Textile value chain Vol-1, Issue 2

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Textile Value Chain is B2B textile magazine

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  • 1. July-September 2012, 56 pages RNI No. MAHENG13114/13/1/2012-TC Volume 1, Issue 2, .100/-Cover Story : - Forging Ahead…Skill Gap Analysis in Spinning Sector40 Govt. Textile Parks under SITP Right Education for the Right Career Mr. Ramesh Poddar CIRCOT Implementation for Better Ginneries...
  • 2. FIBER GINNERYARN SPINNERFABRIC WEAVERGARMENT RETAILMANUFACTURERFASHION DESIGNERWHOLESALER WOVENCHEMICALS FINISHINGDYES ORGANICReshaping textile industry...TRIMMINGS EXPORTA company having an expert panel for individual tasks. Associate with Textile Value Chainand Boost your Business as well as Indian Economy to New Heights.EMBLISHMENT IMPORTBook your Advertisement space now !!!Subscribe today for interesting information, analysis and much more...
  • 3. EditorialThanks to all who whole-heartedly accepted our 1st issue of Textile Value Editor & PublisherChain and gave us valuable feedback, suggestions & improvement scope. Jigna ShahAfter introducing our 1st Textile Quarterly Magazine / Guide in India, we areproceeding ahead with our new issue. This magazine not only provides Chief - in - Editor Rajul Shahknowledge regarding the textile and fashion industry but also providesmeaningful information to our readers. Technical Advisory BoardIn the context of the Indian market, our industry has very few organised Dr. Ela Dedhia, Associate Professorprofessional players. In this issue, we are sharing a milestone success story of Nirmala Niketan College, MumbaiSiyarams, a journey from a family-owned business start-up to a professional Mr. B.V. Doctor,organisation in just 3 decades. A journey from a 10 crores company to 1000 HOD Knitting Dept,crores... SASMIRA, MumbaiIn this issue, we share with you detailed research papers from CIRCOT inassociation with NAIP and CICR, on Cotton Value Chain, how following Advertisement & Marketing Md. Tanweerfew suggestions given by the team, will reap huge benefits for the Ginners...!The Textile Committee shared Star Rating of Ginners and its importance for Graphic Designeran acceptance in international market and a doctorate shares with us the Vaibhav Gosarfunctional and technical aspects of apparel. An article from a consultant Manoj Kumarcompany also talks about technical textiles which have a huge scope in Indiabut it is still in a nascent stage. Authors Dr. R.P. NachaneAfter giving a brief Skill Gap Analysis of the industry in the last issue, this time Mr. S. Ulganathanwe are continuing in detail with the Spinning sector. We also talk about Dr. K.R.K. Iyerfashion and textile education and the different career options and how French Ms. Bhavna RawatKing Louis XIV developed fashion in the 17th century so people would not Mr. N.S. Kazirebel against him. We also have an Overview on Government policy about Mr. Shivram KrishnanIntegrated Textile Parks, 12th Plan for the development of Industry Mr. Kalyan RoyContributors and 40 parks details in brief. Ms. Sarita Raut Ms. Parinita DevadigaWe are reaching out to all the contributors of textiles like Manufacturers, Ms. Sarah NizamWholesalers, Educational Institutes, Associated Professionals, Consultants,Government, Industry Associations, and many more to associate with us. Registered Office :Come join us for our Vision: “Reduce the GAP amongst all the Textile Innovative Media & Information Co.Contributors...” 189/5263, Sanmati, Pantnagar, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai - 400075.Textile Value Chain is your platform where you can share The Truth, The Maharashtra, INDIA.Real Picture (not just being politically correct) and we will share your ideas Tel / Fax: +91-22-21029342and view points and try to make our industry more organized, professional Cell: +91-9769442239and internationally popular with better professionals!! A Better Industry to Email: info@textilevaluechain.comhave more FDIs, a Better Industry for people to look upon us and make them Web: www.textilevaluechain.comjoin and be part of this industry...!!! Owner, Publisher, Printer and EditorBest Regards, Ms. Jigna Shah printed & processed byJigna Shah her at, Impression Graphics, GalaEditor & Publisher no.13, Shivai Industrial Estate, behindAll rights reserved Worldwide; Reproduction of any of the content from this issue is prohibited McDonald, Andheri Kurla Road,without explicit written permission of the publisher. Every effort has been made to ensure and Sakinaka, Andheri (E), Mumbai-72,present factual and accurate information. The views expressed in the articles published in this Maharashtra, India.magazine are that of the respective authors and not necessarily that of the publisher. Textile Valuechain is not responsible for any unlikely errors that might occur or any steps taken based in theinformation provided herewith.Copyright 2012 by Textile Value Chain.
  • 4. ADVT.
  • 5. Textile Value Chain In This Issue...Cover Story : Siyaram Silk Mills Limited 04Fibre : Cotton Value Chain: CIRCOT 08 Star Rating- A Figure of Merit for Ginneries 11 Bamboo- An Eco Fibre 16Yarn : Ratan Glitters Industries Limited 18Fabric : Cloth Production in India 20 Life Cycle Analysis of Textiles 23Garment : Quality Tools in Garment Manufacturing 25 Apparel Aspects 28Fashion : King Louis XIVs- A Fashion Developer 18Technical Textiles 35SME Corner : Wholesalers view 39Skill Gap Analysis- Spinning Sector 40Career Opportunities :People in textile and fashion : Ÿ Sarah Nizam 44 Ÿ Rajul Shah 45International Colleges for Textile & Fashion 47College focus : VJTI 48Textiles Trade Shows 50Government Policy- SITP 52Corporate Fun 56
  • 6. Textile Value ChainSiyaram Silk Mills is a gigantic name in the textilemarket today. What is the history behind it andhow has the journey been so far? Incorporated in 1978, Siyaram Silk Mills Limitedis the Flagship Company of the Siyaram PoddarGroup. Initially, the company started with tradingactivities in fabrics and in 1981 startedmanufacturing activities at Tarapur with 66indigenous looms. Over a period of time, we have Siyaram’s Showroommodernized and upgraded the machineries gradually Today Siyarams has more than 1000 directin stages by inducting modern technology machines. employees and 5000 indirect employees. PleaseSiyarams today is the largest producer of blended highlight on the core team who started the entiresuiting and shirting in India, producing 40 million Siyaram Silk Mills and brought it to a place thismetres annually. Siyarams has been in the business of far.fashion for almost 3 decades now. In this span of time, Siyaram Silk Mills was started by ShriSiyaram and other brands under the group have Dharaprasadji Poddar and Shri Ram Prasadji Poddar.become house hold names. It may be one of the very In 1980-81 Shri Rameshji Poddar joined Siyaramsfew brands in the country which has an urban and when the turnover was less than Rs. 10 crores. Herural brand acceptance and penetration. worked relentlessly & acquired many skills of business under the expert guidance of ShriCould you please highlight the various brands Ramprasadji Poddar. He took full charge of theunder the Siyaram umbrella? business in 1982. Since then, there has been no In the fabric space, we have successful brands like looking back for Siyarams. Over the years, SiyaramsSiyarams, J.Hampstead and Mistair. In the has scaled new heights and reached a turnover of Rs.readymade space, we once again have established 1000 crores. Starting with merely 4 employees, todaybrands like Oxemberg, MSD and we have also Siyaram Silk Mills under the astute leadership of Shrirecently introduced J.Hampstead in the Premium Rameshji Poddar has not only expanded its presenceReady-to-wear space as well. Siyaram Home in India but also reached out to global markets.Furnishing is a relatively new business that we haveintroduced some time back. This segment also has a How much is the monthly production at Siyaramhuge potential and we definitely see ourselves as a Silk Mills? For the same, please specify theprominent player in the time to come. We are also production quantity, the manufacturing facilitiescatering to the hospitality & corporate business as well as the machinery.sectors through one of our brands Unicode and the Today, Siyaram’s produces more than 60 millionschool uniform business which has grown in recent metres of fabric per annum. It has state-of-the-art,times gets handled through our brand, Little world-class fully automated weaving and processingChamps. machines at its factories in Tarapur and Silvassa. ADVT.4 July - September 2012
  • 7. Textile Value ChainSiyarams also has one of the best facilities in Daman segment. It is largely dominated by unorganized,to produce garments. Besides this we also have a local and imported fabrics. There are barely fewstrong and dedicated R&D team at our Design organized players operating on a national level in thisStudio. space. Siyaram Home Furnishing is modern luxury at affordable prices and with the appeal, equity and theWhat are the core beliefs and the vision of the penetration that Siyaram brand has in all marketscompany? across India, we hope to piggy-ride on this and grow Siyaram’s is founded on the principles of mutual the business.respect and appreciation for human capital. Thevision of the company is To grow forever by What is the driving force behind Siyarams successconsistently achieving customer delight and being the - in both the fabric as well as readymade sectors?most preferred partner to every stakeholder. It has One of the core factors which have influenced thebeen our philosophy to provide its customer value- growth of Siyarams has been the ability and the quickfor-money products, world-class quality and the turnaround time to launch innovative and fashionlatest in international style and design. We have end products. We have continuously re-invented tostayed contemporary with a vision well-focused on create excitement both for trade and for consumers.the future. Our ability to spot international trends and the infrastructure to develop and launch great designs inSiyaram’s journey started with fabrics but has India and overseas is something that is a huge drivinggrown extensively in ready-made sector as well. factor for us, always.Your thoughts on the same. Initially, we were engaged in the trading of How is the distribution network for Siyarams?suitings and shirtings only. Over a period, we Today, Siyaram has more than 65,000 retailersexpanded, diversified and integrated our facilities selling Siyarams and its other brands. Siyaram todaysubstantially and currently we are the market leader of is a national player operating in metros and Tier I /IIman-made fibre (MMF) fabric segment. We produce towns. We are happy to be a part of their business and60 million metres of fabric per annum. Our are constantly striving to make their business moreprocessing units are also one of its kinds in India and profitable with us.they can process diverse fibres such as wool, cottonand polyester blends, all under one roof. In fabric, we In any textile company the fabric used is veryhave different brands for different segments of the important. Could you throw some light on themarket like Siyarams, Mistair, J Hampstead, etc. fabric you manufacture? Are they natural orSiyarams is a very popular brand and is present in synthetic or both?around 65,000 odd retail outlets across the country. Fabric is the core product which can be sold as isKeeping this in mind, we thought of leveraging on or used to convert into garments. Hence the feel, fallthis and hence we are extending the brand to our and texture of the fabric are extremely importantready-mades known as Oxemberg & MSD. They are characters as they have to be appealing to the end user.basically a brand extension from fabric to garment. The texture of the fabric is the outcome of the yarns used for production as well as the value addition doneSiyaram is also seen in home furnishings - what are through processing the fabric into various finishes.your future plans to promote this vertically? Siyarams is a market leader in blended suitings The home furnishing segment is a fast growing pioneered to cater to the ever-changing trends in the ADVT.July - September 2012 3
  • 8. Textile Value Chainfashion world. We use both natural as well assynthetic yarns to manufacture our fabrics. However,now we have ventured into 100% natural fabrics likecottons and linens through our recently launchednew brands Zenesis, Moretti and Royale Linen asthere is a huge demand for natural fabrics.Do you have in-house yarn production atSiyarams? What are the types of fibres gettingmanufactured at your end? We are not into producing yarns, however we arein the business of value-added dyed & fancy yarnswith expertise in the manufacturing of wide range ofcottons and synthetic yarns catering to the fashion R&D, we are constantly exciting our trade andfabric manufacturers across India. consumers with new products which the consumers have seen or experienced in global markets but haveWe see a certain trend with hiring A-list celebrities not been able to get it in the Indian markets. We haveas brand ambassadors for the textile brands. Any recently launched Royal Linen Collection withspecific reason for Siyarams to have different Manish Malhotra. The collection is 100% pure linenbrand endorsers for the various brands? and is one of the finest linen fabrics in the world. The trend was started by Siyarams. In the late Moretti is another brand that we have launched90s, Siyarams was quick to identify the importance which is into premium cotton shirting fabrics.of having the right celebrity for the brand. Soon Todays consumers are all about individual identitythereafter, Siyarams has been associated with some of and that reflects in their clothing as well.the biggest names in fashion, sports and bollywood.Be it Manish Malhotra, Boris Becker, Leander Paes, Networking in the textile industry is an integralMahesh Bhupati, Dhoni or Vijender Singh, Lara part of the business. What is your take on buildingDutta, Bipasha, Priyanka Chopra, Neil Nitin relations with the traders?Mukesh or Hrithik. We have them all. More Like in every business, the role of a retailer is veryimportant we have not just roped in celebrities, we crucial. A retailer is a bridge between the wholesaler,have used them tactically to the advantage of the the supplier and the mill. He is an importantbrand in different markets. This has helped the brand marketing intermediary who by his timelyto get out of the clutter and carve a space for itself. communication informs the manufacturers/Today being the trendsetters that we are and also the distributors/ dealers regarding which product islarger portfolio that we have, we have strategically acceptable in the market as they know the pulse of theidentified the right celebrity with the brand and have market. Due to this information the wholesaler alsoused them effectively. confidently distributes his products even in the remotest part of the country. I believe that the realWhat is the road ahead with regards to the value India lies in the rural parts of our country. We haveadded products vertically? always strived to develop the best of relations with Going forward, value added products are going to these retailers, by encouraging them and supplyingbe a large part of our business. Through our focused ADVT.6 July - September 2012
  • 9. Textile Value Chainthe most fashionable goods at best rates. We are also their positioning of “Come Home to Siyarams”proud that with our growth, our channel partners has been able to create a strong space in the minds ofhave also grown. This has been the underlying global Indian consumers and this has beenphilosophy of Siyarams. accelerating the growth pace of brands like Siyarams and Oxemberg in the global markets. We are cateringDid the 2012 Budget put any repercussions on the to markets in Middle east, USA and Europe as well.textile industry? We wholeheartedly compliment the Government Could you explain the garments in detailfor continuation of exempted route for clearance of specifying topics like export, domestic etc.?textiles under Notification No.30/2004-CE. The Indian consumers are converting fromAlthough the excise duty on branded ready-made stitched apparel to ready-to-wear clothing range.garments and made-ups has not been abolished, its Accordingly, those companies which are engaged inimpact is reduced from 4.5% to 3.6% which is also a business of manufacturing and distribution of qualitywelcome step. The Honble Finance Minister fabrics to garment industry have a promising future.announced in his Budget Speech that automatic Indian companies are now eyeing the hugeshuttle-less looms are exempt from basic customs opportunity in partnering with luxury brandsduty of 5% which is great. However, in the present wishing to enter India. Retailers and private equityBudget, duty on cotton stream of production has firms on the other hand are ready to make huge investments in promising growth of apparel brand.been increased to 6% from 5%, but that on man- Meanwhile brands are also buying stakes into retailmade stream from 10% to 12%. Thus, the difference companies to grasp a wider market. Textile companiesin duty has widened, at a time when the man-made are strengthening front and back-end operationstextile industry is facing rough weather. Government through mergers and acquisitions in the textileshould therefore fix a uniform rate of 6% for both the industry.streams of production. Manufacturing is a thrust area for the Indian government, as Indian industry and the governmentWay forward 2012- 2013, future investments and see foreign companies more as partners in buildingexpansions plans, if any? domestic manufacturing capabilities rather than a Siyaram’s aims to become a Rs. 1500 crores threat to Indian business. Following this through, thecompany in the next 2 years and would be investing central governments as well as various states areclose to Rs. 160 crores in expanding the executing various schemes such as integrated textilemanufacturing capacities of the business. and apparel parks. Thus, Indias garment business is poised to fuelWhat are your expectations from the overseas the countrys textile segment as it provides the highestmarket? per unit realization and has high value added content. The overseas market is growing tremendously. Thus we can see that the textile industry has anThanks to the many Indians who are settled abroad. important role to play along with being one of the keyThere is a great acceptance for Siyaram fabrics and its growth engines of the economy.other brands. Indian consumers abroad areconnected to their roots in India. Siyaram through ADVT.July - September 2012 7
  • 10. Textile Value Chain FIBRE lack of facilities for quality assessment of individual bales. Although spinning sector is performing better Cotton Value with modern facilities, weaving/knitting sector still Chain needs to improve in quality and product up gradation to meet the international standards. Further, processing such as preparatory chemical treatments of Dr. R. P. Nachane yarns and fabrics, eco-friendliness, energy use Principal Scientist, efficiency, and its treatment are factors that need NAIP Project on immediate attention. In the handloom sector, workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and environment is “Cotton Value Chain (CVC)” also vitiated with chemical effluents in rural areas. CIRCOT, Mumbai In this context, a World Bank funded project1. INTRODUCTION entitled, “A Value Chain for Cotton Fibre, Seed and The Indian Textile Industry uses about 62% cotton Stalk: An Innovation For Higher Economic Returnsas its raw material, unlike the global textile industry to Farmers and Allied Stake Holders” was sanctionedthat has a 40:60 mix of cotton and man-made fibres. by National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP)There has been a phenomenal increase in cotton under Component 2 in consortium mode withproduction in India in recent years. Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology In the conventional value chain there are a few (CIRCOT), Mumbai as lead center and Centralmissing as well as weak links. Ginning is considered to Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur, Superbe one of the weakest links characterized by excessive Spinning Mill Ltd., Coimbatore as consortiumuse of energy, presence of contaminants and trash and partners with the following objectives. Ÿ To grow established cotton genotypes in the adopted villages with integrated production technology practices Ÿ To reduce the level of contaminants in cotton by adopting appropriate on- farm and off-farm management practices and to label cotton bales with fibre attributes after appropriate ginning Ÿ To prepare yarn, fabrics and garments in the modern mill, market and manufacture eco-friendlytextiles in handloom sector by employing CIRCOT technology for bio-scouring and natural dyesŸ To ensure additional income to farmers and alternate raw material to the industry by establishing cotton stalkssupply scheme to board industries/ briquettingŸ To demonstrate innovative scientific processing of cotton seed for oil extraction and value addition to its by-products The present work, addresses some of the above mentioned weak/missing links to increase the efficiency andeconomic competitiveness of cotton cultivation, processing and value addition. Best management practicesencompassing INM and IPM modules were adopted to raise crop in three locations, namely, Nagpur, Coimbatoreand Sirsa. Harvesting of contaminant free cotton was carried out by utilizing appropriate picking methods for seedcotton, on farm storage and transportation. The seed cotton was ginned and individual bales were tagged for fibreattributes and were spun. Cotton plant stalks were collected, chipped and transported to board industry for makingparticle boards. Edible oyster mushroom crop was raised on anaerobically pre-treated cotton stalks.8 July - September 2012
  • 11. COTTON VALUE CHAIN Textile Value Chain2. COTTON PRODUCTION: It is felt that an “Integrated Cultivation”approach by bringing together smallholding farmers and ensuring qualityinputs at competitive price would not onlybring down the cost of cultivation but alsoresult in cotton with low levels ofcontaminants. Similarly, drip irrigation,multi-tier cropping systems includingvegetables and pulses and poly-mulchingtechnology at the small farm level haveclearly shown significant economic gainsfor the farmer in terms of improved seedcotton yield (2 to 3 times the conventionalyield) could be achieved. Suchtechnologies need to be demonstrated at the farmers fields to convince growers for further large scale adoption.CICR with its expertise on production technologies executed this job in the current project and CIRCOT did thepost harvest on-farm and off-farm management to produce clean seed cotton.3. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT Indian cottons are hand picked and ought to have been the cleanest; actually it is not so, due to improperhandling of seed cotton, poor on-farm and off-farm management and contamination during storage and transport.It can improve if practices like proper on-farm storage of seed cotton, avoidance of any other fibre material whichcan work as contaminant for use during storage can be implemented. Also grading of kapas in terms of moistureand fibre attributes are issues that deserve special attention. In this project, cotton picking was carried out under thesupervision of CIRCOT. Farmers were trained in the use of simple practices such as use of head gear (scarf ), use ofcotton cloth bags for collecting kapas in the field, emptying these bags only on the thick plastic sheets away fromthe edges filling kapas in big cotton cloth bags, etc. After CIRCOT worked with farmers in Coimbatore, Nagpurand Sirsa it resulted in reduced contamination by 3.5g in 1200kg lint.4. GINNING AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF BALES Ginning is one of the most crucial links in the value chain that decides the lint quality. CIRCOT with itsexpertise in ginning and quality characterization had provided this crucial input to the present project. CIRCOTin selected ginning factories at Coimbatore, Nagpur and Sirsa, accompanied pre-cleaning and post-cleaning with ginning. This reduced trash and contamination in the lint (~1%). 5. PRODUCTION FROM RAW MATERIAL TO MARKETING 5.1 Yarn production Bales were segregated according to the fibre parameters like, MIC, 2.5% Span length, Uniformity etc. Different groups of bales were made according to the MIC value. Accordingly 30s & 80s count yarn was spun and converted in to the fabric. The yarn made from the segregatedJuly - September 2012 9
  • 12. COTTON VALUE CHAIN Textile Value Chainbales was tested for its physical & mechanical seeds. Thus we are getting more oil and moreproperties. industrial material and kernel cake can be used for cattle feed or for extracting edible protein.5.2 Bio-Scouring of Yarn and fabric making The spinning industry in the country is one of 7.2 Enzymatic treatment and Delintingthe most modern and vibrant links in the value chain. When batches of cottonseeds were treated withEqually export worthy are the knitted fabrics and microbial consortium and passed through delintinggarment produced from the country, albeit their low machine, the results clearly indicated lower lintunit value realization. What is bothering is the “not so content and trash in the treated lot as compared to thestrong” finishing link, particularly, with its chemical control (untreated batch). This is due to the softeningutilization and discharge of effluents. The preparatory of the cell wall structure making the fibres extractedprocesses in the chemical chain such as scouring and easily and hence less energy is consumed.bleaching are energy intensive and add to thepollution load. CIRCOTs bio-scouring technology 7.3 Enzymatic pre-treatment of kernels and oilwould bring in the much desired benefits in terms of extractionsaving in energy and reduction in effluent load. Also It was observed that when kernels were pre-treatedapplication of natural dye in place of eco-unfriendly using 0.1% cellulose and 0.2% papain, it gave asynthetic dyes would also bring in not only slightly higher yield of oil than the control (untreatedenvironmental benefit but also provide the right kind kernel). Trials were undertaken for the extraction ofof raw material to the handloom sector (employment oil from enzymatically pre-treated kernel howeverto personnel below poverty line). they have not been satisfactory. Few more trials are required to come to a conclusion about enhancement6. UTILIZATION OF COTTON PLANT of oil extraction by using enzymatic treatment to theSTALKS cotton seed kernel. After harvesting of kapas, cotton stalks left in thefields of the farmers associated with the project was 7.4 Bio-enrichment of Hulls & cattle feed trialcollected and chipped under CIRCOTs supervision. The delinted seeds were processed to separate hullThe chipped stalks were transported to the particle and kernel. CIRCOTs microbial consortium wasboard making factory for board making. This results used to enrich cottonseed hulls for protein within an additional income for the farmers. increased digestibility by solid state fermentation. The feed efficacy of bio-enriched hulls as cattle feed was7. UTILIZATION OF COTTON SEED evaluated by undertaking feeding trials on cross-bread Cottonseed is not grown exclusively for oil but is cows at National Dairy Development Boardavailable as a by-product of cotton and was once (NDDB), Anand. There havent been conclusiveconsidered to be a feed for animals. Earlier, results.cottonseed was being processed to recover oil and thecake, what remained after oil extraction was used as CONCLUSIONanimal feed. During the last few decades, cottonseed By employing CIRCOT technology industry canis being processed scientifically to get oil, meal, hulls benefit at all levels. If appropriate on-farm and off-and linters. farm management practices are used, trash and contamination at every level can be reduced. This will7.1 Delinting of seeds & separation to Hull and enhance the quality of the raw material and thus theKernel and Oil extraction end product. By value addition to by-products there Crushing ginned seeds not only leads to loss of can be less wastage, more employment and moneylinter which is a good industrial raw material but also and eco-friendly textiles can be prepared.oil extracted is about 10-12% of seed weight. Ifdelinting is done linters of about 3-5% of seed weight For the complete article with in-depth comparisonbecomes available for industrial application. If hulls and analysis, please visit our website:and kernel are separated from delinted seed then hull www.textilevaluechain.com and click on Cottoncan be use as a part of cattle feed and when kernel is Value Chain.crushed to extract oil we get 4-6 % extra oil ascompared to that obtained by crushing of ginned10 July - September 2012
  • 13. COTTON GINNING Textile Value Chain The cotton production in the country rose from 23 G-A lakh bales during 1947-48 to 295 lakh bales during STAR RATIN MERIT 2009-10. The cotton production in 2010-11 is FIGURE OF RIES FOR GINNE estimated to be 325 lakh bales. From being an importer of cotton during pre-independence years, India has not only become self-sufficient but has Mr. S.Ulaganathan, Director (EPQA) & turned into an exporter of cotton. India is the second Dr. K.R.K.Iyer, Consultant, largest producer of cotton yarn contributing nearly Textiles Committee, Mumbai 20% to global cotton yarn trade .COTTON SCENARIO IN INDIA PROBLEMS IN COTTON CULTIVATION Amongst all the cotton growing countries of the Though India today is the second largest producerworld, India ranks number one in area under cotton of cotton in the world, in productivity it is placedcultivation spreading out to over 10 million hectares. below most of the major cotton growing countries.Although only second in cotton production, India has Excessive reliance on rain, inadequate availability ofseveral distinctions to its credit. India is the only quality seeds, high incidence of bollworm and suckingcountry in the world that grows on a commercial scale pests, ineffective transfer of technology to farms,all four cultivated species of cotton viz. Gossypium fragmented land holding and illiteracy of farmers haveArboreum, Gossypium Herbacium, Gossypium been the main factors contributing to lowHirsutum and Gossypium Barbedense. productivity. Today, there are hundreds of improved varieties Though the evolution of new and high yieldingand hybrids belonging to the above four species being varieties and hybrids through breeding research hasgrown in different parts of the country. India is also helped in improving productivity, it has led to mixingthe first to cultivate hybrid cotton on a commercial of varieties at the farm, market yards and ginneriesscale and can take pride in being the only country that impairing the consistency of cotton quality.grows the complete range of staples from short andcoarse un-spinnable Assam Comillas to the extra long GINNING SCENARIO IN INDIAsuperfine cotton Suvin, which in fibre quality The purpose of ginning is to separate cotton fibresmatches, with Giza 45 of Egypt and spins 120s count. from the seeds. Ginning process is the most importantThe ginning outturn of cotton also presents a wide mechanical treatment that cotton undergoes before itspectrum of variation from 24% to 42%. is converted into yarns and fabrics. Any damage caused to the quality of fibres during ginning cannot be rectified later in the spinning or subsequent processes. At the same time, any quality improvement at raw material stage goes a long way in the process improvement of the entire supply chain as well as in the overall quality improvement of the final product. Till recently, the ginning industry in India presented a dismal picture. In the years before 2000, Indian ginneries were in a primitive condition where the ginning and bale press machines were manufactured between 1895 and 1920 and were In crop duration, there are varieties in India that running with poor standard of efficiency. Manycomplete their life cycle in about 145 days while some factories performed only ginning operations and theirothers take as long as 270 days. The period of growth installed capacity as low as 6-12 double roller gins.of cotton is also widely variable from region to regionand is planted and processed in one part of the PROBLEMS IN COTTON GINNINGcountry or another throughout the year. Over the years, comparisons have often been madeJuly - September 2012 11
  • 14. COTTON GINNING Textile Value Chainbetween ginning practices in India and abroad and the differences observed in the quality of ginned lint,particularly in terms of trash content and presence of contaminants. In countries like USA, Australia, Uzbekistanetc, the seed cotton which is machine picked and which arrives at the ginning factories with trash content in excessof 25%, leaves the ginning factories in the form of pressed bales with less than 2% trash. Even in African countrieslike Uganda, Tanzania, Egypt, etc where the cotton is hand-picked like in India, trash content in bales iscomparable with that of US cotton because of good house keeping and the use of pre- and post-cleaning machinesin their ginning system. In India, the hand-picked seed cotton, which arrives in ginning factories with substantiallyless trash than the machine-picked American or Australian cotton, leaves the factory with higher trash than in thesecountries. Excessive quantities of foreign matter due to improper picking and ginning practices had earnednotoriety for the Indian cotton as the most unclean cotton in the world. Ginning factories contribution tocontamination is quite significant. Modernization through technology upgrade and infrastructure improvement along with good work practiceswas the answer to the problems in cotton cultivation and ginning.GOV’T. INITIATIVES – TMC & TUFS CIRCOT had conducted the first ever survey on the status of the ginning industry in India and had publishedits report as early as in 1958. In later years, CIRCOT carried out surveys of ginning industry in some states incollaboration with ATIRA and SITRA. All such surveys had revealed the deplorable state of the Indian ginningindustry and had underscored the urgent need for its modernization. Based on the results of the above surveys andrecognizing the importance of cotton crop, Govt. of India launched the Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) inFebruary 2000. The focus of TMC was on cotton research, transfer of technology to farms and modernization ofmarket yards and ginneries. The TMC had four component Mini Missions as follows: Mini Mission Trust Area Nodal agency Financial outlay(Rs) Cotton research and technology Indian Council for Agricultural Mini Mission I generation Research (ICAR) 700 Crores Dept of Agriculture and Mini Mission II Transfer of technology Co-op, Min. of Agriculture Development of market Mini Mission III Ministry of Textiles infrastructure 498 Crores Modernization / Up gradation of Mini Mission IV Ministry of Textiles ginning and pressing factories The target for modernization of ginneries under machine for fibre quality testing subject to a max ofTMC was 1000 and by the time the scheme came to a Rs. 4 lakhs.close in December, 2010 about 850 Ginning and Almost simultaneous with TMC, the Ministry ofPressing (G & P) units were modernized or newly set Textiles launched another initiative called Technologyup. Under TMC, modernized or newly set up Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) under whichfactories conforming to TMC norms were given interest subsidy of 5% is admissible to textilefinancial support in the form of one-time subsidy as manufacturing units including G and P factories forfollows: modernization as well as for the setting up of new1. 25% of the costs for general items of machinery units. This scheme is continuing even today and a fewand civil infrastructure subject to a max of Rs. 20 lakhs hundred ginneries have so far availed of interestin case of a large factory and Rs. 15 lakhs in case of a subsidy benefit.small factory.2. 25% of the costs for installing new automatic bale MODERNIZATION UNDER TMCpress subject to a max of Rs. 7 lakhs. The various components of modernization under3. 25% of the costs for purchasing HVI/ MVI TMC are broadly grouped under four categories:12 July - September 2012
  • 15. COTTON GINNING Textile Value Chain I) Essential machinesa) Ginning machine g) Lint conveyor systemb) Pre-cleaner h) Bale pressc) Lint cleaner I) Humidifiers/ Moisturizersd) Kapas conveyor j) Fire fighting systeme) Seed conveyor k) Underground wiringf) Weigh bridge ii) Essential infrastructurea) Kapas platform d) Bale storage spaceb) Lint halls (pala halls) e) CC roadc) Seed storage space f) Boundary wall/ fencing iii) Essential conditionsa) Quality awareness boards f) Variety-wise/ grade-wise heapingb) Headgear/ uniform g) Covering of cotton as it arrivesc) Training of gin fitters h) Bale packagingd) Disposal of rubbish I) Gin / press fitters, 2 in each shifte) Gummed boards iv) Desirable machinesa) HVI/ MVI e) Moisture meterb) Generator f) Workshop machinesc) Laboratory model gin g) Roller grooving machined) GP balance h) Cotton pod openerR AT I N G O F G I N N I N G & P R E S S I N G WHAT IS RATING?FACTORIES Rating is the process of placing modernized G and As the effects of modernization started becoming P units into classes based on the quality ofvisible in cotton quality in the early years of TMC, the infrastructure, comprising (i) machinery, (ii) civiluser mills were eager to know more about the structural items and (iii) the management practicestechnical merits of modernized G and P factories and and (iv) the contamination level of ginned cotton.wanted to identify the superior ones among the Since the quality of cotton processed in a ginnery willmodernized units. The elite ginning factories greatly depend on the excellence of its infrastructure,expected some kind of recognition for the quality of the rating assigned to a unit will be a performanceequipment, civil infrastructure and management indicator that will be of concern and interest to bothpractices as well as process conditions adopted by the cotton trade and textile mills alike.them to deliver clean cotton bales. Rating of the G andP factories was the only answer to the needs of the OBJECTIVES OF RATINGtextile industry in general and of G and P factories in Star rating of ginneries intends to achieveparticular. Accordingly, a methodology for star rating objectives like (i) accord recognition to the quality ofof modernized ginneries was developed by TMC and infrastructure in ginneries, encourage modernizationthis was bequeathed to the Textiles Committee (TC) of more ginning units (ii) promote quality culturefor implementation in February 2009. Under the among ginners through good management practicesrating methodology, fine-tuned by TC, star ratings are (iii) improve the quality of baled cotton (iv) create aawarded to ginneries on the basis of quality of brand for clean cotton (v) justify a higher price tag forinfrastructure set up in the factory, management quality cotton and (vi) indirectly promote better pricepractices and the quality of ginned cotton. The star realization by farmers.rating scheme undertaken by TC is of a unique kind inso far as rating ginneries is not practiced anywhere else RATING METHODOLOGYin the world. The star rating scheme specifies various conditions such as (i) minimum eligibility criteria (ii) essentialJuly - September 2012 13
  • 16. COTTON GINNING Textile Value Chainparameters, (iii) minimum marks for each rating (iv) VALIDITY AND STATUS OF RATINGadditional fulfilling requirements for 4 star and 5 star Rating once assigned to a G and P factory is validratings and (v) analysis of contamination level in for a period of three years with compulsory annualginned cotton. G and P factories seeking star rating visits from assessment teams. The response from the Ghave to fulfill the minimum eligibility requirements. and P factories to the star-rating scheme is As per the rules of rating scheme, an on-site overwhelming. The user industries, spinning mills,assessment will be carried out by a team of experts. have also welcomed the initiatives of the Govt. ofDuring on-site assessment, 21 infrastructural India and are look forward to reaping the benefits ofcomponents comprising machinery and civil the rating scheme. So far, 510 applications have beenstructures are assigned marks ranging from 1 to 5 received for assessment till 22.02.2011. Thedepending on their technical merits. Weight assessment status of G and P factories is as follows:representing the degree of importance in controllingtrash and contamination has also been assigned to Assessment Statuseach of these 21 components. The mark assigned No. of applications received till 31.12.2011 673multiplied by the weight factor would give the weightmark for each component. Similar marking scheme is No. of Factories rated 479also prescribed for the 13 management parameters Rating Status (Assessed during last cotton season)including contamination level in ginned cotton. A “Five-Star” rated factories 5maximum of 200 marks are assigned forinfrastructural parameters and a maximum of 175 “Four-Star” rated factories 22marks are assigned for management parameters. “Three-Star” rated factories 63Rating is awarded in five classes, viz. TC-Single Star “Two-Star” rated factories 198to TC-Five Star, based onŸ Percentage of marks scored in infrastructural “Single-Star” rated factories 52parameters Total no. of units rated 340Ÿ Percentage of marks scored in management No. of units under Provisional Rated Status 139parametersŸ Fulfillment of criteria for essential parameters TOTAL 479Ÿ Fulfillment of criteria for additional fulfillingrequirements (for 4 Star and 5 Star only). BENEFITS FROM RATING The star rating scheme is set to bring benefit toRATING LOGO & CERTIFICATE different sections of stake holders in cotton TC has developed a logo for rating through NID, production and utilization. Some of the benefits areAhmedabad. The logo will be registered as a trade discussed below.mark under Trade Marks Act and will be promoted as (I) Benefit to Millsa brand for clean cotton. The information on website about star ratings of G and P factories, on successful completion of Ginning and Pressing units will help mills in selectingassessment, will be awarded a Certificate of Rating. the appropriate ginnery while sourcing their cotton.Information on the rating assigned to G and P The mills which are inclined to undertake their ownfactories will also be placed on the TCs website for the ginning can choose the factories of desired rating.information of textile mills and cotton trade. The (ii) Benefit to the Ginneriesfactories that do not qualify for any rating as per the For the ginner who is also a cotton trader, the ratingrating criteria will be given Provisional Rated Status will serve as an effective marketing tool. Higherfor one year. The provisional rated factories are premium could be demanded for cotton processed inexpected to make necessary improvements and seek ginneries with superior star rating. A high star ratingreassessment for rating within one year. will indeed boost the credibility of the factory both in domestic and overseas markets. A ginner carrying out job work can demand higher rates depending on the14 July - September 2012
  • 17. COTTON GINNING Textile Value Chain rating secured by the factory. The rating will help the improvement in ginning infrastructure in the country factories to know their present quality status and may be fully realized. examine whether scope exists for further improvement in the infrastructure. The rating will LOOKING FORWARD also help G and P factories in securing working capital The rating scheme discussed above is the first of its and loans from financial institutions. kind ever used for classifying ginneries not only in (iii) Benefit to Cotton Traders India but the world over. The day is not far when Since the quality of baled cotton is bound to depend buyers of cotton bales in India and abroad would start on the star rating of the factory, traders will find it easy specifying the star rating of the ginnery in which they to choose the ginnery for processing cotton to the level would like their cotton to be ginned. Being processed of quality demanded by each mill. in a star rated ginnery will enhance the brand value of (iv) Benefit to Government of India cotton bales and promote their sale in domestic and Modernization of ginneries and the resulting quality overseas markets. The quality upgrade made at the upgrade of Indian cotton have favoured raw material stage adds new dimension to the overall unprecedented rise in cotton exports (more than ten- improvement of the quality at various stages in the fold in a decade). Periodic assessment and rating will entire supply chain of the cotton industry. Textiles generate a spirit of competition amongst the G and P Committee could then take pride in having factories whereby the Govts objective of sustained refurbished the image of the Indian cotton. Cotton Bales: Manufacturer & Exporter of Raw Cotton Bales, Asha Cotton Industries. Our Cotton Ginning Pressing Factory Located at Mahuva, Gujarat, India.Asha Cotton Industries is TMC (Technical Mission on Cotton, Approved by Textileministry of India- Govt. of. India) approved Ginning Pressing Company. TheCompany is founded by our Chairmen Dr.B.T.Valia in 1998; we engaged inmanufacturing and export of best quality cotton bales, cotton seeds, cotton cake,Peanuts and Sesame Seeds in all principal word market and to the end users in themajor word market. We are professionally managed company having large networkand infrastructure in home as well as abroad, company is equipped with state-of-artinfrastructure backed by large and fully automatic plant for cotton to cotton bales. Office Address : Asha Cotton Industries,Vasi Talao Gate, Mahuva 364290 Dist. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, INDIA. Factory Address : Asha Cotton Industries, Mahuva-Bhavnagar Road, Vadli-Mahuva 364 290 Dist. Bhavnagar, Gujarat, INDIA. ADVT. Tel : +91-2844-223258, +91-2844-247600, +91-2844-224220 | Fax : +91-2844-223258 E-mail : info@cottonasha.com | Website : www.cottonasha.com, www.cotton-asha.com July - September 2012 15
  • 18. ECO FIBRE Textile Value Chain EXTRACTION OF BAMBOO FIBRE BAMBOO Two types of processing are done to obtain A GREEN FIBRE bamboo fibres- Mechanical Processing and Chemical Processing. In both the processes, the raw bamboo has to be split to get bamboo strips. After that, bamboo fibre is extracted either through chemical or mechanical processing. Bhawana Rawat, ŸChemical Processing: It is basically a hydrolysis alkalization process. The crushed bamboo is "cooked" Assistant Professor, with the help of Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which is NIFT, Mumbai also known as caustic soda or lye into a form of regenerated cellulose fibre. Hydrolysis alkalization is then done through carbon disulfide combined with multi-phase bleaching. Although chemical processing Bamboo fibre is a cellulose fibre which is extracted is not environmental friendly but it is preferred byfrom naturally grown bamboo and is the fifth-largest many manufacturers as it is a less time consumingnatural fibre after cotton, linen, wool and silk. process.Bamboo fibre not only has good air permeability, ŸMechanical Processing: In this method, thewater absorption, strong wear-resistance and good crushed bamboo is treated with biological enzymes.dyeing and other features, but also has natural This breaks the bamboo into a mushy mass andantibacterial, antimicrobial, mites, anti-odor and individual fibres are then combed out. Althoughanti-ultraviolet. Bamboo fibre is a natural, expensive, this process is eco-friendly.environment friendly green fibre. BAMBOO PRODUCTION FLOW CHARTHISTORY OF BAMBOO FIBRE ---bamboo tree The use of bamboo goes back a long time. In fact, ---cutting into bamboo sheetbamboo has been considered to be a symbol of good ---(hydrolyzing --- stewing --- bleaching)fortune in Asian cultures for over 4,000 years. ---pulpHistorically in Asia, bamboo was used for the hand- ---(saturate)made production of paper. Bamboo has traditionally ---cellulosebeen used in China to make musical instruments, ---(dissolving---spinning---cutting)drinking cups, buckets, fishing rods, walls and ---after treatment (washing---oil adding---drying)structural posts, wicker furniture, rafts, carpets and ---bamboo fibreeven phonograph needles. Many of these bamboo ---packingcomponents are still being used today. Bamboo Production Flow Bamboo Bamboo sheets Refined Bamboo pulp Bamboo Cellulose16 July - September 2012
  • 19. ECO FIBRE Textile Value ChainPROPERTIES OF BAMBOO FIBRE 1. Strong durability, stability & tenacity 2. Round and smooth surface 3. Anti-bacterial 4.Excellent wet permeability, moisture vapourtransmission property 5.Softer than cotton 6. Moisture absorbency is twice than that of cottonwith extraordinary soil release value 7. Anti-ultraviolet 8. Products of bamboo fibre are eco-friendly andbio-degradable. Bamboo fibre Use of bamboo as plant Use of bamboo as materialOrnamental Local industries 3. Medical and Mine protection: Use as absorptionhorticulture Artisanat fibre, conductive and anti-static radiation function. Furniture More suitable for protective clothing for on-site workEcology A variety of utensils clothes in medical, mining, oil and gas operations.Stabilize of the soil Houses 4. Military Space: Bamboo viscose fibre is used inUses on marginal land missile, rocket launchers and other operatorHedges and screens Wood and paper industries protective clothing.Minimal land use Strand boards 5. Transportation and Tourism: Bamboo viscoseAgro-forestry Medium density fiberboard fibre is suitable for cars, boats, transport aircraft seatNatural stands Laminated lumber fabrics and interior products, also suitable for hotels,Plantations Paper and rayon halls and other decorative items.Mixed agro-forestry Parquetsystemsa FUTURE SCOPE OF BAMBOO FIBRE Nutritional industries Bamboo fabric is not only popular for its softness Young shoots for human and versatility, but also for its environmental friendly consumption quality. Bamboo fibre requires very less chemical and Mixed agro-forestry systems water for production and processing. The pulp is Fodder bleached without using chlorine. This is more environmental friendly than the way other textiles are Chemical industries made. The bamboo pulp is also very easy to dye and it Biochemical products takes less water and harsh chemicals than Pharmaceutical industry conventional dyeing methods. There are also great environmental values to bamboo fabric. From being a Energy completely renewable resource to being easy to Charcoal process, bamboo fabric is an ecologically friendly Pyrolysis choice for the future. Gasification Its cool in summer, warm in winter, is anti- bacterial and is as soft and luxurious as cashmere. And Various uses of bamboo [Gielis 2002] best of all, its sustainable.END USE OF BAMBOO FIBRE References: Currently the main uses of bamboo products are: Ÿ http://www.bambooindustry.com 1. Bedding series: Mattresses, pillows, bedspreads, Ÿ http://www.bambooandtikis.com/bamboo-sheets, etc. history Ÿ t t p : / / w w w. t e o n l i n e . c o m / k n o w l e d g e - h 2.Fashion series: Knitting, weaving high-gradefabrics, underwear, vest, socks, towels and other centre/bamboo-fibre.htmlclothing. Its anti-ultraviolet nature is suitable to make Ÿ http://www.abtexintl.netsummer clothing more suitable for elderly, infants and Ÿ http://resources.alibaba.compregnant women. Ÿ http://www.bamboogrove.comJuly - September 2012 17
  • 20. Textile Value Chain YARN and other processing chemicals used for Dyeing, Finishing of linen, Cotton, Pure Silk, Denim and Ratan Glitter Woolen Fabrics. Industries The Pure Silver Metallic Yarn can also be used for different types of Embroidery and special effects. The Limited threads come in different structure, thickness, colors and a combination of materials allowing Designers Ratan Glitter Industries Limited is a 35 year old and Embroidery specialists to create an unique andorganization managed by a highly experienced team. outstanding look to the Fabric. The Pure Silver yarnWe are the pioneer in the metallic yarn industry in effectively enhances the details and embellishes yourIndia, having been one of the first companies to products giving it added glamour and zing.export metallic yarns. Some of the leading Indian mills and some We have one of the worlds latest Metalizing Plant companies overseas already use our products.that metalizes Pure Silver on Polyester Film. Quality assured since we use the latest Japanese Our Specialized Pure Silver Metalized Yarn can be Technology thus ensuring the best quality, color andused to weave with materials such as Denim Fabric, pin hole free products. The products are capable ofCotton Fabric, Pure Silk Fabric & Woolen Fabrics etc. running on high speed weaving, knitting andIt can be washed with Heavy Detergent Caustic Soda embroidery machines. It can also be used in hand embroidery.METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produced ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow andseveral other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weavingmachines.SPECIALIZED PURE SILVER METALLIC YARN For the first time in India, 3 different Types of Pure Silver Metallic Yarn has been Developed to be used inweaving with the following materials : Denim Pure Silk Linen and Cotton with Lurex Metallic Yarn with Lurex Metallic Yarn with Lurex Metallic Yarn These yarns can be industrially washed using The Pure Silver coating, effectively enhances thechlorine, bleaching agents, heavy duty detergents details and embellishes the final products giving tocontaining chlorine or peroxide as used in industrial glamour and zing. All of them are available in variouswashing. This yarn is suitable for suitable for sewing colours and the finished material can be dyed in anyand weaving. color without affecting the metallic yarn.18 July - September 2012
  • 21. Ratan Glitter Industries Limited METALLIC YARN Along with Pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produce ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and several other colours. These are highly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular knitting and weaving machines. PURE SILVER M TYPE YARNPure Silver M Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. These are capable ofrunning on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knittingmachines. Also, it is used for making ST Yarn in Cotton, Polyesterand Viscose. PURE SILVER ST YARN Polyester Metallized Pure Silver Yarn are highly used on Schiffli embroidery machines, computerized embroidery machines and in hand embroideries. It is widely used for tapestry and made-ups. PURE SILVER MX YARN Pure Silver MX Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 micron and 24 micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. The core yarn is in Polyester or Nylon. These yarns are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machines. PURE SILVER FABRICS Pure Silver fabrics made from Pure Silver Metallic Yarn are highly used in clothes and for decorative purpose in: Gift Articles, Home Furnishings & accessories such as hand bags ADVT. and various other products. Gala Woodwork compound, opp. B.D.D. Chawl No. 114, Worli, Mumbai-400013, India. Tel: (+91-22) 24966002/4/6; Fax: (+91-22) 24962002; email: ratanglitter@gmail.com website: www.ratanglitter.com contact person: Mr. Mahendra Yadav : +91 9004661657
  • 22. Textile Value Chain FABRIC to GDP and 17% to export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the on Cloth Producti second largest provider of employment after in India - agriculture. Thus, the growth & all-round sis A Sector Analy development of this industry has a direct bearing on the improvement of the economy of the nation. The Indian textile industry is extremely varied with Prof. N.S. Kazi, the hand spun & hand woven sectors at one end of the MA (Economics), spectrum & the capital intensive sophisticated mill Former Sasmira Co-ordinator of sector at the other. The industry consists of organised Merchandising Programme as well as unorganised sectors like power loom,INTRODUCTION handloom, and hosiery. This provides the industry Textile industry is one of the oldest & largest with the capacity to provide a large variety of productsindustries in India. Apart from providing one of the suitable to the different segments of the market bothbasic necessities of life, the industry also plays a pivotal within the country & outside the country.role through its contribution to industrial output, INSTALLED CAPACITYemployment generation & export earnings. It The installed capacity in terms of spindles, loomscontributes about 14% to industrial production, 4% and fibre and filament production can be seen as below: Items Units 2001-02 2010-11 CAGR % Spindles Million Nos. 38.33 38.33 1.3 Rotors Lakh No. 4.8 7.07 4.4 Looms (organised Sector) Lakh No. 1.41 0.57 -9.57 Power Room Lakh No. 16.66 22.61 3.45 Man-Made Fibre Million kg 1090 1763.1 5.49 Man-Made Filament Million kg 1135 2188.2 7.57 As seen in the table, the number of spindles increased from 38.33 million in 2001-02 to 43.06 million in 2010-11. The CAGR is 1.3%. The number of rotors increased from 4.8 lakh to 7.09 lakh. The number of looms in theorganised sector decreased from 1.41 lakh in 2001-02 to 0.57 lakh in 2010-11. This may be due to the closure ofnumber of composite mills in the country. However, the number of looms in the unorganised sector increased from16.66 lakh to 22.61 lakh during the same period. The installed capacity for man-made fibre has increased from1090 million kg in 2001-02 to 1763.1 million kg in 2010-11. The CAGR is 5.49% and the installed capacity forman-made filament has gone up from 1135 million kg to 2188.2 million kg with 7.57% CAGR.NUMBER OF SPINNING & WEAVING MILLS The number of spinning & weaving mills during the last one decade can be seen as below: Description 2001-02 2010-11 CAGR % Spinning Unit (Non Small Scale Industry) 1579 1713 0.64 Composite Units 281 183 -4.66 Exclusive Weaving Units (Non Small Scale Industry) 207 183 -1.36 Spinning Units (Small Scale Industry) 1046 1299 2.44 Power Loom (Lakhs) 16.66 22.61 3.45 Hand Loom (Lakhs) 38.91 23.77 -5.33 It can be seen from the above that the number of spinning units both (non SSI) as well as SSI show increasingtrends. Composite mill numbers have declined from 281 in 2001-02 & 183 in 2010-11, a decline by 4.66%. Thenumbers of powerlooms have gone up from 16.66 lakh & 22.61 lakh with CAGR of 3.45% while in case ofhandlooms the numbers have declined from 38.91 lakh in 2001-02 & 23.77 lakh in 2010-11, a decline by 5.33%.20 July - September 2012
  • 23. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Textile Value ChainThus, the organised mill sector shows a declining trend while the unorganised powerloom sector shows anincreasing trend.TRENDS IN FIBRE & YARN PRODUCTION* It can be seen from the below analysis, that there is all-round improvement in the production of man-madefibres as well as yarn. Description 2001-02 2010-11 CAGR % Man-Made Fibres 834 1268 5.38 Man-Made Filament Yarn 962 1522 5.90 Total Spun Yarn 3101 4193 3.84 (a) Cotton 2212 3079 4.22 (b) Blended and Non-cotton 889 1114 2.86 In Million kgsSECTOR-WISE CLOTH PRODUCTION* The sector-wise cloth production over the period can be seen from the following table: Sector 2001-02 2009-10 CAGR % Mill Sector 1546 2016 3.37 Hand Loom 7585 6806 -1.35 Power Loom 25192 36997 4.92 Hosiery 7067 13702 8.63 Khadi & Wool & Silk 714 812 3.22 Total Cloth Production 41390 60333 4.51 It can be seen that the total cloth production In Million Sq. Mtr.registered an increase of 4.51% during 2001-02 to followed by hosiery sector at 22.71% and handloom2009-10. The highest growth rate is in the hosiery sector at 11.28%.sector (8.63%) followed by powerloom sector COTTON/ BLENDED/ NON-COTTON(4.92%), mill sector (3.37%) & khadi & wool & CLOTH PRODUCTION*silk (3.22%). Handloom sector witnessed a The production can be seen as below:marginal decline in the cloth production from7,585 million sq. mtr. in 2001 to 6,806 million sq. Fibre 2004-05 2010-11mtr. in 2010. Cotton 20655 (46.23) 31742 (51.43)SECTORAL COMPOSITION IN CLOTH Blended 6032 (13.49) 8278 (13.41)PRODUCTION Non-cotton 17998 (40.28) 21710 (35.16) The composition can be seen as below: Total 44685 (100) 61730 (100) (*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total) Contribution (%) It can be seen that the total cloth production which was 44,685 million sq mtr. in 2004-05 increased to 61730 million sq mtr. in 2010-11. Cotton cloth production which was 20,655 million increased to 31742 million sq mtr. Its percentage share increased from 46.23 to 51.43%. Blended cloth production increased from 6032 million sq mtr. to 8278 million sq mtr. Its percentage It can be seen that the organised sector (mill share has remained at 13%.Sector) contributes only 3.34% of fabric production In the case of non cotton cloth production, it has& the remaining 96.66% fabric is being produced increased from 17998 million sq. mtr. to 21710by the unorganised sector. Powerloom sector million sq. mtr. but its percentage share has decreasedcontributes maximum fabric production at 61.32%, from 40.28 to 35.16.July - September 2012 21
  • 24. PRODUCTION ANALYSIS Textile Value Chain However the share of non cotton has declined fromCLOTH PRODUCTION BY MILL SECTOR* 58% to 53% & that of cotton has increased from 26% The cloth production by mill sector & the to 31%.composition of cotton, blended & non cotton cloth CLOTH PRODUCTION BY HANDLOOMcan be seen as below. SECTOR* Fibre 2004-05 2010-11 The cloth production can be seen as below: Cotton 1072 (70.25) 1604 (72.75) Fibre 2004-05 2010-11 Blended 243 (15.93) 526 (23.85) Cotton 4792 (83.75) 6016 (86.61) Non-cotton 211 (13.82) 75 (3.40) Blended 146 (2.55) 143 (2.05) Total 1526 (100) 2205 (100) Non-cotton 784 (13.70) 790 (11.34)(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total) Total 5722 (100) 6949 (100) It can be seen that cotton cloth production by mill (*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total)sector has increased from 1,072 to 1,605. Its share has It can be seen from the table that handloom sectorincreased from 70.25% to 72.75%. In the case of produces cotton cloth 86.61% while the share of non-blended cloth, the production increased from 243 cotton cloth is 11.34% & that of blended cloth onlymillion sq. mtr. to 526 million sq. mtr., its share has 2.05%.gone up from 15.93% to 23.85%. However, non CLOTH PRODUCTION BY HOSIER Ycotton cloth production by mill sector has decreased SECTOR*from 211 to 75 million sq. mtr. and its percentage The cloth production can be seen as below:share has come down from 13.82% to 3.40%. Fibre 2004-05 2010-11CLOTH PRODUCTION BY POWERLOOMSECTOR* Cotton 7430 (81.54) 12270 (83.78) The cloth production can be seen as below: Blended 1117 (12.26) 1756 (11.99) Fibre 2004-05 2010-11 Non-cotton 565 (6.20) 620 (4.23) Cotton 7361 (25.98) 11852 (31.25) Total 9112 (100) 14646 (100) (*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total) Blended 4526 (15.97) 5853 (15.43) It can be seen from the table that hosiery sector Non-cotton 16438 (58.05) 20224 (53.32) mainly produces cotton cloth accounting for 83.78% Total 28325 (100) 37929 (100) followed blended cloth (11.99%) & NC cloth(*In Million Sq. Mtr. Figures in brackets represent percentage to total) (4.23%). It can be seen from the above that powerloom FIBRE-WISE / SECTOR-WISE COMPARISONsector produces maximum non-cotton cloth A comparison of difference sectors in fibre-wiseaccounting for 53.32% in production. It is followed cloth production over the period can be seen as belowby cotton cloth (31.25%) & Blended cloth (15.43%). in percentage terms. Mill Power Loom Hand Loom Hosiery Fibre 2004-05 2010-11 2004-05 2010-11 2004-05 2010-11 2004-05 2010-11 Cotton 70.25 72.75 25.98 31.25 83.75 86.61 81.54 83.7800 Blended 5.93 23.85 15.97 15.43 2.55 2.05 12.26 11.99 Non-Cotton 13.82 3.40 58.05 53.32 13.70 11.34 6.20 4.23 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 It can be seen that mill, handloom and hosiery sectors mainly produce cotton cloth while powerloom sectormainly produces non-cotton cloth. In all the four sectors, there is an increasing trend of cotton cloth productionand decreasing trend of non-cotton cloth production. It indicates that the production of cloth by different sectorshave greater similarities than differences even though the end product made from the cloth may differ widely. Thus,the cloth production trend of de-centralised sector reflects the production pattern of the organised sector.Reference : Textile Committee22 July - September 2012
  • 25. LIFE CYCLE Textile Value Chain 14044 replaced earlier versions of ISO 14041 to ISO LIFE CYCLE 14043.) F ANALYSIS O LCA can help avoid a narrow outlook on environmental concerns by: TEXTILES Ÿ Compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases Ÿ Evaluating the potential impacts associated with C.N.Sivaramakrishnan, identified inputs and releases Bsc Tech, C Col FSDC Ÿ Interpreting the results to help you make a more (Chartered Colourist) informed decision The goal of LCA is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and Environmental issues are increasingly playing an services in order to improve processes, support policyimportant role in the textile industry, both from the and provide a sound basis for informed decisions.point of view of govt regulations and consumer There are two main types of LCA:expectations. All products and services have certain life ŸAttributional LCAs seek to establish the burdenscycles. A life cycle refers to the period from the associated with the production and use of a product, orproducts raw material phase through to finished with a specific service or process, at a point in timeproducts first launch into the market until its final (typically the recent past).withdrawal. Although textile sector is one of the Ÿ Consequential LCAs seek to identify thebiggest consumer intensive sector, recycling and environmental consequences of a decision or areclamation practices are not given much importance. proposed change in a system under study (oriented toHence, Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) needs to be carried the future), which means that market and economicout. LCA explains in detail the waste potential, energy implications of a decision may have to be taken intousage and environmental effects of each stage to account.address Green House Gas Emissions (GHG). The Ÿ Social LCAs is under development as a differenttextile industry needs to review ways of achieving more approach to life cycle thinking intended to assess socialsustainable materials and technologies as well as implications or potential impacts. Social LCA shouldimproving recycling. be considered as an approach that is complementary to The LCA is a study with system expansion environmental LCA.methodology, where the use stage is excluded thus LCA Calculator: There are dedicated LCA softwareproviding a reliable measurement of a number of packages available. Software is important given theparameters related to production of harmful complexity of LCA studies. It is equally important tosubstances on textiles. It was developed and determine the software required and due to differentharmonized in the 1990s. This method is used for legal frameworks in the European Union & in the US,assessing the environmental impacts of a product from some software features that can be used in EU may not“cradle-to-grave”. A life-cycle assessment (LCA, also function in other countries. LCA can evaluate theknown as life-cycle analysis, eco-balance and cradle-to- system-wide effects of product and process designgrave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental options. Software development will streamline andimpacts associated with all the stages of a products life reduce the cost of life cycle assessments in the textilefrom cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction industry.through material processing, manufacturing, TEXTILE LCA DIAGRAMdistribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal The following flow chart highlights that at everyor recycling). It allows comparison of all bio step from raw material to end use there is wastage andgeophysical effects of products and services and huge energy consumption. This chart representsinforming a design process to lessen negative impacts. synthetic textiles. However natural textiles doesnt vary The procedures of life cycle assessment (LCA) are much as only the 1st two highlighted in blue arepart of the ISO 14000 environmental management replaced by (i) Farming & Harvesting (ii) Ginning &standards: in ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. (ISO spinning + Knitting & weaving.July - September 2012 23
  • 26. LIFE CYCLE Textile Value Chain Synthetic Textile LCA Diagram Courtesy: www.bsr.orgENERGY, WASTAGE AND CONTAMINANTS air conditioning systems can be managed by computer To understand the environmental impact of programmed to adjust temperatures during shuttextiles we need to examine their complete life-cycle downs, resulting in significant reduction in electric andwhich includes growing and processing the fibre, gas consumption.manufacturing the yarn and the fabric, dyeing and The total environmental impact using LCA of thefinishing and making the final product, maintaining final consumer product as an ecological evaluation toolthe product during use and disposal or recycling. rests on three key elements: Sound science, life cycle The main wastes from the dyeing process are assessment and product durability. Environmentalcontaminated water from dyeing, rinsing and washing considerations should begin at an early stage with thebaths and from dyeing chemicals. Energy is consumed application of sound science and productwhen heating the dye baths and running pumps and development. Innovative techniques lead toother parts of the dyeing machinery e.g. Cold-pad controlling material content while maximizingbatch dyeing for cotton for example impacts less on the product durability and value to the end user. This oftenenvironment than traditional methods. Cold-pad results in improved environmental carbon foot print.batch process uses 35% less energy, 50% water and The second stage is collecting ecological data on allrequires fewer chemicals and produces fewer effluents. stages of life cycle of the product beginning with theREMEDIAL METHODS raw material through the final disposal. LCA By adopting cleaner production technologies & methodology takes in to account all relevant aspects ofrecycling techniques, energy savings can be achieved the ecological foot print including resource and energywhich will have direct impact on LCA. The following consumption, emission to air, water and land, healthare some of the examples: Solar tracking mirrors on the and eco systems and more. This is particularlyroof to reflect light to the work floor below, exhaust important when comparing different product optionsfans that remove all the stale air out of the building, or process changes side by side. It is also seen thatinsulation window glazing, sunscreens of recycled recycled and renewable based materials will have amaterials, energy efficient lighting systems, radiant positive impact on the life cycle of textile fabrics, notheating systems, 100% recycled polyester PET carpets, compromising on quality and to provide durability.100% recycled plastic restroom counter tops. Another LCA is still evolving as a methodology. However,example is replacing chlorinated solvents with eco- the principles behind LCA thinking are being adoptedfriendly solvents in scouring and stain removing rapidly by manufacturers and service organizationsformulations, resulting safer and environmentally alike as a way of opening new perspectives andfriendly manufacturing processes. Textile processing expanding the debate over environmentally soundcan be automated using auto dosing systems at various products and processes. The goal of LCA is not tostages there by minimizing chemical consumption and arrive at the answer but to provide important inputs towaste and making extensive use of process of heat a broader strategic planning process.recovery wherever possible. Heating, ventilation and Reference : “Colourage” Issue Jan – 201224 July - September 2012
  • 27. Textile Value Chain GARMENT resource utilization. This involves wastes of material, QUALITY COSTS - labour, equipment time and consequently higher ESSENTIAL QUALITY costs. In contrast, satisfactory quality means TOOLS IN GARMENT satisfactory resource utilization and consequently lower costs. A major reason for this mistaken concept MANUFACTURING about cost was unavailability of relevant data. Today, Kalyan Roy, the scenario has changed and any scientific Assistant Professor, Textile accounting procedure recognizes that cost of quality is Engineering Department, Punjab measurable. In fact, quality cost is the basis through Technical University-Giani Zail Singh which investments in quality programmes can be Campus, Bathinda, Punjab. evaluated in terms of cost of improvement, profit enhancement and price reduction for an organization. Quality Costs system is an extremely vital tool Quality Costs – meaning, scope and segmentationfor quality management in a garment Quality costs in garment manufacturing encompassmanufacturing unit since it establishes a two principal areas: i) The cost of control and ii) Thesystematic approach to pinpoint the failures in cost of failure of control. The first includes those costsquality in monetary terms and, therefore, suitable associated with the definition, creation and thecorrective measures can be adopted to reduce control of quality as well as the evaluation andfailures and total cost. Obviously, enhancements in feedback of conformance with quality, reliability andquality and customer satisfaction are the safety requirements. The second includes those costsoutcomes, besides, the accurate measurement of associated with the consequences of failure to meetthe efficacy of the Quality Control Department. requirements both within the factory and in the hands of customers. Both can be measured in two segmentsINTRODUCTION has shown in the flow chart. Today it is universally accepted that Quality is anembodiment of design and properties of a product orservice or both which guarantees customer PREVENTION COSTsatisfaction. In the present business scenario of COSTS OFbarrier–free global markets, elements of excellence are CONTROLa necessity for any product or service those will ensure APPRAISAL COSTproperties, services and prices. The concept of totalquality management, which encompasses almost allactivities of an organization, has become part and INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS OFparcel of any business and garment manufacturing is COST FAILUREno exception to it. With the advent of modern OFinformation technology customers are well aware EXTERNAL FAILURE CONTROLabout the design, quality and price aspects of COSTgarments. It is no wonder that only those Fig. 1: Segments of quality costsorganizations in garment business are surviving andflourishing who can satisfy their customers with these REDUCTION OF QUALITY COSTSfeatures. By universal experience, in a garment In this era of competitive business, price is a major manufacturing unit, a typical ratio in the break-up ofissue for a mass-manufactured product like garment the Quality Costs may be given as:-and in this issue Quality Cost goes hand-in-hand Segment of Quality Costs % of Quality Costswith satisfactory product and service cost. One of the Internal & External Failure Costs 65%major obstacles to the establishment of stronger Appraisal Costs 30%quality programme in earlier days was the wrong Prevention Costs 5%notion that the achievement of better quality requiredmuch higher costs. This break-up suggests that the largest portion ofREASONS FOR APPLYING QUALITY COSTS the quality rupees is spent in the wrong way becauseCONCEPT of failures of products. Another big sum is spent on Unsatisfactory quality means unsatisfactory appraisal to screen the bad products from the goodJuly - September 2012 25
  • 28. QUALITY TOOLS Textile Value Chainand very little is spent on the real defect prevention DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY COSTS ITEMSsystem. Also, the failure costs being the largest Definitions of some principal items under thecomponent, its reduction brings largest returns and segments of Quality Costs are as below:-should be tackled in the first instant. An effective 1. Costs of Preventionway of attacking failure costs is through an increase a) Quality Planningin Prevention and Appraisal Costs. Quality planning represents costs involved withŸ Appraisal Costs should be next to come under the time that all personnel spend in planning theattack. An analysis of quality assurance operations is details of quality system.often shown opportunities for reducing expenditure b) Process controlwithout compromising effectiveness. For example, by Process control represents costs associated withadopting an effective statistical sampling technique, time that all personnel spend studying and analyzinginspection of 100% products may be eliminated, the manufacturing process (including vendors) forthereby, saving costs. enhancing productivity, safety, maintenance, etc.Ÿ Reduction of Prevention Costs comes last and it c) Quality training and workforce developmentshould be borne in mind that even if this cost increases Quality training represents the cost of developingby a certain amount, it is accompanied by much and conducting training programmes throughout thehigher reduction in Failure and Appraisal Costs. company. It is pertinent to mention at this stage that design d) Product design verificationdepartment in a garment manufacturing company This represents the cost of evaluating pre-plays a paramount role in lowering the total costs. production products for verification of quality,Accurate design saves cost not only at the design stage reliability and safety aspects of design.itself but, throughout production and testing of e) System developments and managementproducts it becomes easier to make right first time’. This represents the overall quality systems A flow chart to indicate the process of Quality engineering and management and support for qualityCosts reduction programme may be given as:- system development. f ) Other Prevention costs IDENTIFY HIGHEST QUALITY COSTS AREA These represent administrative costs involving quality and reliability such as salaries and travel expenses. SPECIFY IN THE COMPANY 2. Costs of Appraisal a) Tests and inspection of purchased materials It represents the costs associated with the time that the inspection and testing personnel spend in ANALYSE CAUSE evaluating the quality of purchased materials. b) Laboratory and other measurement services This represents the cost of lab measurement DEVELOP COST REDUCTION services, instrument calibration and repair and PROGRAMMEME WITH DEPARTMENT process monitoring. CONCERNED c) Inspection Inspection represents the costs involved with the time that the inspection personnel spend evaluating ENSURE CHANGES ARE IMPLEMENTED the quality of products in the plant and cost of supervisory and clerical personnel. d) Testing Testing represents the cost of the time that the MONITOR COST REDUCTION ACHIEVED testing personnel spend evaluating the performance of the product in the plant along with the cost of supervisory and clerical personnel. SELECT ANOTHER AREA OF IMPROVEMENT e) Checking labour It is the cost associated with the time the operators Fig. 2: Quality Costs reduction programme spend checking quality of own work as required by the26 July - September 2012
  • 29. QUALITY TOOLS Textile Value Chainquality plan, sorting out rejected lots, etc. can be determined how much cost is involved inf ) Quality Audit achieving certain level of quality. Finally, it will help to It is the cost involved with time that personnel budget realistically to achieve a desired quality level.spend in performing audit. CONCLUSIONS3. Costs of Internal Failures As delineated in the above paragraphs, in garmenta) Scrap manufacturing, Quality Costing is an extremely Scrap represents the losses incurred in the course important tool in managing quality and businessof obtaining the required level of quality. strategy planning by quantifying all quality relatedb) Rework activities in monetary terms. The Indian garment It is the extra payments made to operators to manufacturers will be benefited by utilizing thisachieve the required level of quality. concept to improve upon their quality relatedc) Material Procurement costs performances in todays highly competitive business It represents those additional costs incurred by the scenario.material procurement personnel in handling bothrejects and complaints on purchased materials. REFERENCES 1. Anon., Quality System for Garment4. Costs of External Failures Manufacturing, www.ellisdev.co.uk, 2004a) Warranty Charges 2. R M Liang and J Webster, Stitches and Seams, Costs of concessions made to customers due to The Textile Institute, Manchester, 1998substandard products and services being accepted by 3. Anon., Course Material of Workshop on Qualitythe customers as it includes loss in income due to Costing, The Associated Chamber of Commerce anddowngrading products for sale as seconds. Industry of India, New Delhi, 1997b) Product service P V Mehta, Quality Management: An Overview It represents all product service costs directly in Testing and Quality Management,attributable to correcting defects/ imperfections or editor: V K Kothari, IAFL Publications,special testing. New Delhi, 1999, p-34.c) Product liability It is the quality related costs incurred as a result ofliability judgments due to quality failures.d) Product recall It is the cost incurred as a result of recall ofproducts or components of products.BENEFITS OF QUALITY COSTING As it is mentioned earlier, the analysis of QualityCosts shows the highest percentage of expenditure isincurred in Failure Costs followed by Appraisal Costsand very little Preventive Costs before theestablishment of the Quality Costs system in agarment manufacturing company. After a certainperiod of Quality Costs system is brought intooperation, if the investment is increased in PreventiveCosts, then the Failure and Appraisal Costs comedown not only in terms of percentage but also inabsolute money terms of total cost. This indicates adirect economic benefit to the company. Besides, there are a few more advantages. Byshowing how much poor quality actually costs, seniormanagement can be enlisted in quality improvementefforts. Also, the performance of the Quality Controldepartment can be evaluated in financial terms and itJuly - September 2012 27
  • 30. APPAREL ASPECTS Textile Value Chain Functional and impress or be accepted by others? These questions are cts in Aesthetic Aspe important to ask while evaluating ready-to-wear garments because design impacts the visual appeal of Apparel clothing and thereby consumers acceptance for it. Functional performance includes performance aspects other than appearance, namely the garments Dr Ela Manoj Dedhia, utility and durability. Utility refers to the usefulness. Associate Professor, For example, does the shirt fit? Does it function Nirmala Niketan College properly for intended use? Durability or serviceability of Home Science elamanojdedhia@yahoo.com refers to how well the garment retains its structure and appearance after wear and care. Does it resist shrinkage? Does the seam remain intact? Aesthetic Apparel quality has two dimensions: Physical and functional performance occasionally overlaps.aspects or what the garment is; and Performance For example, fit may be an aesthetic feature (i.easpects or what the garment does. The physical aspects attractive fit versus unattractive fit) or it might also beof a garment determine its performance. Therefore, a functional feature (i.e comfortable fit versusconsumers purchase garments with specific physical uncomfortable fit) (Brown, 1998).aspects that they believe will fulfill their performanceexpectations. FABRIC: A QUALITY INDICATOR According to Das, 2008, the demand on thePHYSICAL ASPECTS properties, appearance and durability of the materials Garments physical aspects provide a tangible and components in the apparel sector has increasedform and composition. Physical aspects include the significantly to meet the changing requirements of thegarments design, materials, construction and finish. consumers. A common concern in apparelDesign provides the plan for the garment style. For performance characterization is dimensional stability,example, is the shirt loose or fitted? Materials include colourfastness, durability, pilling and fabricthe fabric and other components that are used to composition.produce the garment. For instance, is the shirt made Fabric is the textile material from which apparelof cotton or blended fabric? Construction refers to the manufacturers produces ready-to-wear garments. Themethods used to assemble the garment. For example, performance of the fabric does not necessarily predictwhich types of stitches are mostly used? Finishes the performance of the finished garment, but the twoinvolve any garments wet processes, for instance, does are strongly related. The right fabric is required for thethe shirt have a wrinkle free or a durable press finish? garment to meet aesthetic and functionalGarment physical aspects are intrinsic attributes; they performance expectations. Manufacturers establishcannot be altered without changing the product itself. the required aesthetic and functional performance standards for fabric based on many factors. ThesePERFORMANCE ASPECTS factors include the design of the garment, fashion A garments performance aspects determine the trends, consumer preferences, cost limitations, andstandards it meets and how the consumer benefits the target market profile chosen by the company.through it. Performance aspects include the garmentsaesthetic and functional performances. Aesthetic Ÿ AESTHETIC PERFORMANCE OF FABRICperformance refers to attractiveness. Do the design, The aesthetic performance or attractiveness ofmaterial, and construction of the garment fulfill the fabric refers to the appearance of the fabric as itappearance expectations? Do the elements of the complements the appearance of the garment.garment reflect good design principles? Does the However, fabric must be considered in concert withgarment possess classic or current fashion trends the design. Material and construction interact todesired by consumers? And does its appearance fulfill produce the total aesthetic effect of the garment.the wearers emotional needs, such as wanting to Fabric aesthetics include colour, pattern, colour28 July - September 2012
  • 31. APPAREL ASPECTS Textile Value Chainconsistency, lustre, opacity and hand. All these function of the garment in terms of appearanceelements of the aesthetic performance of the raw retention and fit. It also affects comfort, elongationmaterial are difficult to describe because of their and shrinkage.subjective nature; they do not lend themselves toobjective measurement. Colourfastness Colourfastness is the ability of the fabric to retain Colour and Pattern its colour. Colourfastness refers to colour retention in Colour is perhaps the single most important reaction to laundering (bleach, water, detergent,feature in initially attracting consumer to garments. heat), light, dry-cleaning solvents, sea and pool water,However, the beauty or goodness of the colour or perspiration and other chemicals. Colourfastness is apattern is subjective as there are no laboratory tests for relative term; no garment is completely colourfast.evaluating the quality of colours or choosing the Lack of colour may be expressed in a variety of waysbest design for the patterned fabric. The aesthetic such as (1) Fading (2) Frosting (3) Crocking (4)evaluation of colour and pattern depends on fashion Bleeding and (5) Yellowing.trends, personal preferences, and an awareness ofdesign elements and principles. Pill Resistance Snagging and pilling detract from a garmentsHand appearance and its usefulness. Snags are pulls in Hand is a broad term for the kinaesthetic or fabrics made when the yarns catch on sharp objects.movement aspects of a fabric. Hand refers not to the Pills are fuzz balls, or balls of tangled fibres that formcomfort but to the emotional sensations resulting on the surface and are held there by one or more fibres.from touching, moving, or squeezing the fabric with Pills may form all over a garment, but are likely to bethe human hand. Hand encompasses the following most noticeable where garment receives abrasion foraspects of the fabric: (1) Drape ability/flexibility (2) example, in the underarm area, inside collars and onCompressibility (3) Extensibility (4) Resilience (5) sleeves and cuffs.Density (6) Texture and (7) Thermal character. Ease of CareŸ FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE OF FABRIC For many consumers, ease of care of a fabric is an The functional performance of a fabric refers to its important utility feature because of its effect on theutility and durability as its component of the garment. care of the garment. All the fabrics used in the garmentUtility includes the influence of the fabric on these should have same laundering or dry-cleaning abilitygarment characteristics: (1) Shape retention (2) so the finished garment retains its appearance andAppearance retention (3) Comfort (4) Ease of care ability to function after refurbishing. Ease of care alsoand (5) Safety. Durability refers to the serviceability of refers to the garments tendency to resist soiling andthe fabric regarding these characteristics of the wrinkling.garment: (1) Strength (2) Abrasion resistance and (3)Resistance to degradation by chemicals and other Abrasion Resistance/ durabilityelements of the environment. As for aesthetic Abrasion resistance refers to the amount ofperformance, the functional performance of the rubbing action a fabric can withstand without beinggarment is not determined fully by the fabric. The destroyed. One type of abrasion is caused bydesign, materials, construction and the finish of a laundering or refurbishing process. This produces angarment interact to determine utility and durability. overall loss of fibres, as seen when emptying the lint filters on washing machines, thus slightly weakeningDimensional Stability the garment during every refurbishing cycle. More One of the most important performance severe abrasion in refurbishing occurs on many foldedcharacteristics of the garment is dimensional stability, edges of the garment, including hems, cuffs, collars,the ability of the garment to maintain its original and many squared or pointed edges. This is why holesshape and size. Dimensional stability affects the often form first at these locations. The second type ofJuly - September 2012 29
  • 32. APPAREL ASPECTS Textile Value Chainabrasion happens in the normal wearing process. Each fabric crease recovery was observed to be fairly goodtime the cloth is rubbed against a hard surface, a small but between items, variation was too high. High pillloss of fibre occurs in this limited area of garment. resistance was shown by all the fabrics. HydralFabric must withstand degradation from the shrinkage (%) for most of the items was quiteenvironment. To be considered durable, a garment is satisfactory (Tarafder, Banerjee, et al, 2007).made of fabric with the following characteristics:(1) Chemical resistance (2) Laundering ability It is extremely important to study consumer(3) Dry-cleaning ability (4) Insect resistance preferences as there is severe competition among shirt(5) Mild dew resistance & (6) Sunlight resistance industry to capture the market share because of(Brown, 1998). number of players ranging from brands to huge unbranded segment. The manufacturers and retailers Fabric assessment is the method by which the of shirts need to meet the rising expectations of thefabric is tested for its properties and qualities. consumers. It was imperative to understand consumerKnowledge of fabric properties and their behaviour in preferences related to each characteristic underthe processes of transforming into article of clothing is intrinsic (quality) and extrinsic (appearance) cues forvaluable information for garment manufacturers, selection of a shirt due to dynamic changes in menswhich was unavailable till now. Recently, techniques clothing in terms of colour, design, style and so on.have been developed to measure the mechanical The study indicates that quality and appearance cuesproperties of fabric and use these measures are critical elements in consumers preferences forquantitatively to predict performance in both shirts. It is clearly evident that irrespective of thegarment manufacture and appearance of garments. segment of shirts i.e casual, formal or occasional,Ten shirting fabrics were tested using an objective consumers based their preferences both on qualitymeasurement of fabric mechanical properties. It was and appearance cues. Other noticeable fact emergedfound out that all fabric samples except one were was that similar preference pattern was noticed inexpected to pose problems in garment manufacturing both branded and unbranded categories of shirts. Alsoas the formability value of all nine fabrics were less noticeable was that durability under quality cue andthan the limit (Sudhakar, Gowda and Kannam,2007). size and fit under appearance cues were considered as most significant dimensions by consumers as In the ready-made market, many companies are preference in all segments of shirts. Therefore,producing their products and for a common man it consumers preferences reports would be of immensebecomes very difficult to choose any particular brand value to the clothing industry (Dedhia E & Gupta M,out of available lots under identical conditions. It is 2009).quite natural that different garments may havedifferent behaviour in terms of properties under name References:of different companies. Apart from functional ŸBrown Rice, J. (1998). Ready to Wear Apparel Analysis.criterias, fabric type plays an important role in ready- 2nd ed, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 162-170,193-195.made garments formation as discussed in research Ÿ Das, S. (2008). Apparels for exports: Importance ofdone by Tarafder et al in 2007 on Comparative study quality characterization. Indian Textile Journal, 45. ŸDedhia E & Gupta M, (Sep - Oct 2009), Consumeron physical testing of readymade shirts for quality preferences based on quality and appearance cues, Journalstandards. For their study, 15 readymade shirts had of Textile Association, Volume 70, No. 3been considered for investigation. All the shirts were Ÿ Sudhakar, J.P., Gowda, N and Kannan, S. (2007).of polyester /cotton (80x20). Ten were of branded Assessing properties of shirting fabrics by using FAST,quality, 4 were non-branded and one tailor-made. The The Indian Textile Journal, Iss. Oct, 146.results of the study indicated that there were wide ŸTarafdar, N., Karmakar, R., Mondal, M. (2007). Thevariations observed in fabric specifications for a effect of stitch density on seam performance of garmentscommon variety of shirting fabric, like thread density, stitched from plain and twill fabrics. Man Made Textiles inlinear density, area density and crimp %. Average India, Vol. L, No.8, 298, 301.30 July - September 2012
  • 33. Fashion Textile Value Chain increasing rather than belittling its cost. It has been s - debated whether or not Louis stressed fashion to the King Louis XIV extent he did in order to throw the nobles into debt, to eloper A Fashion Dev distract them from scheming or for an entirely different motive. However, the general consensus places his motivations atleast partly on an attempt toCharushila Garat, Lecturer, Govt. Residential send as many nobles as possible into debt. It has also Womans Polytechnic, Yavatmal been argued that Louis had to pay for any debt his nobles acquired and therefore would not want to encourage it. Despite these disagreements, it is evident Sarita Raut, Lecturer, Sasmiras Institute of that Louis was attempting to control the nobility and Man Made Textiles, Mumbai fashion had a hand in it. Unlike many courts in Europe in past and present, Louis required a different code of dress for each formal event. In most countries,INTRODUCTION one code was set for all occasions in order to keep More than just a designer whim, fashion is a clothing inexpensive, whereas Louiss system sentreflection of the social, political, economic and artistic many into bankruptcy. One such festivity, which wasforces. The changing times that evolve from these extremely expensive, was the Carrousel, where variousforces, enlighten us of the historical events as groups of nobles came clad in the most splendidpoignantly as textbooks, journals or periodicals. costumes they could design. If bankruptcy was Louiss In the 17th century, people belonged to two main intent, he used fashion in events like these to cause it.classes: the wealthy landowners and the poor labourers Debt led to constraints and Louis named the terms ofor farmers. Since wealth was concentrated in thelandowning class, these people were the only ones whocould afford to wear fashionable clothes. Royalty, atthe top of both the social and economic ladders, settrends while other members of the aristocracyfollowed their example to gain approval. From history, we find out one legend aristocrat anda fashion developer, LOUIS XIV, born at St. Germain-en-Laye on September 16th 1638. He became King ofFrance when he succeeded his father Louis XIII in1643. During the Kings minority, the discontentednobles encouraged by Spain, sought to shake off theauthority of the Crown, and the civil war of theFronde arose. The Fronde was not a singular attack, asthe French Wars of Religion had only just ended in1598. The French wars had lasted for thirty years andbeen predominantly a civil war. They had shaken thekings appearance of strength, especially to the rest ofEurope. Due to this instability in which the monarchywas embroiled in, Louis XIV turned to fashion and itshistoric significance to control the nobility and King Louis XIVexpress his power.KING LOUIS XIVS CONTRIBUTION IN these limitations, thereby making him the mostFASHION DEVELOPMENT important and most powerful. Louis XIV increased and emphasized fashions Louis would stage expensive festivals; elaborateimportance by making it a part of social decree and balls followed by exquisite parties and requireJuly - September 2012 31
  • 34. Fashion Textile Value Chainluxurious attire at each one. The nobility wanted to increase his power. Any person who was reasonablyremain within the higher circles, which were quickly well dressed was allowed to enter the Versaillescongealing at the court of Versailles, because it was gardens. Instead of isolating anyone who was anything“believed that mere physical proximity to the less than a noble, Louis extended the exciting prospectmonarch…would elevate them to a higher social of not only being in the kings gardens but perhapslevel” and the king spent almost all of his time at court. even seeing the king to what middle class there was.It was thus necessary to attend all the events and spend This stressed Louiss power because it made it clearoutrageous amounts of money on new clothing. that the middle class was willing to save their moneyEventually it was almost certain the nobles would fall just to be in his gardens and, thus, obviously admiredinto debt and should they want to remain within the him. While in the gardens, they might also see suchcourt they would be required to ask for a loan from the events like the carrousel, which would dazzle andking. The king would only grant them loan or even impress them. The image this gave of the king was thathear their request for the loan if they had been he was very powerful and very rich.spending the proper amount of time at court. This Louis continued to accentuate fashionsendless cycle kept the nobles trapped in Versailles and importance through more legal means. He created thefocused on wearing the proper and most fashionable grand maitre de la garderobe du roi, “the only newclothing, which led them to be both too poor and too office which he created in his own household.” Thepreoccupied to revolt against the monarch. office was dedicated to the kings clothing alone, which were stored across three rooms. In 1668 Louis even passed an decree that required his courtiers to remain fashionable. Louis XIV made fashion important to such an extent that the nobles and even the middle class would be more preoccupied with it than gaining more power or questioning his rule, thus waylaying another attack similar to the Fronds. Man of quality at the Louis chose boisterous fashion to express his power court of Louis XIV. both to his nobles and the rest of the world because it Engraving by Jean de made him appear strong. The proper dress alone was St. Jean, 1693. supposed “to encourage loyalty, satisfy vanity, [and] (Courtesy of Victoria & impress the outside world.” With this notion already Albert Museum, London.) in place, Louis made sure both himself and his courtiers wore expensive cloths. His choice of such extravagance and bright colors has three particularly strong reasons. Firstly, Louis chose to dress in bright In order to generate competition among his nobles, colors instead of sober blacks because although blackKing Louis made his dressing and undressing in the cloth was extremely expensive and representedmorning and evening the most important times of the sobriety and piety, Louis was neither particularlyday. Only the most powerful and worthy courtiers restrained nor conservative in terms of religion untilwere present. It was only at this time they could speak later in his reign. He held large parties, gambled andwith him. Nobles thus started competing with each ate extravagant amounts of food. It was for this reasonother to become one of these select few. that he chose color to express his powerful reign rather King Louis designed a blue silk jacket, the than black. E.g. he used the design of red heels to bothjustaucorps á brevet, embroidered in silver and gold, draw attention to the feet and as a symbol for “thewhich only his most favored courtiers were permitted elevation of his court above the rest of humanity.” Theto wear, after they had been granted permission by the red heel eventually became one of the most popularking.[8] Only fifty nobles at a time were approved to and widespread trends in Europe. Even William III ofwear this highly fashionable piece of clothing. Louis Orange, who was Louiss most devoted enemies, afteralso extended fashion down to the middle class to Louis attacked the Dutch Republic, wore red heels.32 July - September 2012
  • 35. Fashion Textile Value Chain It was not long before the fashions of France began HISTORIC IMPORTANCE OF FASHIONto appear all across Europe. Although it was not Louis XIV chose fashion because it had historicallyfashion that made France powerful, fashion did make been important, often because of its expense andFrance appear powerful, especially in terms of its impracticality. Although not all clothing wascourt, which expressed its power to the outside world uncomfortable, as some of it was designed specificallyby appearing magnificent. The court in France was the to be comfortable, much of it was painful or difficultgrandest in Europe, Parisian tailors were considered to wear. Shoes were narrow, sitting down in somethe best and dolls wearing the latest style extended gowns could be a major feat, most hats were eitherFrench fashions even to hostile and distance capitals ridiculously wide or tall, and the lace, ribbons,such as London and Russia. Fashion provided a sense feathers, and mountains of cloth that accompaniedof national identity and patriotism to the wearer. every fashionable outfit could make avoidingAccepting another countrys fashion was, to an extent, collisions and, especially, dining a near impossibility.accepting that national identity and wearing French For certain occasions noble women were required toclothes while in England or Germany or somewhere wear the grand habit de cour, a type of dress with aelse outside of France showed respect to France. long train. The longer the train, the more elite theFashionable and expensive clothing was already a sign wearer and the more difficult the train was to manage.of power and the spread of French fashion across Despite the fact that the dress was impractical in theEurope and the pride nobles took in wearing it both in case of both the train and the sleeves, which requiredand out of France, was Louiss way of proving France the wearer to have bare shoulders in all sorts ofand its monarch were powerful. weather, it was the height of fashion. Similarly, the Fashion was also important for a more practical higher ranking ladies wore the tightest and mostreason; the employment of the lower class. Louis XIV restrictive of corsets. The extremes of these outfitsbanned foreign cloth, lace, and trimmings, which meant that to appear elegant, nobles had to put hoursmeant fabrics had to be made in France by the French. and hours of time into practicing such simple things asThis led to an increase in velvet and silk in France, walking and sitting. Were a lady to drop her fan orwhile in other countries like England, wool became handkerchief, though it would not have beenmore popular. Of the possible accessories and cloth, appropriate for her to pick it up anyway, she wouldlace was among the most difficult and time consuming actually be unable to pick it up and would have “reliedto make; a narrow strip of lace alone could take on a servant or gentleman to pick it up.” Thismonths. The rest of the outfit was just as expensive and emphasized both her delicacy, which meant she nevertime consuming. A court gown alone was put together had to work for herself, and that she had enoughby three people, the tailor, couturier and marchand de money and power for someone to do her work for her.modes. It took several days per gown. French fashionemployed roughly “a third of wage-earners in Paris. Itemployed 969,863 individuals compared to only38,000 in the iron and steel industry.” Periods of courtmorning were said to be so drawn out and toencompass so many people that those makingclothing, which were a substantial amount of thepopulation, struggled to survive because no new,expensive clothing was bought for the duration.Clothing also, to an extent, aided in the circulation ofwealth. Although it was certainly not his mainmotivation or even necessarily something Louis oftenkept in mind, the extravagant fashion did keep manypeople employed and the greater employment rateempowered FranceJuly - September 2012 33
  • 36. Fashion Textile Value ChainCONCLUSION admirer of fashion and knew how it could make the It was believed across France and the world that body appear elegant and powerful, both symbolicallyexpensive, impractical, spotless and often and physically. Through his propaganda anduncomfortable clothing was the absolute symbol of competition, Louis proved France was a strongstatus. It had been believed for centuries and would country with a strong monarchy both to his courtierscontinue to be so even after Louis XIV died. Louis, and the rest of the European monarchies. Thewho took an unstable throne in a divided country, outcome of King Louiss fashion development in theused many techniques to unite France and make it 17th century is, France is the center of fashion andstronger. He chose fashion to control nobles by using till 21st century it is to be continued. So King Louisit to consume their time and money and give them XIVs contribution in the fashion development is thesomething to flaunt and be proud of. He was a great mile stone for the fashion industry.References :ŸFashion – from concept to consumer. Author- Gini Stephens Frings.ŸThe Grandeur of Louis XIV on Film | Fiction and Film for French http://h-france.net/fffh/classics/the-grandeur-of-louis-xiv-on-film/ŸLouis XIVs Use of Fashion to Control and Express Powerhttp://europe1600s.wikispaces.com/Louis+XIVs+Use+of+Fashion+to+ContŸThe State Hermitage Museum: Exhibitions http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/04/2012/hm4_2_330.htmlŸLouis XIV and the French Influence http://library.thinkquest.org/21702/h6.htmlŸLouis XIII of France - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XIII_of_FranceŸHow Louis XIV of France Came to Build His Opulent Versaille.. http://voices.yahoo.com/how-louis-xiv-france-came-build-his-... - United StatesŸCreating French Culture (Library of Congress Exhibition) http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bnf/bnf0005.htmlŸ18th-Century France: The Rococo and Watteau http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/gg54/gg54-over1.html Patel Lifestyle Ltd. Manufacturer / Exporters / Wholesale Suppliers We deals in embroidery threads, viscose rayon embroidery thread, trilobal polyester embroidery thread, zari threads, silk threads, cotton embroidery thread, rayon embroidery thread, fancy zari silk thread, textile fabrics, embroidery dress materials, embroidered ghagra choli, embroidered sarees, embroidered kurtis etc. ADVT. 101, Sharda Mall, Ring Road, Surat, Gujarat India.34 Mobile: +91-96642 56308 July - September 2012
  • 37. Textile Value Chain Technical Technical textiles are used individually or as a component/part of another product. They can be Textiles used individually to satisfy specific functions, as a component or part of another product, to enhance the strength, performance or other functional properties of that product. They are also used as accessories in processes to manufacture other products. Other terms Parinita Devadiga, used for technical textiles are Industrial textiles, Manager Marketing, Functional textiles, Performance textiles, Engineering Suvin Advisors Pvt. Ltd. textiles, Hi-tech textiles etc. Their wide range of applications, lack of competition and growing consumer and industrialINTRODUCTION demands make it a big opportunity area and an Technical textiles are advanced materials for attractive option to invest in. Add to this, the factorswhich the technical performance and physical conducive for the growth of manufacturing andproperties are more important than features such as consumption of technical textiles are also availablecolour, pattern and price. This industry encompasses within the country. Though India is the 2nd largesta vast array of materials, manufacturing processes and textile economy in the world after China; itsend use markets. Its growth and evolution is driven by contribution in the global technical textile industry isthe combination of sector lead by R&D and only 9% to the total consumption.collaboration with other industries.TECHNICAL TEXTILE: MATERIAL, PROCESS, PRODUCT Below is the chart showing the raw material and process required to produce different products of technicaltextiles: PES: polyester, PA: polyamide, PAN: polycarbonate Source: Handbook of Technical TextilesJuly - September 2012 35
  • 38. TECHNICAL TEXTILES Textile Value ChainTECHNICAL TEXTILE SECTORS Depending on the product characteristics, functional requirements and end-use applications, the highlydiversified range of technical textile products have been grouped into 12 sectors:- Comprises of woven, non-woven and Comprises of technical textile products that knitted fabrics applied for agriculture, have usage in construction & architectural horticulture, for covering, livestock industry. Products like reinforced fibres for protection, shading, weed and insect control, concrete protection, scaffolding nets etc. are and extension of the growing season. part of this sector. Growth of infrastructure Potential lies in the need to feed the huge & construction industry provides the huge growing population. potential for the buildtech sector. Growing at slower pace. There is limited Comprises of geosynthetic products used to further opportunity for increased textile improve the geotechnical properties of usage per garment. Demand for garments roads, bridges, slopes, banks etc. and their themselves is also forecast to continue to major applications are separation, filtration, grow at a slower rate than real incomes. reinforcement and transmission. Potential is huge due to ongoing infrastructure development in our country. Ranks as the fourth largest in both volume Third largest application area in both and value terms with lowest growth rates. volume and value terms. Growth rates This reflects low forecasts for final demand remain above average as further for household goods, limited opportunities opportunities are taken to introduce textile for further textile penetration and a steady products into industrial processes, especially switch from woven to lighter and lower in developing countries. priced non-woven components. Embraces all those textile materials used in Includes textiles used in automotives for a health and hygiene applications in both wide variety of purposes. Considering the consumer and medical markets. Non- amount of existing vehicles worldwide, wovens account for a high proportion of the automotive industry represents a high sector overall in terms of tonnes of fibre potential market for the textile industry. used. Close to being the smallest in both value Largest sector in tonnage terms. The market and volume terms. In view of the increased growth of Packtech is at par with other interest worldwide in environmental and products and grabs a market share of about ecological issues, Oekotech has shown by 15%. It includes all textiles used for the far the fastest growth rates of between 6% temporary containment, carriage, storage and 7% per annum in 2010. and protection of industrial, agricultural and other goods. Includes textiles used as protective clothing. One of the smallest areas in volume terms, Health and safety at work requires but due to its high unit values and use of protective textiles for certain jobs and the expensive fibres and coatings is the second range of hazards and the means of largest in value terms. These high-functional combating them continue to grow and and smart textiles are increasingly adding become ever more complex. value to the sports and leisure industry.36 July - September 2012
  • 39. TECHNICAL TEXTILES Textile Value ChainMARKET OF TECHNICAL TEXTILES The trend in the various sectors in the textileindustry in many industrialized countries indicate thatthe use of conventional textiles has reached a staticlevel and its manufacture has become highlycompetitive, often unviable and many companies areswitching over to value-added technical textiles withcapability to meet functional demands for precisionapplications. developed economies is expected to be moderate. In As use of technical textiles is dictated by need, its contrast, China, India and other countries in Asia,pricing normally offers good margins. There is a steady America and Eastern Europe are expected togrowth of both consumption and production of experience healthy growth in the near future. Thetechnical textiles throughout the world. Sector-wise growth in Asia is expected to be 6.5% while it would behigher growth rates are for Indutech, Buildtech, merely 2.2% in developed countries. IndiasMedtech, Geotech, Packtech and Agrotech. consumption level is different than global level. The top three segments in the world vis-à-vis India are G lo b a l I n d ia shown in the adjacent table. % % India is limited to commodity products with very Se g m e n t Se g m e n t s h are s h are little presence in high tech segments. There is a general M ob il te ch 24 P ac k te c h 35 perception that technical textiles are predominantly I nd ut ec h 16 C l oth te ch 17 produced in large scale sectors but it is true only to a S p or te c h 15 H o m e tec h 12 limited extent. Technical textiles have been slowly but O th er s 45 O th er s 36 steadily gaining ground due to one or more of the T o ta l 1 00 T o ta l 10 0 reasons such as (i) Functional requirement (ii) Logistical convenience iii) Health and safety (iv) Globally, the consumption of the technical textiles Customization (v) Cost effectiveness (vi) Useris estimated to be around US$ 139 billion in 2012. At friendliness (vii) Durability and high strength (viii)present, USA is the market leader in technical textiles. Eco friendliness (xi) Light weight (x) VersatilityThe Indian Technical Textiles market has grown from The accelerated growth of the Indian economy hasRs. 43,000 crores in 2007-08 to Rs. 63,000 crores in also been impacting favourably on the growth of the2010-11 registering a CAGR of ~11%. The technical technical textiles. With increase in investments intextiles segment in India has the potential to attract industry sectors, higher consumption and growinginvestment and create additional employment exports, the industrial sector is poised for aopportunities in coming years. Investments of US$ 1.1 considerable growth. This will ultimately lead tobillion are expected by 2012 and employment is increased demand of technical textiles products.expected to increase to 1.2 million by 2012. It is Industry segment contributes to nearly 28% of theforecasted to grow to Rs. 158,000 crores by 2016-17 overall GDP and has seen excellent growth in past.with a projected growth percentage of 20% growth per The income of Indian consumer is also growingannum to be achieved. There are over 3000 units very fast. This rise will enable them to make moremanufacturing technical textiles in India, mostly in discretionary expense on technical textile products viz.small-scale sector. About two-thirds of the production Hometech, Clothtech, Mobiltech, Sportech andis of commodity products whereas only one-third is Meditech. Per capita income of Indian consumer hashigh-end. increased from Rs. 46,492 in the year 2009-10 to The consumption of technical textiles is mainly 60,972 in the year 2011-12 at a CAGR of 15%. Theconcentrated in developed countries. In many fast growing middle class of 160 million with higherdeveloped countries technical textiles account for over discretionary income is expected to increase to 26735% of the textile industrys output as against 19 % for million in 5 years. Significantly over 50 % of theChina and 5 % for India. The technical textile industry population is below 25 years – the vibrant segment forin the developed world is maturing and the growth in any market.July - September 2012 37
  • 40. TECHNICAL TEXTILES Textile Value Chain textiles come out as a big opportunity area and anGOVERNMENT INITIATIVES attractive option to invest in. There is a huge potential Govt has taken initiatives to encourage growth of by in India which is still untapped. A lot needs to be doneproviding interest subsidy and capital subsidy on the at the Govt level, industry level and by financial andplant and equipments under TUFS. In order to educational organizations to expedite the growth ofprovide infrastructure support at one place for thrust this industry.areas of technical textiles, the govt has already set up Some of the steps that are recommended to theeight Centres of Excellence. These centres must be Govt to foster the growth of technical textiles are:equipped with internationally accredited testing labs, Ÿ Increase awareness among consumers abouttraining facilities for technicians from the industry, IT- technical textile products and their advantages such asenabled information centre and other requisite better hygiene; cost effectiveness, protective usage etc.support to the technical textile entrepreneurs. Ÿ Introduce technical textile specific courses and The eight Centres of Excellence are Bombay Textile specializations in the curriculum of various technicalResearch Association (BTRA) in association with IIT, streams like textile, mechanical, and chemicalMumbai for Geotech; Silk & Art Silk Manufacturing engineering courses. This will result in the increasedIndustry Research Association (SASMIRA) for availability of skilled manpower for technical textiles.Agrotech; Northern India Textile Research Association Ÿ Frame rules for mandatory usage of technical(NITRA) for Protech and Southern India Textile textiles, such as fire-retardant fabric in cinema hallsResearch Association (SITRA) for Medtech, both in etc., seat belts and airbags in cars, to create urgencyassociation with IIT, Delhi; DKTE Textile & among both manufacturers and consumers to makeEngineering Institute for non-wovens, PSG College of use of these products.Technology for industrial textiles, Ahmedabad Textile Ÿ Provide subsidies to poor consumers e.g., farmers toIndustrys Research Association for composites and buy Agrotech products.Wool Research Association for Sporttech. Ministry of Ÿ Establish guidelines and standards for the usage andTextiles has also launched the Technology Mission on manufacturing of products where the need to followTechnical Textiles (TMTT). standards is necessary for correct usage.CONSTRAINTS FOR ENTREPRENEURS Along with the encouragement from the Govt, the In order to promote the production of technical Indian Industrialists also have a large role to play totextiles, the first and foremost need would be to attract foster the growth of this industry. Some of theentrepreneurs in the field of technical textiles. recommendations to the industry are (i) Strive for jointEntrepreneurs have so far kept away from the technical ventures and strategic alliances with internationaltextiles in view of the deterrents such as below: companies for transfer of technology and expertise inŸ Complex marketing aspects this sector (ii) Understand customer needs and cater toŸ Huge capital cost in case of high-end technical the fast growing domestic demand (iii) Invest in R &products D, marketing and large scale projects to gainŸ Requirement of huge working capital advantages of economies of scale (iv) Thrust uponŸ No experiance for marketing tie-up supply chain effectivenessŸ Requirement of huge working capital Thus it can be summarized that there is a very hugeŸRequirement of specific raw materials, machinery potential in India to become not only a large marketand equipment but also a manufacturing hub for technical textilesŸ Absence of existing norms and mandatory provided there are efforts on part of Govt, industry,requirements of technical textiles for specific end academic and research organizations to ensure that theapplications. future of the Indian technical textile industry isSUMMARY India is definitely the next destination hub for smooth and fruitful.technical textiles - manufacturing & consumption References: 1)Suvin Book of Knowledgewhich is still untapped. With the growing economy, 2)Handbook of Technical Textiles, Woodhead Publishingwide range of applications, lack of competition and 3)Reports - David Rigby Associatesgrowing consumer and industrial demands, technical 4)SASMIRA Texsummit 2007 report38 July - September 2012
  • 41. Textile Value Chain be upgraded as retailers. Their views are SME summarized as below: ŸSpace: Wholesalers should have bigger space than CORNER retail, as they need to carry more stock. Generally in western world, wholesale shops are situated away from city because they get huge spaces at cheaper rates and rents as compared to city areas. They expect and caterOverhauling the Traditional Wholesaler only to retailers as buyers who purchase huge -Jigna Shah, Editor, Textile Value Chain quantities. Eg. Costco in USA. Wholesalers are one of the most important value ŸStock Display: Need to display full stock and keepchain contributors in India. A wholesaler is a middle adequate stock. Update and Monitor the stock withman between the retailer and the manufacturer. These ERP system.middle-men act as managers in the entire textile value ŸSelf Service: Stock should be placed such that thechain. They grasp market information from retail customers can pickup conveniently.market and provide valuable information to the ŸHome Delivery: Hassle-free, convenient delivery formanufacturers and build unique product information large items.and provide it to retailers from the manufacturers. ŸNeed to move out from market and meet customers Wholesalers have a different picture in India than in for their wants and feedback.developed countries. In India, we have different ŸRequire variety and innovative ways in their displayclusters who present things differently with little or no and marketing approach.synchronization in a de-centralized and unorganized ŸValue added gifts, food, and entertainment to attractmarket. customers. Lets look at a small picture of an Indian wholesaler: ŸPreviously wholesalers had no targets, but todaysolder people handling ancestors business since years, market where FDI is opened; international players arefixed customers, old shops, monotonous business and looking upon India as world market. Wholesalersthe people handling the business lack computer skills need to change their mind-set. They need to set targetsand vision for future expansion. How do you like this as Yearly/ Quarterly/ Monthly/ Daily.picture?? This picture encompasses most of the ŸProper planning for procurement and marketing.wholesale market, Eg. Chandni Chowk in Delhi, ŸRegular staff training and meetings to achieveMulji Jetha Market (M.J. Market) in Mumbai (which competent staff. Hire competent, talented, task-is the largest textile market in Asia). Here, hardly any oriented people rather than non-competent relativesyoung and dynamic people are involved in this and friends. Have a professional approach for samebusiness. If this is the picture, is this industry really and have perks for best salesman of the month/ year.growing? Why isnt the younger generation beinginvolved in this business? Is all the excitement andchallenge lost? Think about it..!!! Very few people had visualized this picture a decadeago and have worked on it. It is surprising to know thatwholesalers from small towns (2-tier and 3-tier cities)thought about it and have managed to completelychange the picture by taking retail and international Wholesale business is risky but has a huge scope asapproach. Eg. Jalan Groups Jalan Wholesale Bazaar, wholesalers have the world open to explore as a marketVaranasi. Recently Metro Cash and Carry was opened as compared to retailers (with minimal open marketin Bhandup, Mumbai. But this idea needs to be scope). As someone had aptly said Big risk Bigincreased manifolds for a competitive structure. Gain… No risk no gain…!!! Recently, in a wholesalers meeting, wholesalers References:shared their views regarding how their market can be Seminar in Infashion 2012 Trade Exhibition.improved through change in facilities and approach so Picture: http://indianbazaars.blogspot.in/2010/04/they can become more professional, international and mulji-jetha-market-textile-bazaar-in.htmlJuly - September 2012 39
  • 42. Textile Value Chain SKILL GAP ANALYSIS STATE NON SSI SSI TOTAL SKILL GAPS & Tamilnadu 868 976 1844 NTS REQUIREME Maharashtra 126 17 868 IN SPINNING Haryana 66 72 138 Andra Pradesh 108 20 128 -ICRA Management Consulting Services Punjab 79 30 109 Limited (IMaCS), www.nsdcindia.org Uttar Pradesh 53 42 951. INTRODUCTION Gujarat 37 22 59 Spinning is the process of converting cotton orman-made fibres into yarn to be used for weaving and Rajashtan 47 8 55knitting. Largely, due to deregulation beginning in Karnataka 47 6 53the mid-1980s, spinning is the most consolidated and Madhya Pradesh 42 8 50technically efficient sector in Indias textile industry.Although the spinning sector now includes a number Kerela 30 5 35of technologically advanced spinning mills, the West Bengal 21 0 21average plant size and level of modernization remain Himachal Pradesh 18 2 20low by international standards. Orissa 16 1 172. SPINNING MILLS At end of March 2008, India had around 2,816 Others 39 10 49spinning mills including 1,219 in the small-scale Source: Ministry of Textiles, IMaCS Analysisindustries (SSI) sector. These mills had an installed achieving the desired level quality, mixing of two orcapacity of 34.41 million spindles (including 4.17 more types of cotton is carried out in the blow room.million in the SSI sector), and a workforce of 0.625 The loose cotton passed through the blow roommillion (including 0.05 million in the SSI machinery is converted into regular sheets called laps.sector).Tamil Nadu (TN) has the highest number of Carding: The material received from blow room isspinning units and accounts for 65% of the total processed on the carding machines which produce anumber of spinning units in the country.Blow Room Carding Drawing Roving Spinning Winding Finishing3. PRODUCTION PROCESSES INVOLVED INSPINNING thin sheet of uniform thickness that is then condensed Common industrial spinning techniques include to form a thick, continuous, untwisted strand calledring spinning, open-end (rotor) spinning, and air-jet sliver. This process also removes the remainingspinning. The process description of a typical ring impurities from the cotton.spinning process is depicted below. Drawing: The fibres in the carded sliver are placed in3.1 PRODUCTION PROCESSES IN SPINNING a haphazard fashion and lack uniformity. The cardedBlow room operations: The blow room machinery slivers are processed on the drawing frame; they areperforms the function of opening pressed bales of made uniform in thickness by the doubling process.cotton and cleaning the cotton of impurities. Trash The fibres get drawn parallel to the axis of the sliver byand foreign matter is extracted from the cotton with the drafting process.the least amount of lint loss. Blow room line consists Roving: Slivers are to be thinned out to the levelof opening, cleaning, mixing and lap making required for the yarn to be spun. This process ofmachine. In order to produce uniform quality of yarn attenuating the slivers is done in several steps on speedand also to reduce the cotton cost of yarn while frames. While converting slivers into roving, a small40 July - September 2012
  • 43. SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS Textile Value Chainamount of twist is also inserted so that the roving can Finishing: Further operations on the yarn, such aswithstand the winding and the unwinding Bleaching, Dyeing, and Packaging will depend on theoperations. intended usage of the yarn.Spinning: The roving bobbins are taken to the ring 4. SKILL REQUIREMENTS AND SKILL GAPSframes where it is drafted (extended) to the extent of The diversification, impact of globalization,desired level (i.e. count). The spindle along with the market forces and more recently the recession has ledring traveler mounted on a ring, imparts the requisite businesses to move toward a strategy ofamount of twist into the yarn. The yarn is wound on differentiation. This requires a new set of skills andbobbins and taken to post spinning operations. technical capabilities in-house to remain competitiveWinding: The yarn is wound over paper cones to in both domestic and international markets. In themake final packages after passing through electronic chart below, we can see the functions, levels and skillyarn cleaners for removal of any defects. The ends are requirements and gaps in the spinning process.spliced to produce knot-less yarns. Function : PROCUREMENT Level : 1 Purchase Management Skill Ÿ Knowledge of various types of cotton in terms of pile length and suitability for the desired type of yarns Required Ÿ Knowledge of types of cotton defects – while handling, processing or other factors Ÿ Awareness of the latest trends in the market and ability to anticipate their impact on procurement Ÿ Negotiation and communication skills for negotiating with cotton traders Skill Gap Ÿ Lack of English language and adequate knowledge to source from international destinations -Awareness of the latest price trends and source destinations is limited to the domestic market Ÿ In-depth knowledge of the various types of cotton and quality parameters Level : 2 Purchase Associate / Executive Skill Ÿ Ability to calculate the amount of cotton required based on the desired “count” (quality) of the final Required yarn Ÿ Knowledge of various types of cotton defects and other quality parameters Ÿ Liaison with the cotton traders to ensure timely delivery of cotton Skill Gap Ÿ Insufficient knowledge of various types of cotton defects and other quality parameters Function : MAINTENANCE Level : 1 Maintenance Manager Skill Ÿ Knowledge of current machine tools and maintenance requirements of various textile machines and Required ensure availability of the spare parts in a spinning unit Ÿ Communication skills to liaison with machine manufacturers to understand the maintenance requirements of various machines Ÿ Plan & supervise maintenance of machines to ensure minimal machine downtime. This is crucial for spinning units which are very technology intensive Skill Gap Ÿ Inadequate knowledge of current machinery, maintenance requirements and technicalities Level : 2 Maintenance Operators (Fitters) Skill Ÿ Ability to carry out routine maintenance operations such as greasing Required Ÿ Ensure that minor issues are taken care of in a prompt manner and escalate major issues Skill Gap Ÿ Fitters from Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) have limited knowledge of maintenance of spinning machinery. The ITI do not provide training specific to the textile machinesJuly - September 2012 41
  • 44. SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS Textile Value Chain Function : PRODUCTION Level : 1 Production Manager / Shift In charge Skill ŸAbility to oversee plant operations and technical competence in all aspects Required ŸProblem solving skills, good communication skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated ŸProcess improvement skills to improve profitability- waste control, finding solutions to maintenance and engineering related problems as most of the units do not have a dedicated R&D for process improvement Skill Gap ŸInadequate cross-functional knowledge of maintenance, machines and tools ŸInsufficient soft skills to manage shop floor people ŸAwareness of modern production methods and machines is limited Level : 2 Supervisor Skill ŸIn-depth knowledge of production process and spinning machines Required ŸMan-management skills to manage shop floor workers who are mostly minimally educated and ability to train operators to man the spinning machines ŸAwareness of quality requirements of the yarn across various stages of production ŸMonitor cleaning and maintenance schedule of the spinning machinery Skill Gap ŸLack of man-management skills to manage shop floor personnel ŸThe supervisors typically have work experience in particular processes of the spinning mill as operator and do not have a formal training/education of other processes ŸAwareness of modern spinning machines is limited Level : 3 Operator Skill ŸOperating knowledge of the spinning machines and ability to work on different machines. E.g. a spinning Required operator should be able to work on carding, roving and spinning machines ŸMonitor spinning operation as regards to the availability of sliver/bundles/lap as input to respective stages of the spindling operation ŸShould be able to read gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly and ensure that machine stoppage time in minimal ŸDiscipline at shop floor, punctuality and regular attendance at workplace ŸAdherence to cleaning and machine maintenance schedule. Understanding of support to be provided for maintenance of various textile machines ŸAbility to comply with quality norms Skill Gap ŸKnowledge/ Skill confined to single or few machines ŸLack of knowledge of compliance to quality ŸInadequate ability to multitask between different types of machines Function : QUALITY Level : 1 Quality Control Supervisor / Manager Skill ŸUnderstand the quality requirements of the yarn in terms of “count”, breakage during weaving etc and the Required quality parameters across the various stages of assembly line ŸKnowledge of types of cotton defects – while handling, processing or other factors Skill Gap ŸInadequate ability to translate buyer requirements to quality parameters ŸIgnorance of cause-effect relationships for various defects like breakage of threads, etc Level : 2 Quality Control Executive Skill ŸUnderstanding of quality parameters and ensure that they are adhered to by diligently checking the Required product. If not followed severely affects the fabric manufacturers Ÿ promptly and liaison with production to minimize the quality issues Act Skill Gap ŸInadequate understanding of quality parameters.42 July - September 2012
  • 45. SKILL GAPS ANALYSIS Textile Value Chain Function : SALES Level : 1 Sales Manager Skill ŸDetailed product knowledge in terms of type of fibre and other technical parameters Required ŸGood negotiation skills are a must as the yarn market is very cost sensitive. Minor quality issues tend to result in high discounts ŸGood communication skills to interact with the team as well as with the important clients. Knowledge of English is important in case of international clients Skill Gap ŸNegotiation and communication skills. Also, South-based spinning mills require people with knowledge of Hindi which are difficult to find Level : 2 Sales Executives Skill ŸAwareness of competitor actions and provide feedback to the management Required ŸUnderstanding of customer requirements in terms of quality of yarn ŸGood communication skills to interact with the team and important clients Skill Gap ŸNegotiation and communication skills. Also, South-based spinning mills require people with knowledge of Hindi which are difficult to find5. DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES To further analyze the skill requirements and gaps in the spinning sector we need to also look atdistribution of the human resources in the key spinning areas and the education levels of these resources.5.1 Distribution of human resource by education level Diploma or ITI and other 12th/10th std/ equivalent vocational Other minimally Sub Segment Engineer CA/ MBA / etc. certificate by course/ graduates educated other agencies certificates Spinning unit 5% - 7% 8% - 10% 10% - 12% 2% - 3% 1% - 2% 70% - 80%5.2 Functional distribution of human resource across key sectors Functions Engineer Support Procurement Productions Sales Quality Department Maintenance Functions Spinning unit 1% - 2% 75% - 85% 2% - 3% 4% - 5% 4% - 5% 10% - 20%CONCLUSION Widening skill gap and high attrition rates is probably compelling the textile industry to find ways and means toaddress these issues to sustain in business. Given the current environment, there is greater emphasis to deal withthese skills issues from within industry alongside an established education sector. There is an urgent need to findcolleges and or training providers that can deliver relevant training and technical skills, and improving in-housetraining, through the development of in-house coaches. Whilst at graduate level, there is a high level of concern atthe lack of relevant design and technical skills for current business and commercial needs. The above skill sets and specific focus areas outlined earlier will be the major drivers of human resourcerequirement in the Textile and Clothing industry. Skill building in these areas would be the key to industrycompetitiveness going forward and it emphasizes how vital it is that the right skills are accessed to optimize thegrowth areas where they exist and to remain competitive internationally.July - September 2012 43
  • 46. Textile Value Chain Firstly, as students we should understand that the CAREER fashion world is not only about glamorous models and TIES celebrities strutting our outfits. It is also not only OPPORTUNI about meeting up with high-end clientele and catering to their needs alone. It is not only about giving saucy interviews to the paparazzi and keeping in touch with the top notch elites. If at all you havePEOPLE IN FASHION AND TEXTILES been thinking about all these things happening to you What can you expect from a career in the fashion then sorry to break it to you but you need to come outand textiles industry? How do you get the foot in the of your dreamland as soon as possible.door? what skills do you need to achieve your goals ? As an aspirant you firstly need to introspect. You Find out more about roles in fashion and textiles will have to analyze yourself. Understand and acceptfrom real people work in the industry. They tell us your strengths and weaknesses. Many a times in lifehow to equip yourselves for a bright future in the we run after things which are just not meant for us. Weindustry. have the example of our own master blaster Sachin Tendulkar who went to a cricket camp to become a Sarah Nizam, fast bowler but was rejected. He did not give up at Freelancer Designer/Fashion that. He went in to that camp again but as a batsman Columnist, Ex Lecturer of Sasmira this time and the rest is history. Similarly, an aspirant for Fashion Designing Dept. , may be a good stylist but not a good business person. Masters from NIFT, Chennai. The fashion industry consists of various categories which help in the smooth working of the businesses A brief visit to any of the fashion colleges would like merchandising, buying, planning, design team,make any fashion industry insider feel, “Oh Dear, I garment manufacturing etc. All one has to do is realizewish things were as rosy as you imagine they are”. My ones abilities and strengths and accordingly workstint as a lecturer made me realize how far the students towards achieving ones target or goal.were from the REALITY. A few ice breakers like“What do you see yourself doing five years down theline?” or “Why fashion designing?” only furtheradded weightage to the conclusion that, “Thestudents of fashion are indeed very naive.” Oneanswer that my mind refuses to forget was, “Mam, Ihave a passion for fashion.” Those were heavy wordscoming from a first year student of fashion andhowever mindlessly they were uttered these words Expect the unexpected. Yes, because this attitudepretty much defined the very spirit of the fashion shall take one a long way. Be open to experiences asIndustry. everything shall help one learn the finer nuances of the This being my first article I would like to shed fashion industry. Be prepared to take yourself to placessome light on how far from reality we as students are one would not visit on an ordinary day; the busy by-and the wakeup call that we all get when we start lanes of Dharavi to meet up with a job-worker or theseeking employment in the Industry. Hopefully this dusty and narrow lanes of Jogeshwari, handloomarticle will also enable a lucid and planned approach societies down in Erode, Tamil Nadu where one cantowards selecting fashion designing as a career and witness the dying art or the factories in Vapi, updatedmuch more. with the latest machineries. Every place one visits and Initially we all start with the dream of owning a every person one meets teaches you something.super successful fantastic looking boutique at a All said and done, advice to students would be tofabulous, high profile locale of Mumbai, generating break things down as to what are the variousloads of profits and hitting the headlines of Fashions specializations in the industry. Then zeroing down onmagazines for our innovative designs and money the most appropriate one where you think you can seemaking business. All this, right after completing our yourself as a capable contributor. Join courses whichso-called degrees and diplomas. If only it was this easy you think would be able enough to boost your abilitiesto achieve our goals and fulfill our dreams. and help you in achieving what you have planned for.44 July - September 2012
  • 47. CAREER OPPORTUNITIES Textile Value Chain EDUCATION “Fashion is not necessarily about AKE ABROAD - M labels. Its not about brands. Its YOUR PAS SION ER about something else that comes YOUR CARE from within you.” Rajul J. Shah -Ralph Lauren MFA in Fashion Design, Academy of Art University, CA, USA dream job in fashion but education brings out the Worked in USA as talent and sharpens the skills which are acquired Technical Designer through professional training and internships. The fashion industry is typically split into four main fields: design, manufacturing, marketing/ When most people think about a fashion career, promotion, and retail sales. Careers include,they picture a designer sketching an idea for a new modeling, photography, sales personnel, stylist,dress, or a model walking down a runway to show off apparel, technical and accessory designing, patternthe latest design. While the fashion industry is making, marketing, retail management, buyer,incomplete without designers or models, there are also seamstress (tailor), visual merchandisers, journalista number of other fashion careers that people might and many more.forget about. In fact, many of the fashion In this article, we will be covering fashion andprofessionals who go unnoticed are the textile colleges in US and UK only, though one canpatternmakers, seamstresses, material sourcers, study in many other places like Italy and France whereamongst many others. The designs that one sees on a knowledge of the Italian and French languages isregular basis are actually the product of a process that helpful to go about.involves a number of different individuals with a When one is trying to pick a college, one shouldvariety of different skills. One should know a little not just stop at the top 10 or top 20 colleges. Besidesmore about the fashion industry in order to college rankings, one needs to consider their ownunderstand the careers one can pursue. needs, career goals and optimal learning environment The fashion industry is attracting more probable with opportunities. The points below should help:employees than ever now. Thanks to Bollywood and Ÿ Courses: Colleges offer Associate degrees,Hollywood fashionistas, red carpet events and the certificate programs, undergraduate and graduateexplosion of medias interests in fashion. Its an programs in various directions from trading,industry thats in high demand. However, its also a marketing, journalism, designing in basicallynotoriously difficult industry to break into, so you everything (textile, apparel, accessory with furtherhave to make yourself stand out to be successful. For majors)– sky is the limit – study the programs andthat, one has to have a stellar education and make your pick wisely). One should also make sureinternships (even if you are just doing swatch libraries that the college is accredited.!!!) before stepping in the real world. Obviously, going Ÿ Location: Location is important when one isto colleges for formal training wont guarantee your considering where to pursue their degree, but not necessarily because the college is in the fashion capital. Other metropolitan areas may offer local fashion industry opportunities, or have connections with the fashion world that enable you to meet top designers and apply for entry-level jobs and internships. Ÿ Admission: Most basic requirements are multi –faceted portfolio (slide or CD format or as per college), TOEFL score, resume, recommendation letter from teacher or employer, official transcripts (attested mark sheets and/or degree), statement of intent, affidavit of support (for financial reasons), etc. More details would be available on the college websites.July - September 2012 45
  • 48. CAREER OPPORTUNITIES Textile Value ChainŸ Cost: Generally fees vary from $ 15,000 to $ financially and learn the western way of working.40,000/ yr on college tuition fees alone, depending on There are also many campus events where one canthe course. Supplies, living and food are extra expenses participate which help in embracing the new lifewhich one should account for. If one cannot afford the effortlessly.program outright, a good set of financial aid offerings Fashion and Textile jobs will continue to flourishmay still make it possible to attend. Properly as it is a growing field due to the consistent need foraccredited institutions will enable you to take qualified professionals. Competition is fierce and willadvantage of a wider range of financial aid options. only intensify. Those who want to stand out mustHowever, financial aid is not available in private satisfy higher educational degrees and should possesscolleges. originality, innovativeness and persistence. In all, a Studying abroad is a challenge at first but then a fashion or textile career isnt for the faint of hearted.delight. The teaching methods are very practical based People in this field need to thrive in high-pressurethan theory. Creativity is not bound and has no limits environments. Those entering this occupation shouldhere since one can be very creative as one is not told be willing to work in a team, should be detail orientedwhat to do, the way we are told in the Indian system. with great organizational skills, work lateClasses have people of varied age groups, backgrounds unpredictable hours and work well under theand countries giving one an exciting holistic learning demands of deadlines. They should also be able toexperience. The classes are smaller so the teachers can handle criticism. Critics in this field can be brutal.actually impart every individual his/her guidance and Successful people know how to learn from a critiqueattention. Often classes do not fill a students entire while maintaining their individual style. At the sameday or week. In the free time, one can attend free time, it needs creativity, blend of fashion sense andclasses on the campuses such that if one is lacking in business expertise, strategy and marketing know-howsome skills or wants to acquire new skills they can do which are an integral part of this industry.so. One can also do on campus jobs to help them46 July - September 2012
  • 49. CAREER OPPORTUNITIES Textile Value Chain International Colleges for Textiles & Fashion College WebsiteEast Coast Top Colleges in U.S.A.Pratt Institute, Brooklyn www.pratt.edu/academics/art_design/Parsons New School for Design, New York City www.newschool.edu/parsons/academics.aspxFashion Institute of Technology ( FIT), New York City www.fitnyc.edu/Rhode Island School of Design, Providence www.risd.edu/Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Boston www.massart.edu/Maryland Institute College of Art,(MICA) Baltimore, www.mica.edu/Programs_of_Study.htmlSyracuse College, New York vpa.syr.edu/art-design West Coast Top Colleges in U.S.A.Academy of Art University( AAU), San Francisco www.academyart.edu/fashion-school/index.htmlCalifornia College of the Arts (CCA),San Francisco and Oakland www.cca.edu/academicsFashion Institute of Design and Merchandising (FIDM),Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego & Irvine www.fidm.edu/Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles www.otis.edu/University of California, Davis( UC Davis) www.ucdavis.edu/Midwest Top Colleges in U.S.A.Kent State University, Ohio www.kent.edu/artscollege/fashion/Cleveland Institute of Art, Ohio www.cia.edu/University of Cincinnati, Ohio www.artsci.uc.edu/School of the Art Institute of Chicago (SAIC) www.saic.edu/Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah www.scad.edu/programs/fashion/index.cfmColleges in London, U.K.School of Fashion and design (SFD) www.sfdlondon.com/Central Saint Martins College of art and design www.csm.arts.ac.uk/University of Westminster www.westminsterfashion.com/Royal College of Art, London www.rca.ac.uk/London College of Fashion www.fashion.arts.ac.uk/Kingston University www.kingston.ac.uk/Colleges in Paris, FranceESMOD International Fashion University Group, +21 www.esmod.com/en/index.htmlschools in 14 countriesThe Institut Francais de la Mode (IFM), Paris www.ifm-paris.comEcole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne, www.modeaparis.com/enStudio Bercot www.studio-bercot.com/pages-en/sb_en.htmlColleges in ItalyIstituto Marangoni – Milan, Paris and London campuses www.istitutomarangoni.com/home/engPolimoda,Florence www.polimoda.com/en/homeKoefia (International Academy of Haute Couture and Art www.koefia.com/of Costume, MilanJuly - September 2012 47
  • 50. Textile Value Chain VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (VJTI) COMPLETES 125 GLORIOUS YEARSHISTORY CURRENT STATUS A great institution is born in the minds of great Established in 1887, the Institute was renamedmen. A magnificent college in the name of Victoria Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute in 1996.Jubilee Technical Institute was born in the city of VJTI enjoys the pride and status of a premierBombay in 1887 and it was due to the culmination of technological institute among engineering colleges inideas of great men like Lord Reay, Nowrosjee Wadia, the country. VJTI is a fully State Government grant-Pherozshah Mehta, M.C. Murzban, Harkishandas in- aid autonomous Institute. It is affiliated to theNurrotumdas and M.G. Ranade. The leader behind Mumbai University and approved by the AICTE.the scheme of establishing this Institute for training in Institute also has obtained the accreditation ofIndustrial Arts and Science (as it was being called in National Board of Accreditation (NBA) for its UGthat era) was, beyond doubt, Lord Reay. Being the and PG courses. The Diploma is affiliated to thegovernor of the Bombay Presidency, he was in a MSBTE. The Institute was granted financial andposition to bring together people from various fields academic autonomy from June 21, 2004.(along with their resources) and give effect to this The college is located at a very prime location ingrand idea. Dinshaw Maneckji Petit, a distinguished the central part of the Mumbai city in Matunga. Itprominent businessman of the city of Bombay, helped has only one campus and is spread across a sprawlingin the scheme of things with his magnanimous grant area of 16.4 acres. All the departments are well-of the Building at Byculla. When he learnt of the equipped with class rooms, seminar rooms,difficulty experienced by the VJTI committee in departmental library, and computer laboratories apartobtaining a suitable building, he decided to donate from the various laboratories. The common facilitiesthe Elphinstone College building at Byculla. These for all the students include the Institutes library, e-buildings were quite suitable for a Technological library, central computing facilities, Gymkhana,Institute, having a fairly large Campus and being Auditorium, play ground, canteen and distancelocated in the midst of the Mechanical and Textile education centers. All the departments are wellIndustries at that time. The classes began on 1st equipped with modern teaching aids such as LCDSeptember 1888 and a formal inauguration of the projection facilities and internet.institute took place on 10th April 1889. DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILES The department of Textile Manufactures was started as the Ripon Textile School in the early days of the institute. The department is currently located in the northern light steel trussed roof building. It has a variety of modern spinning and weaving machines and laboratory equipment. The department carries out industry consultancy projects and is recognized by the Government of India as an official testing facility. In-plant training is an integral part of the learning process at the diploma and B. Tech levels. Courses are available in: Ÿ Licentiate in Textile ManufacturersVEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE Ÿ Diploma in Textile Design (VJTI)48 July - September 2012
  • 51. VJTI Textile Value Chain Ÿ B.Tech degree in Textile Related Curriculum in Engineering & Technology. Ÿ M.Tech degree in textile Technology ABP news has also declared VJTI as Best Institute in Western Region. It has also been ranked as TopLaboratories and testing facilities are available in Engineering College of Super Excellence in India andareas of: placed at rank 13 by Competition Success Review on Ÿ Spinning July 19, 2011. In rankings limited to private colleges it Ÿ Weaving was ranked #7 by Mint in the Top 50 Private Ÿ Chute Feed Systems Engineering Colleges of 2009. TEQIP (I) ranked Ÿ Screen Printing VJTI as number 1 in the country in academic excellence. Ÿ Exposure Rooms Ÿ Evenness Analysis FUTURE Ÿ Yarn Testing Under the World Bank Technical Education Ÿ Geo-Textiles Quality Programme (TEQIP), the institute has several projects underway to establish itself as a worldRANKING class technology institute. New laboratories have been VJTI is ranked #22 by India Today in the Best created and centers of excellence have been set up.Engineering colleges, 2012 and #32 by Outlook India VJTI has upgraded the library facilities with a smartin Top Engineering Colleges of 2012. STAR NEWS library card and E-library facility. Their vision ofhonoured VJTI as outstanding engineering institute establishing global leadership in the field of(West) during National B- school Awards on 12th Technology and developing competent humanFebruary 2011 in Recognition of Leadership, resources for providing service to society is not veryDevelopment, Innovation, Modern and Industry far. All new Designer Shirts from Na-Kotcontact us on www.navkarfabrics.comemail: sales@navkarfabrics.com | info@navkarfabrics.com ADVT.Corporate Office: Shree Navkar Fabrics, 36-A, Vivek Building,1st Floor, Room No.4, (Badamwadi), Champa Galli, ‘X’ Lane,July - September 2012 / 22408532 / 32535343Mumbai - 400002. Tel.: 22400255 49
  • 52. Textile Value Chain TEXTILE Tradeshow from TRADESHOW 15th July 2012 - 15th Oct 2012 Exhibition Name India International Garment Fair 2012 Date 16 July 2012 - 18 July 2012 Venue Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India Organizer Name Apparel Export Promotion Council Contact Details www.indiaapparelfair.com Exhibition Profile Manufacturer and exporter of Casual wear & city wear, high fashion & occasional wear, lingerie & under wear, athletic, sports & outerwear, formal business wear, children wear. Exhibition Name Fashionista 2012 Date 20th July 2012- 22 July 2012 Venue Hotel The Grand Thakar, Jawahar Road, Rajkot Organizer Name Fashionista Contact Details www.fashionistaindia.com Exhibition Profile Manufacturer and Traders of Fashion Garments and Accessories Exhibition Name KNIT SHOW 2012 Date 12th August 2012 – 14th August 2012 Venue VELAN HOTEL FAIR GROUND, TIRUPUR Organizer Name Knit show Contact Details www.knitshow.in Exhibition Profile Manufacturer , Traders, exporters of Garment accessory, fabric, machinery Exhibition Name Indigo International Denim Industry Growth Opportunity 2012 Date 30th August 2012 -31st August 2012 Venue Expocenter, Noida Organizer Name Denim Club India Contact Details www.denimclubindia.org Exhibition Profile Denim mills, denim manufacturer and suppliers of accessories, embellishments, service provider, vendors of CAD/CAM, ERP Solution provider Exhibition Name India International Yarn Exhibition – Yarnex 2012 Date 31st August, 2012 To 2nd September, 2012 Venue India Knit Fair Complex, Tirupur, India Organizer Name Yarnex Contact Details www.yarnex.in Exhibition Profile Manufacturer ,traders of fibres , yarns, services: CAD/Cam, chemicals, auxiliaries50 July - September 2012
  • 53. TEXTILE TRADESHOW Textile Value Chain Tradeshow from 15th July 2012 – 15th Oct 2012 Exhibition Name Technotex India 2012 Date 27th Sep 2012- 29th Sep 2012 Venue MMRDA Ground, Bandra (E), Mumbai, India Organizer Name FICCI Contact Details www.technotexindia.in Exhibition Profile Technical textile manufacturer, traders Exhibition Name India International Yarn & Fabric Show 2012 Date 11th Oct 2012 ~ 13th October 2012 Venue Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai – India Organizer Name Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. Contact Details http://www.yarnandfabric.org Exhibition Profile Manufacturer of fabrics, yarns and fibre, Accessories Exhibition Name Dye+Chem India 2012 International Expo Date 11th October, 2012 To 13th October, 2012 Venue Chennai Trade Centre, Chennai - India Organizer Name Conference & Exhibition Management Services Ltd. Contact Details http://www.dyechemonline.org Exhibition Profile Manufacturer, traders of dyestuff, pigment, auxiliaries, dye intermediate Show report of Garfab TX 2012, SuratVardaan Events Pvt Ltd organised Garfab-TX Surat, which isone of the top knitting and apparel sector trade shows in India.The show served as a convenient platform for leading industryprofessionals to interact and exchange the latest informationfrom this sector. Exhibitors showcased a diverse range of fabrics,apparel items, leather products, knitting machines, looms,weaving tools, printing equipments and other relatedaccessories. Among the products on display were threads,needles, fibre, yarn, fabrics; embroidery, weaving, apparel andfinishing technology, accessories, texturizing, dyeing,processing, printing, chemical laboratory equipments,trimming, embellishment, and many more items.Highlights of the show were:The chief highlights of the Garfab-TX Surat show were:Ÿ The launch of the textile machinery segmentŸ Live demonstration sessions of machineriesŸ Excellent business networking opportunities andŸ Latest technological advancements from the apparel and knitting sector.Sources:http://www.biztradeshows.com/vardaan-events/#pasthttp://www.biztradeshows.com/garfab-surat/July - September 2012 51
  • 54. Textile Value Chain GOVERNMENT POLICY machinery by the entrepreneurs in a Park shall be at INTEGRATED TEXTILES PARKS IN least twice the cost of common infrastructure proposed 12TH PLAN for the Park. The ITPs may also be set up in the Special The Indian textile industry has its inherent Economic Zones (SEZs), in which case the specialadvantages; but infrastructure bottleneck is one of the provisions of SEZs would be applicable for them. Inprime areas of concern. In July 2005, the Scheme for case it is desired for setup outside SEZs, proposal mayIntegrated Textile Park (SITP) was approved to be pursued with the Ministry of Commerce &provide world-class infrastructure facilities for setting Industry to declare the ITP as SEZ.up their textile units of international standards at SCOPE OF THE SCHEME:potential growth centers. The SITP seeks green field The scheme targets industrial locations with highinvestments in the textiles sector on a public private growth potential, which require strategic interventionspartnership basis with the objective of setting up world by way of providing top-notch infrastructure support.class infrastructure for the textile industry. As per the The project cost will cover common infrastructure andtarget, forty (61) Textile Park projects have been buildings for production/support activities (includingsanctioned. Taking into consideration the response to textile engineering, accessories, packaging), dependingthe scheme in the quota free regime, the Govt of India on the needs of the ITP. There will be flexibility inhas decided to continue the SITP in the 12th Five Year setting up ITPs to suit the local requirements and itPlan. This will facilitate additional investments, will have the following components:employment generation and increase in textile Group A - Landproduction. Group B - Common Infrastructure like compound Industry Associations / Groups of Entrepreneurs wall, roads, drainage, water supply and electricitywould be the main promoters of the Textiles Park by supply including captive power plant, effluentforming a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for treatment, telecommunication lines etc.implementation/ management of the project. Group C - Buildings for common facilities like testingMinistry of Textiles has engaged eight (7) Project laboratory (including equipments), design centerManagement Consultants (PMCs) who will help the (including equipments), training center (includingpromoters inform SPV for preparation of Detailed equipments), trade center/ display center,Project Reports, etc., for which Ministry of Textiles warehousing facility / raw material depot, onewill pay fee to the PMCs. Detailed guidelines of the packaging unit, crèche, canteen, workers hostel,scheme, inter alia including the objective, salient offices of service providers, labour rest and recreationfeatures, level of assistance, role of SPV, PMC, State facilities, marketing support system (backward /Govt. etc. and list of the empanelled PMCs can be forward linkages) etc.obtained from: Group D - Factory buildings for production purposes The SITP Cell, Ministry of Textiles, Room No. Group E - Plant & machinery515-C, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi-11, Tel: 011 – The items covered under each of the above Groups23061874. are illustrative only and every ITP may be developed toOBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME: suit the specific production and business requirements The SITP was launched by merging two schemes, of members of ITP. The Project Scrutiny Committeenamely, Apparel Parks for Exports Scheme (APES) and (PSC) will recommend on merit the inclusion orthe Textiles Centre Infrastructure Development otherwise of a component in the project cost on case toScheme (TCIDS). The scheme would facilitate textile case basis.units to meet international environmental and social The total Project Cost for the purpose of thisstandards. This scheme envisages engaging of a panel Scheme includes the cost on account of components ofof professional agencies for project identification and ITP, as listed under Groups A, B, C and D above,execution. Each Integrated Textile Park (ITP) would provided the ownership of the factory buildings vestsnormally have 50 units. The number of entrepreneurs with the SPV. However, the SPV will have the optionand the resultant investments in each ITP could vary of seeking financial support from Govt. of India forfrom project to project. However, aggregate components under Groups B and C only, if factoryinvestment in land, factory buildings, plant & buildings are individually owned.52 July - September 2012
  • 55. GOIs Grant Estimated Estimated GOI Grant Estimated (40% o f No o f Land Emplolyment in Annual Sr. Project Released up to Investment Project N ame Location project c ost Entrepreneurs/ Area the Production No. Cost 29.02.2012 ( Rs. in the Park limited t o Units i n the Park Park Crore) (Rs c rore) Rs.40 c rore) Acres (Rs crores) Direct Indirect Rs Crores 1 Hyderabad Hi-tech Weaving Park Mahboob Nagar, AP 58.00 23.20 12.00 29 60.24 208.00 2500 2500 370.00 400 Looms 3700 Garmenting 2 Hindupur Vyapar Apparel Park Limited Ananthpur, AP 102.27 40.00 24.00 73.10 265.49 10500 22000 340.00July - September 2012 Machines 2 Units 6 uni ed clusters 3 Pochampally Handloom Park Ltd Pochampally, AP 34.00 13.60 13.60 with 2000 22.30 50.00 5000 3000 40.00 Looms GOVERNMENT POLICY 4 Brandix India Apparel City Private Ltd Vishakhapatnam AP 134.42 40.00 40.00 17 1000.00 4878.03 60000 90000 7000.00 5 MAS Fabric Park India Ltd Nellore, AP 254.70 40.00 12.00 16 581.68 1982.00 31000 15000 2500.00 (5) Andhra P radesh T otal 583.39 156.80 101.60 62 1737.32 7383.52 109000 132500 10250.00 6 Gujarat Eco Textile Park Ltd Surat, GJ 128.75 40.00 40.00 33 104.11 705.00 8000 17000 850.00 Mundra SEZ Textile & Apparel Park 7 Kutch, GJ 103.53 40.00 40.00 11 116.24 775.00 3077 4500 800.00 Ltd 8 Fairdeal Textile Park Pvt Ltd Surat, GJ 105.63 40.00 24.00 53 53.63 312.65 2900 4300 1200.00 9 Vraj Integrated Textile Park Ltd Kheda, GJ 114.77 40.00 36.00 21 69.82 550.00 6250 12500 617.00 10 Sayana Textile Park Ltd Surat, GJ 116.77 40.00 36.00 50 56.80 298.61 3155 4733 1312.00 11 Surat Super Yarn Limited Surat, GJ 104.76 40.00 36.00 27 43.29 230.56 1000 2000 1250.00 12 RJD Integrated Textile Park ltd. Surat 106.50 40.00 36.00 579 55.94 352.69 4270 6405 597.54 (7) Gujrat T otal 780.71 280.00 248.00 774 499.83 3224.51 28652 51438 6626.54 13 Metro Hi-Tech Cooperative Park Ltd Ichalkaranji, MH 106.50 40.00 36.00 86 99.10 335.00 5000 5000 212.00 14 Pride india cooperative Textile park Ltd Ichalkaranji, MH 58.19 23.28 20.95 85 26.68 203.00 1500 2500 300.00 15 Baramati Hi Tech Textile Park Ltd Baramati, MH 108.52 40.00 34.83 22 60.00 250.00 5500 6000 380.00 Shri Dhairyashil Mane Textile Park Co-op 16 Ichalkaranji, MH 72.25 28.90 8.67 167 65.00 376.55 3300 5000 370.0 0 Society Ltd 17 Deesan Infrastructure Pvt Ltd Dhule,MH 103.12 40.00 12.00 50 105.74 721.68 4410 6615 2134.53 INTEGRATED TEXTILES PARKS: 12th PLAN 18 Asmeeta Infrastructure Pvt Ltd Bhawandi 200.79 40.00 4.00 65 72.68 673.23 7634 11451 1045.52 19 Islampur Integrated Textile Park Sangli,MH 102.08 40.00 40.00 12 34.50 334.28 10000 0 904.00 20 Latur Integrated Textile Park Latur 102.61 40.00 40.00 20 50.00 257.42 10000 0 617.40 21 Purna Global Textiles Park Ltd Hingoli, MH 91.80 36.72 22.02 41 54.70 205.00 1100 550 200.00 (9) Maharashtra T otal 945.86 288.90 182.47 188 317.62 2191.61 33144 18616 6163.45 Textile Value Chain53
  • 56. 54 Estimated GOIs Grant GOI Grant No of Estimated Estimated Land Annual Sr. Project (40% of project Released up to Entrepreneurs/ Investment Emplolyment in Project Name Location Area Production No. Cost cost limited to 29.02.2012 (Rs. Units in the in the Park the (Rs crore) Rs.40 crore) Crore) Park Acres (Rs crores) Direct Indirect Rs Crores e Great Indian Linen & Textile 22 Perundurai, TN 149.45 40.00 12.00 20 121.00 418.05 5000 7500 520.00 Infrastructure Company 23 SIMA Textile Processing Centre Cuddalore, TN 111.60 40.00 12.00 10 247.70 475.00 5000 15000 500.00 24 Palladam Hi-Tech Weaving park Palladam, TN 55.42 22.17 22.17 90 65.00 161.34 2500 3500 300.00 25 Komarapalayam Hi-Tech Weaving Park Ltd. Komarapalayam, TN 34.82 13.93 12.54 57 30.60 125.66 1500 1500 350.00 26 Karur Integrated Textile Park Karur, TN 116.10 40.00 40.00 42 104 227 3000 4000 623.00 27 Madurai Integrated Textile Park Ltd Madurai, TN 87.30 34.92 31.43 15 110.00 409.76 3000 4000 900.00 GOVERNMENT POLICY 28 Vaigai Hi-Tech Weaving Park Vaigai, eni 65.13 24.00 2.44 90 40.64 145.22 6080 0 361.00 29 Kanchipuram AACM Handloom Silk Park Kanchipuram 86.96 33.53 0.00 115 75.00 119.86 18000 0 118.00 (8) Tamil Nadu Total 706.78 248.55 132.58 439 793.94 2081.89 44080 35500 3672.00 30 Jaipur Texweaving Park Limited Kishangarh, RJ 96.81 38.72 23.24 51 94.50 250.00 3000 9000 550.00 31 Kishangarh Hi-Tech Textile Park Limited Kishangarh, RJ 110.57 40.00 36.00 37 40.00 416.72 4000 8000 800.00 32 Next Gen Textile Park Pvt Ltd Pali, RJ 101.40 40.00 24.00 53 100.00 416.18 9450 10000 1050.00 33 Jaipur Integrated Texcraft Park Pvt Ltd Jaipur, RJ 53.53 21.41 16.29 20 23.42 45.92 4400 8800 90.00 34 Bharat Fabtex & Corporate Park Pvt Ltd Pali 103.08 40.00 4.00 27 120.00 416.54 9450 0 921.51 (5) Rajasthan Total 465.39 180.14 103.53 188 377.92 1545.36 30300 35800 3411.51 35 Lotus Integrated Tex Park Barnala, PB 110.26 40.00 36.00 8 100.00 847.71 2400 2950 1740.00 36 Rhythm Textile & Apparel Park Ltd Nawanshehar, PB 125.46 40.00 24.00 14 18.50 339.84 11000 14000 350.00 37 Ludhiana Integrated Textile Park Ltd Ludhiana, PB 116.19 40.00 24.00 55 57.16 217.00 10000 10000 500.00 (3) Punjab 351.91 120.00 84.00 77 175.66 1404.55 23400 26950 2590.00 38 EIGMEF Apparel Park Limited Kolkata, WB 130.50 40.00 24.00 73 12.88 160.00 10000 30000 500.00 39 Doddabalapur Integerated Textile Park Doddabalapur, Karnataka 80.25 32.09 30.56 72 48.00 132.73 2000 2000 350.00 40 CLC Textiile Park Pvt Ltd Chhindwara, MP 95.65 38.26 11.48 20 47.47 301.73 2000 1000 400.00 351.91 110.35 66.04 165 108.35 594.46 14000 33000 1250.00 Total ( 40) 4485.95 1384.74 825.22 1893 4010.64 18425.4 282576 333812 33963.5 Reference : Ministry of Textiles : www.texmin.nic.in Textile Value ChainJuly - September 2012
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  • 58. Textile Value Chain CORPORATE Do your little bit of good where you are, it is those little bits of good put together that FUN overwhelm the world. “ - Desmond Tutu56 July - September 2012
  • 59. Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited About Us BRFL is a vertically integrated textile company, engaged in the manufacture of a wide range of fabrics and garments from state of the art production facilities. Apart from being the largest Shirt manufacturer in India, we have successfully evolved into a multi-fiber manufacturing company producing fabrics such as Cotton, Polyester, Tencel, Modal, Lycra, Wool and various blends. Our yarn dyed fabric, printing techniques, finishing, processing, weaving, stitching are a mark of excellence making every piece of fabric perfect. With fabric manufacturing facilities of 100 million meters per annum, garment manufacturing facilities of 60 million pieces per annum, being expanded to 90 million pieces per annum and a strong employee base of around 38,000; BRFL is today one of the most sought after brands in the Indian as well as International fashion markets. Clothing is one of the strongest human desires. A desire to be different. A desire to look beautiful. A desire to be comfortable. A desire to make a statement. A desire that is fulfilled by that perfect piece of fabric called BRFL. Woven with passion, our fabrics speak a story of novelty. BRFL has grown phenomenally and the reason has been our customers. Inspired towards betterment, we now possess the entire knowhow and technology for yarn dyeing, fabric weaving, processing and garment manufacturing. BRFL is one of Indias most dynamic and professionally managed textile groups.No wonder, we are well renowned in the fashion export industry worldwide. Products FABRIC RETAIL YARN Every thread woven at Bombay Rayon Guru, a renowned apparel brand in Italy In 2010 Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd. Fashions Limitedis a part of an incredible has been a subsidiary of BRFL since completed its vertical integration in the range of fabrics that BRFL has to offer. 2008. Guru has stores in 18 countries around the World, including Italy, Spain, textile industry with the acquisition of a Each fabric has one inherent quality - Comfort. Our promise to manufacture France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, yarn manufacturing company of great the finest fabrics inspires us to put in that Luxemburg, Greece, England, Portugal, repute, STI India Ltd, thus making BRFL extra effort to create magic. the Middle East, Turkey, Russia, one of the privileged few to have the We showcase an enormous range of fabrics Ukraine, Austria, Switzerland, the capability of producing everything from and size offerings available in various colours Canary Islands, Scandinavia, yarn to garment. to suit every occasion and every budget. China and India. APPAREL TRIMS With an initial goal to maintain Comfortable, durable and quality stylish are the and consistency in button inherent qualities of the range manufacturing, BRFL has set up of apparels an in available. Admiration is guaranteed -house state of the art button with BRFL apparels. manufacturing unit, the Trims Division is today the largest and most sophisticated Button Industry in India.(The Company was originally incorporated as Mudra Fabrics Private Limited on May 21, 1992. Name of the Company was changed to Mudra Fabrics Limited w.e.f. October 13, 1992. Name of the Company was further changed to Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited w.e.f. September 30, 2004) ADVT. Registered Office: D-1st Floor, Oberoi Garden Estates, Chandivali Farms Road, Chandivali,Andheri (East), Mumbai - 400 072 Tel: +91-22-39858800 Fax: +91-22-28476992Email: chandresh.dedhia@bombayrayon.com Web: www.bombayrayon.com
  • 60. ADVT.