is true for Sulphur Cotton, Viscose, Linen 60 –95 many other developing countries. Textile processing Pigments All fibres 100 necessitates enormous amount of water and chemicals for various operations like pretreatment, dyeing, finishing, Chrome Wool 95 –98 washing, etc. Large quantity of water is required for wet Table 1: Exhaustion levels of typically used Textile Dyes processing of textiles and as many as 150 -300 litres of water During dyeing most of dye is exhausted on the fibre, but per Kg. of fabric are used depending upon the extent of wet the unfixed dye goes into wastewater causing deep colour. processing. The breakup of water required for wet Due to the relatively low degree of fixation say 50 to 60% for processing is as follows: reactive dyes, this class causes more problems in Bleaching and Finishing 60 to 65% wastewater. Dyeing 15% R & D in the dyestuff industry has now made it possible to develop reactive dyes, with bifunctional reactive groups Printing 10% and chromophores, which show higher levels for Boiler 10 to 15% exhaustion. High or medium exhaustion dyes like HE and Boiler10-15%After chemical processing of textiles, the ME classes of reactive dyes can be used to solve the problem effluent water contains many impurities as well as chemicals upto certain extent. A lot of research is going on to modify such as dyes, processing auxiliaries, chemicals like the dye structures to increase the exhaustion of dyes on phosphates, sulphates, alkalis, acids, heavy metals, etc. If textiles. Using HE and ME dyes, which are mostly applied on these wastes are discharged without any treatment into a knits, a lot of additional advantages are possible such as river, lake or even on ground, they will pose serious relative insensitivity to pH and temperature variations etc. ecological and pollution problems. Textile processing and which to a certain extent offer advantages in processing. The dyeing units thus give rise to effluents which require HE dyes are the ones which contain bireactive systems, both appropriate treatment before being released into the either chlorotriazine or vinyl sulphone based. In case of ME environment. Looking at the impact on the environment dyes it is hetero-bireactive system or mixed system. various countries are stressing the need to take care of Exhaustion as high as 95% is possible in HE dyes and thus it environment. Interest in eco-friendly processing in textile leaves very little dye unexhausted as compared to 50% dye industry has increased in the current scenario because of in normal reactive dye baths. increased awareness of environmental issues. Since Kyoto Old Textile Machines v/s New Machines protocol, adopted voluntarily by EU nations, export of Liquor to Material is another important parameter textiles and garments is linked with eco-friendly processed which indicates the ratio of the liquor to be taken for materials. processing of given weight of the material (substrate) Suitable treatments for such well managed effluents required to be taken in processing machinery. The liquor to before discharging it can be more relevant to prevent effluent material ratio used in conventional winch dyeing vary from generation as much as possible so that the cost to be 14:1 to 20:1. The salt, chemical, water and energy 60 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
    • EFFLUENT CONTROL requirements for dyeing have a direct relationship with the replace harsh chemical processes used in textile industry and liquor to material ratio. The quantity of dyes used depends many catalyze reactions at ambient temperature and on the depth of shade and the quantity of material dyed. pressure otherwise required. They are biodegradable However, the concentration of dye in the dye bath is high harmless to the environment and can be considered as and the dye uptake is more in the case of low liquor to supreme gift of the nature. material ratio in dyeing. The textile equipment Enzymes can be used in most of the textile processes manufacturers have realized the potentials of equipment like desizing, bio-scouring, bleaching, bio-washing of denim, with low liquor to material ratio and currently equipments bio-polishing of cotton, wool treatments etc. The desizing of such as soft flow machines with low liquor ratios (5 and even machined denim is achieved by using amylase. “Biocatalyst lower) are available in the market. This type of machinery Ltd.” of U.K. recommends Depol-277, a bacterial amylase brings about economy in operation on number of counts as for this application. The size thus hydrolysed has to be shown below in Table 2 washed away using dilute NaOH, pH 10-11 for rinsing the Particulars Soft-flow Winch garment. Liquor to Material ratio 6-10 14-20 Bio-bleaching or bio-washing is then recommended Water required in dye bath for 100Kg of fabric (L) 600-1000 1400-2000 with INDIFADETM. It is a technically advanced cellulase Total water required for dyeing 100Kg fabric (L) 7000-10000 15000-20000 /glucanase enzyme formulation. Salt requirement for dyeing at 80g/L 48-80 kg 112-160 kg Advantages: Table 2: Water and salt requirement by soft-flow machines and winches Eliminates use of hypochlorite The salt and water consumption per kg of fabric Leads to gentle fading avoiding garment damage processed can be reduced by 50% if the liquor to material Allows higher wash loads and reduced laundry machine ratio is reduced by 50%. wear ECO-FRIENDLY CHEMICALS AND AUXILIARIES Fading of bulk volumes of garment is possible Many chemicals currently used in the textile industry Increase in productivity and profitability influence the environment. Sometimes these chemicals can RFT approach be substituted by other chemicals. The total quantity of RFT (Right First Time) is a concept to produce higher chemicals used in textile mills varies from 10% to over 100% quality of goods with quick response along with maximum the weight of the cloth. Of course it is not always easy due to productivity, process efficiency and profitability there by the lack of information about BOD data and aquatic toxicity reducing avoidable wastages, corrections through of the chemicals and due to the proprietary nature of reprocessing and input costs. This refers to achieving at the specialty chemicals. A recommendation many mills get is to first round the required shade, levelness and fastness substitute high BOD chemicals with a low BOD ones. These properties on a dyeing. The level of RFT has an impact on the low BOD chemicals will help to reduce the waste load of the productivity and profitability. mills effluent. Textile wet processing sector is a major consumer of Hence the substitution of the non eco-friendly water and energy. Ever increasing environmental issues and auxiliaries will serve the consumer as well as the energy cost are forcing towards RFT approach. Textile wet environment. The eco norms are also becoming stringent processing consumes 50-600l/kg of water on weight of these days. Hence in order to survive in the strong goods. When we achieve the target at first time, it reduces competition where big brands are adopting for the eco- the total consumption of water and energy. friendly and sustainable production, the textile processors The percentage of RFT is directly proportional to are required to use the eco-friendly chemicals. decrease in extra cost of the process. RFT approach became Application of enzymes in Textile processing the need of the day. Many a times, when the technology is Today, enzymes have become an integral part of the outdated, reprocessing exorbitantly increases the inputs of textile processing. Though the use of enzymes in desizing pretreatment chemicals, dyes, finishes and energy inputs was established decades ago, only in recent years their shooting the cost of production as high as that of 45 – 60% applications have widened with the introduction of new against the right first time products.This totally defeats the products. With the increased awareness and regulation purpose of business as it surely leads to losses, as such a level about the environment concerns, the enzymes are the of escalation in cost of production cannot be absorbed, since obvious choice. This is because the enzymes are the profitability in this segment is very much limited. For RFT biodegradable, work under mild conditions and save the however, one needs right types of dyes, chemicals as well as precious energy. Enzymes, being biocatalyst and very right machinery, only then RFT is possible. specific, are used in small quantities and have a direct Low salt Dyeing consequence of lesser packing material and lower Traditional reactive dyes require the addition of a large transportation impact. In an overall consideration, the amount of salt to achieve exhaustion. Salt not only facilitates enzymes are the wonder products. the exhaustion process of reactive dyes to cellulosic fibre, but Enzymes are evolving as preferred aides in the series of also prevents the large scale bonding of water molecules to operations invoked in textile processing. Enzymes can the negatively charged dyes, which produces inert Dead Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013 61
    • EFFLUENT CONTROL dye. This large amount of salt when discharged into bodies energy, water and power etc.. The RFT approach can of water causes an increase in ecological salinity. further enhance production level and reduce reprocessing With the use of sophisticated molecular engineering cost escalation preventing erosion of profitability, maintaining techniques, it has been possible to design reactive dyes (eg, proper delivery schedule. low-salt reactive dyes) with considerably higher Bibliography performance than traditional reactive dyes. With the We acknowledge the following sources/authors whose literatures has been referred to while preparing the current article. introduction of these revolutionary dyes, it is possible to 1.Textile Ministry, Government of India, Annual report, 2004-05, 1, 1. reduce salt requirement by 50-60% based on the weight of 2.Karthikeyan J., Venkata Mohan S., Advances in industrial pollution fabric dyed. This was a very important development in the control, 1st edition, Technoscience publications, 1999, 250. history of reactive dyes on the ecological point of view. 3.Wasif A.I., Desai J.R. and Kane C.D., Book of Papers, 55th All India Cationization of Cotton Textile Conference, pg.262. 4.Paul R., K. Ramesh and K. Ram, Textile Dyer and Printer, 28(22), Dyeing of cotton with direct and reactive dyes requires a 1995,18. huge amount of salt to exhaust and the dye. These salts are 5.Shukla S. R. and Shende R. V., New Cloth Market, 4(9), 1990, 28. neither exhausted nor destroyed and, hence, remain in the 6.Shah D.L. and Kulkarni Arun, Man-Made Textiles in India, 33(11/12), dye bath after dyeing. Electrolytes are needed in the dyeing 1990, 426. 7.Smith B., American dyestuff reporter, Apr. 1987, 13. process to overcome the long-range repulsion forces 8.Wadia M.J., Colourage, May. 1977, 16. occurring between the slightly negatively charged fibers and 9.Shenai V.A., Chemistry of dyes and principal of dyeing, 2004, 464. the negatively charged dye molecules. Salt in the waste dye 5. Smith B., American dyestuff reporter, Aug. 1987, 68. bath is harmful to the environment increasing TDS of the 6. Rods R., Colourage, Special Issue SDC Conf, 2004, 39-42. effluent. Cationization of cotton before dyeing can help in 7. Ravichandran P Colourage, Dec. 2004, 33-40. ., 8. www.indiantextilejournal.com/articles/FAdetails.asp?id=2681 countering the negative zeta potential of the fibre hence 9.www.unep.fr/shared/publications/other/WEBx0072xP A/manual_cdro increasing the dyeing yield and reducing the amount of waste m/CPlinks/pdfs/minimisationsolidsdyeingeffluents.pdf. dyestuff. The application of a cationizing agent before dyeing 10.Wang L. L., Ma W., Zhang S. F.. Carbohydrate Polymers, 78, 2009, to cotton fabrics lowers the surface negative charge. 602. 11.Kanık M., Hauser P J., Textile Research Journal, 74, 2004, , 43. . Decreasing the negative charge on the surface of cotton 12.Hasani M., Westman G., Potthast A., Journal of Applied Polymer fabric increases the efficiency of dyeing with anionic dyes and Science, 114, 2009, 1449. hence, unexhausted dye to be drained-off is tremendously 13.Ahmed N. S. E., Dyes and Pigments, 65, 2005, 221. reduced, decreasing the load on effluent. 14.Broadbent A. D., Basic Principles of Textile Coloration; SDC: West Conclusion: Yorkshire, United Kingdom, 2001; Chapter 16. 15.Degiorgi M. G. R., Alberti G., Cerniani A., American Dyestuff In conclusion it can be said that by application of right Reporter, 74, 1985, 3. kind of technology ,selection of right kind of dyes, chemicals 16.Shore J., Colorants and Auxiliaries; SDC: West Yorkshire, United and machinery, a large extent the load on effluent can be Kingdom, 2002; Vol. 2, Chapter 10, p 497. controlled and thus not only final treatment cost of such 17.Lewis D. M., Vo L. T. T., Coloration Technology, 123, 2007, 306. 18.Kim T. H., Park C., Shin E. B., Desalination, 150, 2002, 165. effluent is drastically reduced, but the cost of production can 19.Kupferle M. C., Galal A., Bishop P Journal of Environmental ., also be controlled and operation can be cost competitive, as Engineering, 132, 2006, 514. chemicals, dyes required will be optimum and so also use of ICTs Tex Summit 2012: A sustainability Conference with Difference! The Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Manohar Samuel, Joint President, Birla Cellulose, explained in Technology of the Institute of Chemical Technology (ICT), depth the sustainability being at the core of Viscose staple fibre. Matunga, Mumbai, on December 05, 2012, organised an Mr. Bernd Plankenhorn, Sales Manager, Benninger AG, International Conference on the theme, Building a Sustainable Switzerland, expressed the need to look at various machineries Value Chain through Green Technology – Flourish or Perish?, at in Textile processing from the point of view of their ability to the Bombay Convention and Exhibition Centre, Goregaon, produce textile materials with least of Carbon footprints. Prof. Mumbai. Prof. (Dr.) M. D. Teli, a Professor at the Department Subhash Anand, Professor of Technical Textiles, The University and also an ex-Dean of ICT and former Head of the Textile of Bolton, U.K., “Designer Natural – fibre Geotextiles: A New Department. Concept”. Increasingly the natural fibres due to biodegradability inaugurated by the Chief Guest Shri A.B.Joshi, and sustainability aspects are going to be more and more Commissioner of Textiles, Ministry of Textiles, Government of important.Dr. Gerard de Nazelle, CEO, Polygenta India.Prof (Dr.) M. D Teli explained Theme paper “Building a Technologies Limited, spoke on the necessity of todays Sustainable Value Chain through Green Technology”. The Polyester. Completely Recycled, but Equivalent to Virgin growing organization should see competitive business Polyester for Sustainability” described efforts of developing opportunity while putting stake holders-model for creating colour-free polyester from recycled PET bottles. value in their business was his message. Dr. P R. Roy Chairman of Diagonal Consulting . Dr. Anup Rakshit, VP Reliance Industries Ltd discussed on , summarised views on the critical state of todays textile process Sustainable Efforts in developing Fibrous Polymers wherein he houses and the steps which should be taken to remedy this dwelled deep in the need for recycling of polyester bottles. Mr. situation. 62 Textile Value Chain | January - March 2013
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