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TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE
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TEXTILE VALUE CHAIN JULY- SEP 2013 ISSUE

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  • 1. July - September 2013 2 2 68 Need For CREDIT RATIN G
  • 2. ADVT.
  • 3. Kriplon Synthetics Pvt. Ltd. P 118, Rajlaxmi Commercial Complex, Kalher Village, Kalher, Bhiwandi, Thane . 127, Sanjay Building, 5-B, Mittal Estate, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400059, Maharashtra, India (022) 28505452, 28501686, 28505983 (022) 28504142 Contact Person : Mr. Satish Kriplani : 9323646986 Email : ramdevsyntheties@rediffmail.com ADVT.
  • 4. Ratan GIitter Industries Limited PURE SILVER ST YARN PURE SILVER "M" TYPE YARN Polyester Metallized Pure Silver Yarn, highly used on Schiffli Embroidery Machines and Computerized Embroidery Machines. Also used in hand embroideries. It is widely used for tapestry and made-ups. We manufacture Pure Silver “M” type metallic yarn for making ST type rounded pure silver yarn. Our range of product includes non-resistant and resistant yarns to dyeing and finishing procedures. Pure Silver M Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 Micron and 24 Micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. These are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machine. Pure Silver MX Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 Micron and 24 Micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. The core yarn is Polyester or Nylon. These yarns are capable of running on high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machine PURE SILVER "MX" TYPE YARN Along with pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produce ST and Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and Several other Colours. These are hightly used in computerized embroidery machines, circular Knitting and weaving Machines. METALLIC YARN
  • 5. In the recent reshuffle of the Union Cabinet, the burden on Shri Anand Sharma, Hon’ble Minister of Commerce and Industry has been lightened by transferring the additional portfolio of textiles, which he held as an interim arrangement. Dr. K.S. Rao has taken over as the Hon’ble Minister of Textiles as of June 19, 2013. TVC is indeed very happy and delighted to convey its best wishes to the new minister. Within a short span of ten days after he was sworn in, the Hon’ble Minister made it a point to interact with all the stakeholders of the industry. The addresses delivered by him at such meetings make it abundantly clear that the Hon’ble Minister is bound to be successful in putting back the textile industry on the fast track, despite sluggish economic climate in the USA and EU, two major importers of textiles. Sooner or later, two major issues will have to be tackled by the Union Ministry of Textiles, under the guidance of the Hon’ble Minister. One issue is how to promote exports of man-made fibre textiles and clothing. At the global level, man-made fibres, with a share of 60% reign in the consumption basket of fibres for the manufacture of textiles and clothing. Despite such a strong preference, man-made fibre textiles and clothing accounted for only 31 % in the Indian export basket, while cotton textiles and clothing accounted for the lion’s share of 69 % in 2012-2013[April – February] Grand Welcome to the new Union Minister of Textiles When cotton and man-made fibres are spun on the same system of spinning yarn, when the technology of weaving and processing is same, when the cost of labour, and power is same at a given textile centre and when the cost of finance is same everywhere, how come cotton textiles and clothing march over man-made textiles and clothing in the international market? The answer is simple. Cotton textile industry gets its raw materials at or below the international price. Unfortunately, the man-made textile industry by and large is not getting its inputs at international prices. The international price is the price at which our competitors in other countries get raw materials in their factories. Various strategies can be thought of to bring domestic prices in alignment with international prices, such as sector-specific scheme for abolition of excise and customs duties on inputs of man-made fibres, withdrawal of excise duty on man-made fibres, retention price scheme etc. The second issue is export policies for different segments of the textile value chain. Once India has accepted the policy of liberalization, the export policy has to be the same for all segments. In other words, the policy set-up cannot be dismantled as per demands of individual segments. The only solution is increased production throughout the value chain. Only in a real crisis situation, a different line of action can be charted. The industry is in the safe hands of the new Hon’ble Minister who considers growth and development of the textile industry as his mission. Dr. Kavuru Sambasiva Rao, Union Minister for Textiles
  • 6. Regd. Off.: 191/ 5-C, Mittal Ind. Estate, Andheri (E), Mumbai-400 059. Tel.: 2850 3106 / 1568 Fax: 2850 0124 Delhi Off.: Krishna Gali. 1st floor, Katra Neel. Chandni Chowk, Delhi-110 006 Tel.: 23934712 / 23951612 / 32600574 Fax: 23965942 Factory.: Raj Rajeshwari Compound, Village Sonale, off Nashik Highway Road., Bhiwandi, Dist. Thane (Mah.) ADVT.
  • 7. Editor & Publisher Ms. Jigna Shah Chief – In – Editor Ms. Rajul J. Shah INDUSTRY Mr. Devchand Chheda – City Editor - Vyapar ( Janmabhumi Group) Mr. Manohar Samuel- Joint President, Birla Cellulose, Grasim Industries Mr. Aditya Biyani- Marketing Director, Damodar Group Dr. M. K. Talukdar – VP, Kusumgar Corporates Mr. Ajay Sharma – GM- RSWM (LNJ bhilwara group) Check Men’s wear colour Forecast : Fall - Winter 2013-14 Colour Forecast Pic. Courtesy Fall 2013 Prada Runway CONSULTANT / ASSOCIATION Mr. Avinash Mayekar, MD, Suvin Advisor Pvt. Ltd. Mr. Shivram Krishnan, Senior Textile Advisor Mr. G. Benerjee, Management & Industrial Consultant Mr. Uttam Jain, Director- PDEXCIL; VP of Hindustan chamber of commerce Mr. Jaykrishna Pathak, President, Bombay Yarn Merchant Association & Exchange Ltd. Mr. Shiv Kanodia- Sec General, Bharat Merchant Chamber EDUCATION / RESEARCH Mr. B.V. Doctor - HOD knitting, SASMIRA , Dr. Ela Dedhia- Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College Dr. Mangesh D. Teli – Professor, Ex.HOD & Dean ICT (former UDCT) , Dr. S.K. Chattopadhyay,Principal Scientist & Head MPD, CIRCOT Dr. Rajan Nachane, Retired Scientist, CIRCOT Editorial Advisor Shri V.Y. Tamhane Advertising & Marketing Md. Tanweer Creative Head Ms. Rajul J. Shah Graphic Designer Interactive Technology 7 National News 8 & 9 Government News Letter to PM & Textile Committee Prs Rls Textile Ministry News & BTRA News 9 & 10 Corporate News ATE & RIETER, BIRLA & LENZING 12 Skill Gap Analysis Emerging Trends in Skill requirement 14 Fashion Forecast Men's Colour Forecast: Fall- Winter 2013-14 16 College Focus: Parsons Mumbai CMAI- National Garment Fair Report 18 Cover Story: Need for Credit Rating Interview with India Rating / Fitch, CRISIL, CARE 22 Corporate Profile: Bombay Dyeing Interview with Mr. Durgesh Mehta, Jt. MD & CFO 26 Fibre Focus Birla Cellulose (Reprinted) 30 Post Show Report : Fabric & Accessories 2013 AEPC Press Release 31 Post Event Report CIRCOT Pre Commercialization Workshop SDC Conference Report 33 Yarn Focus Interview with Everflow Petrofil & Collaboration: Suvin Advisor & Wadia Techno 35 Spinning of Banana Fibres on CIRCOT – Phoenix Charka 36 Technical Textile Focus Intelligent Textile, Smart Fabrics 41 Fabric Focus Electrolyte- Free Dyeing with Cationic Reactive Dyes 44 Fabric Report: Prices of Grey Fabric 47 Garment Focus Changing Trends of Leg wear in Women's Wardrobe 51 Retail Focus Bubble Blast Theory of Consumer Acceptance 54 Textile Machinery Indian Textile Engineering Industry today 57 Environment Focus Role of Carbon footprint in Textile & Apparel Industry 60 Self Management Managing career, life & Education, A skill based Approach 64 Pre Show Report Screen Print India 2013 TechTextil 2013 66 Tradeshow Details EDITORIAL TEAM
  • 8. ADVT.
  • 9. DyeingunitsfeedRiverCauverywitheffluents June, M.K. Ananth for The Hindu Effluents being discharged into River Cauvery at Pallipalayam.— Photo: M. K. Ananth With the water from Mettur dam hardly reaching River Cauvery in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, the effluents discharged from the unauthorised dyeing units in Pallipalayam and Komarapalayam into the river has become its only source of water. “Anyone crossing the bridge that connects Erode and Pallipalayam can easily see the extent of pollution caused to the river”, says environmental activist R.K. Madeshwaran. Pallipalayam and Komarapalayam towns developed primarily because of the large number of power looms, handlooms and textile processing units such as dyeing units. “But the people are suffering without water and continuing pollution is adding to their woes”, he adds. People living in villages in and around the two towns say that they are unable to use water from open wells and bore wells due to the large scale pollution that has changed the colour of the water. Evengroundwaterintheareaispolluted:residents “The impact was not so high when water was flowing in the river as the dark coloured effluents were washed away by the force of the water”, says K. Raja of Indra Nagar in Pallipalayam. About three months ago the district administration made an announcement through revenue department officials, asking persons running dyeing units in Pallipalayam, Komarapalayam and nearby areas to stop operation of the units, in a bid to put an end to large scale discharge of effluents into the river – till water released from Mettur Dam became normal. A few units were also evicted for not taking the announcementseriously. On April 19, the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board team led by District Environmental Engineer, M. Murugan, raided an illegal dyeing unit in an agricultural field at Kokarayanpettai near Pallipalayam. The landlord opened fire on them but they luckily escaped. The police registered a case and arrested the accused. Since then, the TNPCB has not initiated major action against any polluting dyeing units. S. Saravanan of the Association of People’s Welfare Organisations in Komarapalayam says that the dry river has made it easy to identify illegal dyeing units as they can easily follow the path through which the effluent flows into River Cauvery. Solar lanterns to be given to weavers Bhubaneshwar, June 10, The Hindu In a bid to facilitate illuminated workplace, the State government has decided to supply 10,072 units of solar lanterns to handloom weavers during 2013-14. Handloom industry, second largest cottage industry next to agriculture in the State, employs 1.03 lakh weavers. As per Handloom Census-2009, there are 40683 weaver households comprising 103158 weavers and allied workers engaged in the profession. The government plans to cover 10,000 families every year. The solar lantern designed by Odisha Renewable Energy Development Agency (OREDA) would be given to each weaver family. However, the government has made a priority list of beneficiaries. Weavers working in areas which are yet to be connected with electricity or suffering from low voltage problems would be given preferences. Similarly, weavers belonging to weaker section would be assisted on priority basis. Directorate of textiles and handloom will be nodal agency for distribution of solar lanterns. According to a top official, the process of weaving involves handling of fine yarn with colour of various shades continuously for longer period. Highest 2,900 solar lanterns will be distributed in Bargarh district and Sonepur has second largest share with 1,250 lanterns. Indian Govt may further relax FDI rules in MBRT: Minister June 17, Fibre to Fashion The Govt of India may further relax or simplify guidelines for foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail trading (MBRT), Minister of Commerce and Industry and Textiles, Anand Sharma, has said. The Indian Govt opened doors for multi-brand retailers around nine months ago, allowing 51 percent investment through FDI route, but the policy has not received expected response from foreign retailers, who have so far stayed away. Last week, the Government issued some clarifications related to 30% sourcing and back-end infrastructure, but these too failed to generate any positive response from foreign retailers. If the foreign retailers have any other issues in mind, the Indian Govt is receptive and it would further bring clarity to the guidelines, because the objective of the policy is to attract FDI, Mr. Anand Sharma told reporters. Mr. Sharma said, he would be chairing a Retail Round Table on June 27, which would involve participation of CEOs of Indian companies as well as foreign investors. The Round Table would seek views of the participants on issues related to implementation of the FDI Policy and address their concerns, if any. The news of this conferenceis not yet out. The Minister said that any proposal received by the Govt for FDI in MDRT would be fast-tracked.  7Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 NATIONAL NEWS
  • 10. LBT IN MAHARASHTRA – ONE MORE COMPLICATED TAX WINDOW, CAUSE OF BIG OBSTACLE FOR INVESTMENTS Please refer to your meeting with Hiromasa Yonekura, chairman of Japan India Business Leadership Forum on 28th May 2013, who pointed to you the differences in tax regimes of each state and the complicated tax structure were big obstacles for investments in India. You were candid in acknowledging that the state governments belonging to non-UPA parties were not in favour of surrendering their tax power in favour of the GST. Your ambitious vision of tax reforms & tax simplifications could not be implemented due to opposition from other political parties. Well, in reality, you will be shocked to note that your flag ship state ‘Maharashtra’, ruled by Congress, is working contrary to your vision. It is implementing LBT, in place of Octroi, which over a period of time, every country and every other state in India has abolished. Your UPA partners, opposition and the masses are against it, but your party CM, alone, is adamant on LBTs’ implementation. The Maharashtrian’s plea, of generating additional revenue, if required, to be collected along with VAT, has fallen on deaf ears. LBT is obnoxious & creates another tax collection authority leading to localized, unchecked corruption, which will add to inflation, deter investments, and is anti - people. The Hon’ble Chief Minister has been misguided by the legislative machinery of the state by reasoning that autonomy of municipal corporations will end, if single window tax, VAT is enlarged to abolish Octroi or LBT. Truth – Other states have seamlessly adopted single window tax structure without compromising on autonomy. There is very thin line between autonomy and factionalism. Such factionalism will only weaken our country. Dividing our country religion, culture, region, language, etc. will eventually lead India nowhere. Truth – Your talks of Tax reforms & simplification will take a major hit and Maharashtra will further fall from 2nd position to lower position. We have been begging to all, local MLA’s, MP’s, Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Shri Rahul Gandhi, Sri P. Chidambaram, but there is no response. Democratic interaction, discussions with concerned, are very basis of democracy. It is heartening to note that the letters sent to various government functionaries are not even been acknowledged. It’s a sorry state of affair and the Foreign Investors, when made aware of this ground reality will only confirm the gradual deterioration of Maharashtra. We request you to kindly look into this matter, on merits and request Maharashtra Government to withdraw octroi & do not impose LBT, in its place. If there is revenue shortfall, please increase in VAT. By adding LBT window, you are adding fuel to fire and complications will lead to further corruption. The people of Maharashtra will never forgive this final nail in coffin, for centuries to come. We propose to take this issue to numerous Foreign Investors, global organizations at various forums.   st Excerpts of Letter dated 1 July, 2013 from Shri Shiv Kanodia, Honorary General Secretary, Bharat Merchants'Chamber ( BMC), Mumbai to Sri (Dr.) Manmohan Singh ji, The Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Textiles Committee (TC), a statutory body, under the Ministry of Textiles, was set up to promote quality in Textile Trade & Industry. TC provide services like Textiles Testing & Technical Services, Quality Appraisal of textiles & Export Promotion, Consultancy on ISO 17025 (QMS), 9000, ISO 14000, SA 8000, and Training to industrial & Educational institutes, through its vast network of 30 regional offices and 16 Laboratories scattered all over major textile clusters of India. All 16 labs of TC are committed to the timely disposal of testing activities and also maintain the confidentiality of test results. Wherever required, the labs invite the customers to witness tests and have indisputably demonstrated the repeatability of test results. 9 of TC Labs are notified by DGFT for testing of import consignment received from different customs. TCs labs, in order to become more efficient in its routine activities, have initiated a pass book system wherein any customer can deposit certain amount as advance payment depending upon their volume of transactions. Test charges of a pass book holder will be deducted as soon as tests are over and the test report will be automatically forwarded to respective customs. This will reduce the effort of customers to wait till the test is over to ascertain and make the payment for further action. In order to become more transparent, TC labs, in its routine activities are implementing Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). TC’s Mumbai lab has already implemented LIMS and is now working on it. In this system samples received from any source is registered on LIMS. Then the sample is taken for testing and for further action. Status of samples at any stage can be monitored by designated officials. Along with this, lab has also initiated a digital display of information related to receipt of sample, status of sample such as testing, dispatch, payment, etc. This information is helpful to the customer to know the status of the sample. This display system was inaugurated by Hon’ble Chairman of Textiles Committee, Shri S.P. Oswal on 8th May ’13 at Textiles Committee’s Sample Counter. While inaugurating the new facility, Shri S.P oswal appreciated the efforts taken by the TC. He urged it to be more customer friendly and linking of LIMS information on to TC website. The Secretary of TC, Dr.P. Nayak and other members of the Committee also graced the occasion.  Pic: Hon'ble Chairman of Textiles Committee Shri S P Oswal inaugurating the LIMS Display facility LETTER TO GOVERNMENT ONLINE QUALITY STATUS REPORT THROUGH LIMS BY TEXTILE COMMITTEE Pic: Sri (Dr.) Manmohan Singh ji, The Hon'ble PM of India 8 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 11. ShriAnandSharmaLaunches21NewTextileParks The ex- Union Minister for Commerce, Industry and Textiles, Shri Anand Sharma, before finishing his tenure, launched 21 New Textile Parks approved under Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP). The SITP’s have been instrumental in development of wide range of models for green field clusters from a 1000 acre FDI driven integrated cluster, to a 100 acre powerloom cluster and a 20 acre handloom cluster. Under the scheme, 61 parks have been sanctioned – 40 projects were started in the 11th Five Year Plan and another 21 projects are to be implemented in the 12th Five Year Plan. Out of the 40 parks sanctioned earlier, a total of 25 Parks are already operational. Most of the balance Parks are expected to be completed during this financial year. The estimated employment generation is over 10 lakh persons with total estimated investment of Rs. 27, 562 crore. Shri Sharma also released a coffee table book on SITPs. The book encapsulates the broad features of various ITPs set up all over India and is a ready reference for the same. The book gives a brief physical and pictorial status of each ongoing Park approved under SITP. He also released a short film on SITP and visited a photo exhibition that was created to mark the event. Out of the 21 new parks, six are in Maharashtra, four in Rajasthan, two each in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and one each in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tripura, Karnataka, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. In this year’s budget speech, the Finance Minister announced an additional amount of upto Rs. 10 crores per park for setting up apparel manufacturing units for the projects under the SITP. Necessary action is being taken for implementing the announcement. HandloomSilkIndustryinAssam The Govt is aware that silk handloom industry in Assam is passing through a difficult phase. Assam does not produce required quantity of mulberry silk as per the demand of the its consumers. Mulberry silk yarn is supplied by the traders from other parts of the country, due to which consumers have to purchase yarn at higher rates from the open market. In Assam, few silk fabric traders have been doing business by producing the Assamese dress materials, particularly Mekhela- Chadar of mulberry silk at the weaving units outside the State with Assamese traditional patterns and designs. As a result, the local producers have protested for importing such hand woven silk fabrics from outside the State. To address this issue, the state Govt has constituted a Committee to look into their grievances. In order to promote Mulberry, Eri and Muga silk production in Assam, Govt through Central Silk Board is implementing a centrally sponsored scheme viz “Catalytic Development Programme” (CDP) in collaboration with State Sericulture Department of Assam. Under this scheme, financial assistance is provided to the stakeholders of silk industry through the State Sericulture Dept. The components under CDP envisage development and expansion of host plant, support for seed production, development of farm and post cocoon infrastructure, up-gradation of reeling and processing technologies in silk, enterprise development programme, support for extension and publicity etc. Rs. 10319.11 lakh Central assistance has been provided to Assam under CDP during the XI Plan period for the development of silk industry, including mulberry, eri & muga. To increase the number of trained qualified weavers, a number of skill upgradation programmes have been implemented through various schemes like cluster projects and group approach projects under Integrated Handlooms Development Scheme (IHDS). Besides, the State Govt has been imparting training to the weavers through 102 Handloom Training Centres and 4 Handloom Training Institutes every year. Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles is implementing Silk Mark scheme through the Silk Mark Organization of India for popularizing the products made of pure silk to protect the interest of consumers. Silk Mark is a quality assurance label attached to the products made of pure silk and is applicable to all the silk products made of pure silk covering all varieties of silk viz. Mulberry and Vanya (Tasar, Eri & Mugs) silks. Under the Silk Mark Scheme, there are 177 authorized users in NE region, including Assam, who uses Silk Mark labels. Further, Muga Silk of Assam, has been registered under Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999.   BTRA r e a c h e d a Memorandum of Understanding ( M o U ) w i t h CSIR- Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi on 22nd May, 2013. A signing-in ceremony took place at BTRA that is attended by Dr. S. Gangopadhyay, Director, CSIR-CRRI and Dr. A.N. Desai, Director, BTRA. MoU on Geotextiles between BTRA and CSIR-CRRI The purpose of this MOU is to create a framework for collaboration between CSIR-CRRI and BTRA with the following objectives. I) To establish close linkage and functional coordination between CSIR-CRRI and BTRA. ii) To work collectively for the sector in Geosynthetics particularly Geotextiles for road and transportation sector. iii) Mutual sharing of resources to accelerate the use of Geotextiles in road construction and maintenance including usage of library at both the end. iv) Submission of the joint proposals to MORTH/NRRDA on comprehensive evaluation of Geotextiles.  9Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 News from the Textile Ministry
  • 12. 10 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Rieter is a leading supplier on the world market for textile machinery and components used in short staple fiber spinning. Based in Winterthur (Switzerland), the company develops and manufactures systems, machinery and technology components used to convert natural and manmade fibers and their blends into yarns. Rieter is the only supplier worldwide to cover spinning preparation processes as well as all four final spinning processes currently established on the market. Rieter has 18 manufacturing locations in 10 countries. Texgiulia becomes Com4®rotor Yarn Licensee The Italian company, Texgiulia, is committed to yarn quality spun on Rieter rotor machines type R 60. In order to optimally promote the yarns, the company decided to become a Rieter yarn licensee for rotor yarns. The ceremonial presentation of the Com4®rotor certificate took place mid-March 2013 at the company’s headquarters in north Italian Rovellasca-Como. The fully-integrated open-end spinning plant Texgiulia is part of the Italian Gabel Group and is one of the leading manufacturers of bedding and home textiles in Italy. The company generates its complete added value domestically – starting from yarn production up to the product sales through its own distribution network. First and foremost, Texgiulia produces for its own requirements. By the acquisition of further Rieter R 60 rotor spinning machines, the A little over a year after Zimmer tied-up with A.T.E. for the marketing and sale of Zimmerdigital printing machines in India, Zimmer Austria has also entrusted A.T.E. with the marketing, sales and after sales service of its entire range of printing machinery including rotary screen printing and flat-bedscreen printing machines. Zimmer, the world leader in printing technology, manufacturers a complete range of machinery for textile and carpet finishing covering digital printing systems, flat screen and rotary screen printing, coating, steaming, washing, and drying in its plants situated at Klagenfurt and Kufstein. Zimmer rotary screen printing, Rotascreen, is equipped with a m a g n e t i c squeegee system and is modularly constructed, thus allowing for a wide spectrum of a p p l i c a t i o n s . Rotascreen enables top quality results with single or multi-colour printing on different substrates such as home textiles, fashion fabrics, automotive, and other materials. Zimmer flat bed m a c h i n e , Magnoprint, is a well proven flat bed screen printing machine successful world wide. Its magnetic system a n d r o l l r o d technology in the longitudinal direction enables single or multi-colour printing on different substrates such as flags, home textiles, banners, towels, blankets, and automotive technical textiles Zimmer triple coat is a c o m p a c t c o a t i n g machine with precision back roll and is equipped with knife, screen, and slot coating unit for different substrates such as textiles, paper foil, nonwoven, fibre, glass, tissues and other innovative materials. With an expanded portfolio in printing solutions, A.T.E. now provides the full range of the latest technologies in processing and caters to the end-to-end needs of all processing customers.  Rotascreen Magnoprint, plant now has a sufficiently large capacity to also produce yarns for third parties. The Rieter yarn license for high-quality Com4®rotor yarns thus offers Texgiulia the optimal promotion platform to win new customers for rotor yarn in future and to develop customer relationships. The ceremonial presentation of the Com4®rotor certificate was held mid-March at the headquarters of the Gabel Group in Rovellasca-Como (north Italy). In the presence of Dr. Emilio Moltrasio (Delegate of the Board of Directors and Partner in the Gabel Group) and Sergio Zonca (Technical Director General of the Gabel Group), Rieter sales engineer Matthias Stuessi handed over the certificate to the Management. With the yarns, spun on the new R 60 rotor spinning machines, Texgiulia was able to further increase the already very high quality standard of the yarns and substantially improve the running properties in its own weaving unit. Yarn purchasers will also profit from this quality in future. Rieter actively supports and promotes the supply sources of licensed yarns, one of the measures being a direct link on the Rieter website to the licensee. Licensed customers have the opportunity to profit from the expertise of Rieter specialists and to participate in Rieter Com4® yarn further training courses. Over and above these activities, Rieter supports licensed customers with the implementation of their own marketing actions.   Zimmer triple coat CORPORATE NEWS
  • 13. Indian textile market is a decentralized, unorganized, fragmented market and with a hub centric mindset. eg. Surat is ladies fabrics & polyester/ viscose fabric centric, Erode is a spinning & weaving cluster, then Banaras is a silk cluster, etc. The problem is that these hubs are unaware of each others activities and the organised players play a back stage role in the same. Birla Cellulose, is the umbrella brand of the Aditya Birla Group’s range of cellulosic fibre. The Company has taken an initiative to have a centralized and more organized Indian textile industry. On the 30th of May 2013, India’s 1st time large scale Hub meet was held in Surat by the Birla Group. The idea is to integrate the entire textile value chain and its members under one platform and help each other. Surat is the largest Hub producing more than 70% of India’s ladies dress material. More than 90% is with Polyester. And rest 10% consists of all - Nylon, Cotton, Viscose and PC & PV Blends. The questions are: World trend is going towards comfort as against our Synthetic focus. Why are we not growing to our potential? Most Buyers and orders are from outside Surat. There is Lack of Proactive Product development in line with world trends. There is hardly any awareness and links to consumer trends. Bearing this in mind, Birla believes ‘If my customer grows, I will grow and vice versa’. Hub meets and participation by all people involved with the textile industry is one of the initiatives taken by Birla, that none of the other Corporates have taken till date. Birla Cellulose proposed the following measures at the Surat Hub Meet for a fruitful textile partnership for mutual growth: • For new design the challenge starts from yarn. We support sourcing for yarns & fabrics • Commercial information and vendor support for fabrics beginning with outsourcing • Successfully started with 60s x 60s, 92 x 88 modal sourcing @ Rs.52/mtr and now being developed indigenously for commercial use • Successfully conducted trials for dyeing and printing of cellulosic fabrics (samples were displayed at the meet) • Further new products with 80s Modal, HT Modal Poly blends, slub & fancy blends is in progress • Sizing development support till successful weaving • High speed weaving in shuttleless looms • TRADC: Their innovation centre at Kosamba, to support innovation. • Master designers like Mr. Nirmal Doshi, International designer Mr. Sandy to offer Surat new innovations • Birla targets to offer Surat over 100 new designs on regular frequency and bring to international market samples from mass suppliers like Indonesia and China – for inspiration on global trends • Accreditation support: All bench marks for quality of yarn, fabric would be shared • TechnologyTransfer Support (TTS) through TRADC • Coordination with our front end team for marketing support This kind of symbiotic relation will go a long way in the growth of Indian textile Industry. Birla Cellulose is also planning to have these meets in different cities of India. Next meet is in Mumbai where hubs of Bhiwandi, Ulhasnagar and Tarapur will be included. Many others are being planned at Ichalkanchi, Coimbatore, Erode etc on every alternate month across the year.   Lenzing quality and innovative strength set global standards for man- made cellulose fibres. With 75 years of experience in fibre production, the Lenzing Group is the only company worldwide combining the manufacturing of all three man-made cellulose fibre generations on a large industrial scale under one roof – from the classic viscose to modal and lyocell (TENCEL®) fibres. Lenzing supplies the global textile and nonwovens industry with high-quality man-made cellulose fibres and is the leading supplier in many business-to-business markets. The portfolio ranges from dissolving pulp, standard and specialty cellulose fibres to engineering services. At Techtextil in Frankfurt from 3-5 Oct, 2013, Lenzing is presenting a new flame-resistant fibre especially for use in upholstery fabrics in public transportation vehicles. The guidelines which apply to public transportation vehicles are particularly strict. The fabric and materials used in these applications have to satisfy the safety standards. With a newly developed Lenzing FR® fibre, these satisfy all the safety standards for public safety. The advantage of a safety fibre in public transportation is that Lenzing FR® is made from beechwood and is endowed with all of the positive properties this natural fibre has to offer. The seating “climate” remains excellent even over longer distances since the good breathing properties of the fibre take effect here. The special thing about Lenzing FR® or the “divan fiber” is that, unlike conventional protection fibres, it does not melt, drip or afterglow. The latter properties represent an enormous risk for passengers. Another important safety aspect is that the new flame-resistant fibre delivers a lower rate of toxicity and flue gas density in the event of a fire. The “divan fiber” is particularly well suited for use in blends with wool. Both fibres complement each other superbly. Resistance to fading and excellent pilling performance coupled with durability make upholstery fabrics a pleasure to sit on. As a result of using the Lenzing FR® “divan fibre”, treating wool with additional, ecologically harmful flame- retardant agents is not necessary – another production advantage! The new specialty fibre can be used in various transportation vehicles. Wherever safety and comfort are in demand, Lenzing FR® is the answer whether in maritime or rail transportation, air transportation, subways or in public spaces such as cinemas and theatres.   Lenzing presents new fibre development Mr. Manohar Samuel VP, Birla Cellulose 11Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Birla Hub Meet
  • 14. Completing our section of skill gap from spinning, to fabric manufacturing, to fabric processing and ending with garmenting; we continue with the emerging trends in skill requirements, requirements state-wise and projected requirements of human resources. Current Training/Education Infrastructure: The current training infrastructure is inadequate on both number of people trained and also the quality of training being imparted. Also, very few of the training initiatives are targeted at the shop floor level. The newly inducted workers learn through informal training and learning from the experience of the existing work force. The availability of trained manpower is a key issue for the garmenting sector. The ATDC, ITIs and NIFT annually train up to 50,000 workers. A few private sector players also provide training specific to the garmenting sector. A large portion of the requirement of human resource at the operator level is met by on the job training. Hence training at the operator level is a key gap. Acute shortage of skilled man power leads to poaching and acts as a detriment to spending on in house training initiatives. • Emerging trends in human resource requirements 1. Technology: The changes in technology would significantly affect the profile of people involved. As mentioned earlier, the share of shuttle-less looms in the Indian textiles industry is only 2- 3% as against a world average of 16.9%, thereby indicating a low degree of modernization in the Indian weaving industry. Although the Indian spinning sector is relatively more modernised, around 60% of installed spindles are more than 10 years old and open- end (OE) rotors account for only 1% of total installed spindles. In the apparel sector, India has much lower investment in special purpose machines, which perform specific functions and add value to the product. Very few export establishments have invested in cutting machines or finishing machines. The low level of technology and government incentives like TUFS would drive modernization in the industry where as the high power costs would be a detriment. The technological upgradation would necessitate the human resource to be trained in modern machinery and also greater in house spending on training. The shortage of labour and increasing wage rate would further induce greater automation which will lead to higher productivity. For instance, the operating hours per quintal of yarn have decreased from 77 to 25 on account of modernization and would continue to fall. Also, the numbers of people involved in post spinning operations have come down on account of automatic cone winding machines. The modern machinery would require skilled maintenance people who have the requisite knowledge of the same. Proper maintenance would be crucial as machine down time and costly spare parts would significantly affect the performance of the industry. 2. Quality Processes: There would be increasing focus and adoption of quality and environment related processes, such as: • ISO 9001:2008 • ISO 14001 3. Research & Development: The textile industry does not have R&D as a focus area. The industry would have to invest more in both process and product R&D to maintain product and cost competitiveness. This requires industry-academia collaborations as well as individual R&D efforts by the companies. 4. Labour laws: More flexible labour regulations will positively affect the industry. Currently, T&C industry comes under the purview of Contract Labour Act, 1970 which prohibits contract labour for the work that is perennial in nature. The exporters find it difficult to manage the seasonal and order based volatility in demand on account of this. Change in the current regulations can lead to opening up of more employment opportunities. Also, the current regulations prohibit women from being employed in night shifts. Relaxation of the same with adequate safeguards can lead to more participation of women and also help in addressing the skill shortage in the industry. 5. Human resource related: Modernization of technology would necessitate more technical skills for operators in the production and maintenance functions across the value chain of the textile industry. The sector also needs multi-tasking/ multi- skilling at the operator level. The human resource at the higher levels as well as in other functions like procurement would need to possess the knowledge of various types of machines and also keep abreast with the changes in technology. The garmenting sector would be the key driver of the employment in the textile sector. Majority large portion of the human resource requirement will be for operators who have the adequate knowledge of sewing machine operations and different types of seams and stitches. Although, the industry will continue to have predominantly line system of operations, designer and high end fashion exports would necessitate “make through” system of operations which would require the operators to have the ability to stitch the complete garment. The availability of merchandising and designing skills would be crucial for increasing share in export markets and tapping the potential in new markets. • Regions which will drive human resource requirements: The major centres in India where this employment generation would take place are Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat. The state of Tamil Nadu will account for around 30% of the employment in the textile sector. By ICRA Managment Consulting Services Ltd. (IMaCS), www. nsdcindia.org 12 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS Emerging trends in skill requirements & projected requirements of human resources.
  • 15. 13Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Fig. 1. Share of various states of employment in the textile sector Source: Annual Survey of Industries, IMaCS Analysis The poor performance of the industry in the recent past has resulted in the sector not attracting new investments. The cluster development activities of various organizations have not found takers and hence new clusters do not appear likely at this point of time. However, Andhra Pradesh is a likely future destination for new investments, especially in the garmenting sector with the establishment of Apparel Parks. The government initiatives of providing power at a cost of 2 Rs per unit will be a key factor in attracting investments in spinning sector. Also, the state has surplus cotton and would result in lower logistics cost. Availability of raw materials and low power costs will also attract investments in the downstream activities like fabric manufacturing, processing and garmenting. The scheme of integrated textile parks and various SEZs would also affect the regions availability of labour. States like Uttaranchal necessitate that most of the labour force in the units operating in SEZ should be local. The states of UP, Bihar and Orissa etc would be key catchment areas to meet the labour requirements. Already the spinning sector in Tamil Nadu is seeing more and more influx of labour from these states as the current wage rates in the states are very high. Environmental concerns would affect the processing sector. The effluent treatment requirements might see units shifting to coastal areas as marine discharge requirements are less stringent. Projected Human Resource Requirements in the Textile & Clothing Sector: This projection is based on the projection of industry size. It is estimated that the PFCE on clothing will grow at a CAGR of 7.5% between 2008 and 20224. Based on projected growth of GDP and exports, we expect that the exports of textiles will grow at a rate of 11% to 11.5%. Thus, the overall T&C sector will grow at a CAGR of 9.5% to a size of Rs. 6,730 billion. Out of this, the share of exports is expected to increase from just under 50% currently to about 60% in 2022. Fig. 2. Projected size of the Textile and Clothing industry (in Rs. billion) While analyzing the human resource requirement, the categorization of the overall T&C sector as follows: 1. The Mainstream T&C sector – comprising of Spinning, Fabric Manufacturing, Fabric Processing and Garmenting. 2. Other related industries such as: Handloom, Woolen, Sericulture, Handicrafts, Jute. While we expect the human resource requirement in the Mainstream T&C sector to be closely related to market driven T&C industry growth, the human resource requirement in areas such as handloom and handicrafts would have to be supplemented by initiatives from the Government and Industry. The addition of human resource into these other sectors would be at a much lower rate as compared to the Mainstream sectors due to need for significant support for earnings, scope for enhanced technology intervention and automation as compared to current levels, the need to add value, and attractiveness of the sector among the human resource supply. Keeping in mind the above factors and the growth of the industry, it is expected that the overall employment in the T & C sector would increase from about 33 to 35 million currently to about 60 to 62 million by 2022. This would translate to an incremental human resource requirement of about 25 million persons. Of this the Mainstream T&C sector has the potential to employ about 17 million persons incrementally till 2022.  In our next issue we will continue with NSDC Focus areas for Skill Building PFCE on cloting Exports 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 - 9.5% 4,049 2,684 2,611 2,160 1,359 1,404 2012 2018 2022 891 992 2008 Others,7% Andhra Delhi,3% Pradesh , 4% Uttar Pradesh, 4% Punjab, 5% Rajasthan, 5% Haryana, 5% Gujarat, 10% Maharashtra, 8% Karnataka, 11% West Bengal, 11% Tamil Nadu, 28% SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS
  • 16. BASE COLOURS GREY 04-CW-1100085-MC WINTER WHITES 04-CW-1200071-MC CAMEL 04-CW-0801480-CO CHOCOLATE 04-CW-0701424-CO COOL COLOURS LODEN 04-CW-0904371-MC BLUE SPRUCE 04-CW-0904602-MC DELFT BLUE 04-CW-0501146-MC COBALT 04-CW-0500508-MC INK 04-CW-0503697-MC 2013-14 Fall/ WinterMen's Wear Colour Forecast
  • 17. WARM COLOURS Courtesy: www.knitweartrends.com. Colour Codes based on Color World, www.csicolorworld.com DRIED ROSE 04-CW-0302843-CO RAISIN 04-CW-0303056-MC BORDEAUX 04-CW-0303146-CO RED 04-CW-0301046-MC RUST 04-CW-0200174-MC YELLOW 04-CW-0101165-CO GINGERBREAD 04-CW-0701603-MC Men's Wear Colour Forecast 2013-14 Fall/ Winter
  • 18. ISDI has entered into a collaboration with Parsons, the New School for Design, New York. The Associate Campus of world’s number one Fashion School – Parsons is called the Indian School of Design & Innovation (ISDI), Parsons Mumbai. Parsons Mumbai is a central part of Parsons agenda of ‘going global’. Parsons Mumbai, like Parsons Paris & Parsons Shanghai will function differently based on local regulations, and, more importantly, on local traditions. Through the establishment of Parsons Mumbai and its other global academic centres, Parsons global initiatives are designed to build learning networks connected by major urban centres of art and design. These initiatives join Parsons existing study abroad offerings, online courses, and educational partnerships in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. The plan allows Parsons to share their proven educational methodology and give students opportunities to learn and work in real- world settings. Parsons goal is to develop students' global awareness, cultural literacy, and familiarity with the systems that shape creative, humanitarian, and entrepreneurial endeavours around the world. The Indian School of Design and Innovation (ISDI) opens its doors to students in July 2013. ISDI is committed to a new educational model inspired by the idea of design and innovation as transformative forces in society. It is located in India’s fashion capital Mumbai and its campus is situated in centrally located Parel at the Indiabulls Centre. ISDI offers a series of globally benchmarked Undergraduate Diploma Programmes (UGDP), four year intensive programmes (foundation year plus three year specialisation) for students across the disciplines of fashion, interior, product and communication design. Opportunities to engage in design education for graduates and young professionals start in September 2013, with the launch of ISDI’s one year Post Graduate Programme (PGP) in Fashion Business Management and Creative Entrepreneurship The collaboration with Parsons will enable ISDI to benefit from Parsons’ rigorous curriculum, prominent visiting faculty, well established student exchanges and global relationships. The curriculum will include development, quality assurance, student and faculty exchanges, as well as collaborative projects with students at Parsons' campuses in New York and Paris. ISDI’s academic ideology moulds designers to cater to a diverse range of industries and employers. All educational programmes are built upon the foundation of a forward-thinking and innovative curriculum, industry sponsored projects, national and international collaborations and a deep sense of social and environmental responsibility. Creativity, innovation and sustainability are core to ISDI’s philosophy.   More programmes are on the anvil, so keep yourself updated through their website www.isdi.in Pic: Parsons, NY, USA Last textile policy was declared in 2000. Thereafter, lots of developments have taken place in the Textile Industry and new sectors like technical textile have emerged. So, the Govt. has appointed National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) under the chairmanship of Mr. Ajay Shankar. The first nd meeting of this committee will be taking place on 2 July 2013. This committee will review the old textile policy and prepare a final report st on National Fibre Policy by 31 October 2013, said Mr. A.B. Joshi, Textlle Commissioner, while inaugurating India's largest garment fair st on 1 July 2013. The Clothing Manufacturers Association 0f India (CMAI), celebrating its Golden Jubilee this Year, haD organized India's Largest ever th st rd Apparel Trade Show “The 57 National Garment Fair” from 1 – 3 July at Bombay Exhibition Centre, NSE Complex, Goregaon (E), Mumbai. Mr. A.B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner has further stated that after removal of 10% excise duty on branded readymade garments, it has provided boost to the industry and it has started moving upwards again towards growth path. Good monsoon will also increase the cotton production. The Fair was spread over approx. 3.75 Lakh Sq. Feet and had 589 Stalls displaying over 640 Brands. This has been the India’s Largest ever Garment Fair held so far. Approx 35,000 Retailers from all across th CMAI'S: The 57 National Garment Fair India visited this B2B Fair. There were 4 fashion shows, 2 fashion shows each, on 1st & 2nd July 2013 which were highly received & appreciated. T h e B u s i n e s s N e t w o r k i n g Sessions provided opportunities for Exhibitors to meet A g e n t s & Distributors in the First Session, High Street Retailers in the Second Session and Merchandisers from National Chain Stores in the Third Session. CMAI invited Reputed Agents & Distributors, High Street Retailers from 15 States and All National Chain Stores to Participate in the these Sessions. CMAI’s next National Garment Fair will be held from 6th to 8th January 2014 at Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon-Mumbai.   16 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 COLLEGE FOCUS ISDI, Parsons Mumbai
  • 19. ADVT.
  • 20. Figure 2 Operational Competencies Characteristics Rating categories Strong • Use of latest machinery/processes • Capacity utilisation >85% ‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ Medium • Growing use of new technology • Capacity utilsation: 60%-85% ‘IND BBB’ Weak • Mix of old and new technology • Capacity utilisation: 40%-60% ‘IND BB’ Very weak • Capacity utilisation below 40% due to old technology and/or power supply or labour problems ‘IND B’ and below Source: Ind-Ra 18 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 WHAT IS CREDIT RATING & WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? These questions immediately come to the mind when one hears about Credit Rating. Credit Rating is a pre-requisite for borrowing of funds by Corporate. Rating is an assessment of the financial strength of company. Rating is intended to bring transparency and efficiency to build confidence of investors whether individuals, banks, financial institution, foreign institution etc; by mitigating and managing risk, taking pricing decisions, generating more revenue and enhancing returns. Ratings help lenders and borrowers, issuers and investors, regulators, and market intermediaries to make better-informed investment and business decisions. The rating exercise takes into account the management capability, industry dynamics, operational performance, financial risk characteristics and the future prospects of the entity. Ratings help shape public policy on infrastructure in emerging markets. Ratings catalyse economic growth and development in countries for a better tomorrow. Even otherwise, it is advisable to conduct rating to know a company’s strengths and weaknesses. To give an insight in the world of Credit Rating, we have interviewed with the best in the credit rating business in India. 1- India Rating & Research / Fitch Group 2- CRISIL 3- CARE , Credit Analysis & Research limited Readers will definitely find their interviews knowledgeable, worthwhile and interesting. COVER STORY Ind-Ra has issued a sector-specific special report describing the credit factors the agency uses to analyse the Indian textile companies. Ind-Ra believes the Indian textile sector in general and cotton textiles sector in particular is exposed to volatile raw material prices which is the largest cost variant and can affect a company’s finances. Price risk also emanates from the adverse impact of regulation and low pricing flexibility of end products. For synthetic textile players, raw material prices are correlated to the demand-supply situation, crude oil prices, movements of dollar/rupee and prices of cotton and chemical substitutes. Textile operations are working-capital intensive due to long inventory periods and high debtor days. In the cotton industry, profitability is determined by the efficiency and the timing of cotton buying and inventory management. Ind-Ra gives rating advantage to companies which have a proven track record of managing the inventory risk. The natural rating territory of the Ind-Ra-rated textile universe is ‘IND BBB’ and below. This is due to lower margins from a difficult operating environment on account of regulatory influence, raw material cyclicality and fragmentation. Players who demonstrate resilience to volatility, slowdown, adequate liquidity and financial flexibility qualify for higher rating categories. Companies with strong market position and distribution network as well as with brand recognition enjoy a comparative rating advantage. The textile value chain is diverse and complex and every company’s business model can be unique depending upon the level of value addition, product sophistication and end-market exposure. Ind-Ra looks at product quality and range, labour and power cost and availability and the level of technology and integration while assessing a company’s operational competencies and earnings capacity. Business risks are different for cotton and synthetic textiles. Ind-Ra takes a positive note of companies which are diversified into both cotton and synthetic textiles, or have the flexibility to switch their primary raw material. In the below tables, Ind-Ra Report tells us which sector is rated, for what & their grades by Ind-Ra. ‘Indian Textiles: Rating Approach’ - Factors Impacting Credit Ratings, A Special Report Figure 1 Raw Material Sourcing Capability Characteristics Rating categories Strong • Efficient scale and timing of procurement • Strong liquidity and supply chain • Capacity to weather cyclicality ‘IND A’/’lower end of ‘IND AA’ Medium • Demonstrated ability to manage working capital cycle • Moderate scale of operations for efficient procurement ‘IND BBB’ Weak • Small scale of business • Volatile working capital cycle ‘IND BB’ Very weak • Generally tight liquidity • Small scale leading to lower ability to mitigate raw material cyclicality ‘IND B’ and below Source: Ind-Ra CREDIT RATING
  • 21. Figure 6 Leverage and Coverage Ratios Rating categories FY12 median adjusted debt net of cash/op. EBITDAR (x) Net fixed charge cover (x) ‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ 2.5 4.4 ‘IND BBB’ 3.2 1.8 ‘IND BB’ 4.3 1.3 ‘IND B’ 5.5 1.1 Source: Ind-Ra Figure 5 Access to External Financing Rating categories Access to external funds ‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ Complete access to external financing; high financial flexibility ‘IND BBB’ Reasonable access to external financing ‘IND BB’ Access to external financial mainly in form of bank refinancing or loans from founders ‘IND B’ and below Usually delays in obtaining additional bank limits; or non-injection of funds from founders Source: Ind-Ra Figure 3 Level of Value Addition Value chain Level of integration Rating range Strong Value added/branded products that command stable demand/ pricing ‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ Medium Reasonable value addition that enjoys stable demand while pricing could vary; wide product range ‘IND BBB’ Weak Commoditised products; narrow product range ‘IND BB’ Very weak Low-value added businesses (e.g. trading); highly susceptible to price changes ‘IND B’ and below Source: Ind-Ra Figure 4 EBITDAR and CFO Margin Rating categories Op. EBITDAR margin (%) CFO/sales (%) ‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ • Consistently stable EBITDA margins of 10% or higher Consistently positive ‘IND BBB’ • Moderate volatility in profitability • Expected to remain +ve throughout cycle Generally positive ‘IND BB’ • Volatile, low margins • Likely to turn –ve in downturn Generally negative ‘IND B’ and below • Erratic or very low margins • EBITDA losses Consistently negative (>-10%) Source: Ind-Ra In an engrossing interview with TVC, Mr. Rakesh Valecha, Senior Director, Head - Corporate Ratings, talks about Ind-Ra’s role in credit rating for textile companies, their parameters and the state of Indian textile industry. TVC: What is the role of your agency and what are the various services you offer? R.V.: India Ratings & Research (Ind-Ra) is India's most respected rating agency committed to providing the India's credit markets with accurate, timely and prospective credit opinions. Built on a foundation of independent thinking, rigorous analytics, and an open & balanced approach towards credit research, Ind-Ra has grown rapidly during the past decade gaining significant market presence in India's fixed income market. Ind-Ra has six offices in India located at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kolkata. Ind-Ra is recognised by the Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Reserve Bank of India and National Housing Bank TVC: What are the different types of clients Ind-Ra caters to? R.V.: Ind-Ra currently maintains coverage of corporate issuers, financial institutions, which includes banks and insurance companies, finance & leasing companies and managed funds, urban local bodies and project finance. TVC: What are the various factors considered by Ind-Ra while assigning credit ratings for issuers of debt obligations/instruments? R.V.: The ratings are assigned based on established criteria and methodologies. These criteria are available on www.indiaratings.co.in. The Key highlights of “Corporate Rating Methodology” which is the Master criteria used for rating Corporate are as below: Qualitative and Quantitative Factors: India Ratings Corporate ratings reflect both qualitative and quantitative factors encompassing the business and financial risks of fixed-income issuers and their individual debt issues. Key Rating Factors Industry risk Financial profile Operating environment Cash flow and earnings Company profile Capital structure Management strategy/governance Financial flexibility Group structure Source: India Ratings Issuer Ratings: An Issuer Rating (IR) is an assessment of an issuer’s relative vulnerability to default on financial obligations, and is intended to be comparable across industry groups. Issuers may often carry both Long-Term and Short-Term IRs. Because both types of IRs are based on an issuer’s fundamental credit characteristics, a relationship exists between them Historical and Projected Profile: India Ratings’ analysis typically covers at least three years of operating history and financial data, as well as the agency’s forecasts of future performance. These are used in a comparative analysis, through which the agency reviews the strength of an issuer’s business and financial risk profile relative to that of others in its industry and/or rating category peer group. Weighting of Factors Varies: This comparative analysis includes consideration, where appropriate, of the potential for changes in the issuer’s operating environment or financial strategy relative to its ratings. The weighting between individual and aggregate qualitative and quantitative factors varies between entities in a sector as well as over time. As a general guideline, Senior Director, Head - Corporate Ratings, Rakesh Valecha 19Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 COVER STORY CREDIT RATING INTERVIEWIndia Ratings & Research, A Fitch Group Company
  • 22. where one factor is significantly weaker than others, this weakest element tends to attract a greater weight in the analysis. TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the current Indian textile industry? R.V.: Indian textile industry has been undergoing through a challenging phase over 2009-2012 characterized by demand seasonality, uneven government policy and speculation-led cotton price volatility increasing financial risks for sector. Current demand prospects remain modest and Ind-Ra has a ‘negative to stable’ outlook on the sector for calendar year 2013. Policy for 2013 is however encouraging with Budget 2013-14 focusing on expansion and modernization via continuation of TUFS (Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme- providing capital and interest subsidy to textile sector) with an investment target of INR 1510 bn. However sector’s appetite for large debt-led capex in the near-term could be questioned as most companies are in consolidation mode. Domestically, weak consumer sentiments, high inflation and low wage growth have been dampening textiles and apparel sales. Abatement of excise duty as announced in Budget 2013-2014 will help reduce prices of end products and uplift demand. In 2012, garment apparel exports declined by 6% due to economic slowdown in key end-markets US and Europe. Going forward garment exports outlook is mixed with Europe re-entering recession, although US demand pick up is encouraging. Cotton yarn growth outlook is positive with higher demand of cotton yarn from China and improving margins on account of low cotton prices and firm cotton yarn prices. In this backdrop, investments in the textile sector have slowed as reflected in the lower number of applications under TUFS. In 2010-11 the number of TUFS applications plunged manifold to 256 (total project cost INR 397 cr) from 2384 (total project cost INR 28005cr) in 2009-10. TVC: There is a downtrend in investment in textile sectors. Why do you think the investors are not expanding/planning new projects? Are these investors diverting to other industries? R.V.: Investment activity slowed down across the textile value chain in 2012 due to uncertainty on demand and volatile raw material prices which led of funds being tied in inventories. Companies have deferred or slowed on capacity expansion plans due to several reasons including under-utilization of existing capacity, shortage/high cost of self-generated power (Gujarat and South India) and even regulatory reasons (such as environmental regulation in Tirupur). Continuation of the TUFS in the Twelfth Five Year Plan and INR 24bn allotment for technology upgradation is likely to encourage investments in power loom modernization. To boost investments in the spinning segment, the Gujarat Government in September 2012 came up with The Gujarat Textile Policy (GTP) targeting installation of 2.5m spindles worth INR 70 bn over the next five years. The impact will remain credit neutral in 2013 as benefits will accrue only in the medium term. Improvement in market conditions and Foreign Direct Investment could provide impetus to new projects in the medium term. There is a general deceleration in the domestic investment drive due to high cost of debt and paucity of equity funding. Textile expansion has the benefit of 10% capital subsidy and 4% interest subsidy under TUFS which is not available for other industries. RBI also extended the 2% interest subvention for exporters till 2014, and additional 2% incentive is provided by the government for entities registering higher exports. Hence Ind-Ra believes that investors are broadly not diverting to other industries but anticipating the right time to make new investments. CRISIL Ratings is India's leading rating agency. They pioneered the concept of credit rating in India in 1987. They have rated over 60,000 entities, by far the largest number in India. They are a full- service rating agency who rate the entire range of debt instruments: bank loans, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, non- convertible debentures, bank hybrid capital instruments, asset- backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, perpetual bonds, and partial guarantees In a candid conversation with TVC, Senior Director at CRISIL Ratings, Mr. Subodh Rai, gives the real picture of Ratings in the Textile Industry… TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the current Indian Textile Industry? S.R.: The textile industry comprising of yarn, fabric and readymade garments is expected to grow a modest rate of 4-5% p.a. over the medium term. This is likely to be supported by stable domestic demand, and a marginal growth in international demand. Investment in the textile sector is likely to remain subdued over the near to medium term with respect to large capacity additions. However, extension of Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) for the 12th Five- Year plan is expected to provide some fillip to the sector. TVC: Is there a downtrend in investment in the textile sector? If Yes, Why do you think the investors are not expanding/planning new projects? S.R.: Yes. Given the uncertainties in the economic environment and overcapacities prevailing in the industry, companies are adopting a wait-and-watch approach towards investment in projects. Further, shortage of labour and stressed power scenario in major textile hubs of South India. are deterrents for additional investments. TVC: What is the benefit of Ratings for textile companies? S.R.: Rating is a prime input in deciding interest rate charged by banks. In addition, the better-rated companies, across industries, are able to diversify its funding sources e.g. access to capital market, and also negotiate finer interest rates with banks thereby save on interest costs. Rating is also perceived as a self-improvement tool; an independent credit opinion from CRISIL provides the rated company pointers for improvements. A large number of CRISIL’s textile clients have indicated that besides the rating, the interaction and the feedback from CRISIL is an important element in their strategic and operational decision-making. India Ratings & Research, A Fitch Group Company INTERVIEW 20 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 INTERVIEWCRISIL Ratings
  • 23. CARE Ratings has established itself as the second- largest credit rating agency in India. General Manager of CARE Ratings, Mr. Milind Gadkari was kind enough to give TVC an exclusive interview in his busy schedule. Mr. Milind Gadkari General Manager of CARE Ratings TVC: What is the role of your agency and what are the various services you offer? M.G. : Credit Analysis & Research Ltd. (CARE) is a premier Indian Rating Agency providing full range of ratings as well as grading services. It includes debt instrument ratings, bank loan ratings, issuer ratings, SSI MSE ratings, SME ratings, Securitization ratings etc. It also provides grading services like IPO grading, equi grade, shipyard grading, maritime training course grading etc. CARE also has a research division which provides Industry research, customized research, etc TVC: What are the different types of clients CARE caters to? M.G. : CARE caters to a whole range of clients which includes Industrial companies, Banks, Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), Infrastructure entities, Microfinance institutions, Insurance companies, Mutual funds, State Govt. entities, urban local bodies, services' organizations, etc. TVC: Who are CARE's major clients? M.G. : CARE's clientele includes large banks like State Bank of India, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, HDFC Bank, Axis Bank etc. It also includes large corporate entities like Reliance Industries Ltd., Grasim Industries Ltd., Tata Motors Ltd., Tata Steel Ltd., Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. etc. TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the current Indian Textile Industry? M.G. : While the growth of Indian Textile Industry has remained stable during last two years, incremental investments in new capacity have not been aggressive. The investment in pipeline is not uniform and it is distributed amongst some of the sectors of the industry. Whereas there is capacity addition happening in sectors like denim, continuous polymerization (CP) plants etc. some other sectors like spinning are witnessing modest investments. Main reasons for overall slowdown in investment climate have been as follows:  Limited financial flexibility available with the textile companies, with leveraged balance sheets  High interest rates  Heightened Volatility in commodity prices like cotton, cotton yarn, crude oil  Increased power and fuel costs, with power shortages in some of the states After robust investment in FY11, spinning sector has witnessed slowdown in investment flow in the next two years. At the same time, denim sector has seen continued growth in investment, which is likely to result in oversupply situation in the segment. Polyester chain has witnessed investments in CP plants, with many players implementing the same. Union Budget 2013-14 has laid special emphasis on textile sector by way of extension of TUFS in the 12th Plan with an investment target of Rs.1,51,000 crores. Extension of TUFS coupled with RBI's action on the monetary policy front will encourage investment in the sector which has not seen much of capacity addition in the past two years. Further, other budget proposals like 'Zero Excise Duty Route' for Readymade Garment (RMG) Industry, setting up of RMG Park within ITPs’ and financial assistance for Handloom sector will also encourage investments in the sector. With moderation in cotton prices and sustained demand for cotton yarn from China on the back of China's concentration on production of value added products, the prospect of cotton spinning units is expected to improve. Exports of cotton yarn are expected to touch an all time high during FY13 with 758 million kg of cotton already exported during the period April-Dec 2012, which is almost 20% higher as compared to corresponding period a year ago. However, in case of Indian apparel sector wherein the US and EU account for more than 70% of exports, the concerns over the economic health of these regions puts pressure on the Indian apparel exporters in the medium term. TVC: Please explain whether peculiar problems faced in textile industry like change in export policies, volatility in prices of cotton, fibres, etc are taken into account during credit rating or not. In other words, whether some consideration is shown for the set back of financial performance relative to factors stated above. M.G.: As per rating methodology, CARE's rating process begins with the evaluation of the economy/industry in which the company operates, followed by the assessment of the business-risk factors specific to the company. This is followed by an assessment of the financial and project-related risk factors as well as the quality of the management. This methodology is followed while analyzing all the industries that come under the purview of the manufacturing sector. Any policy changes which may occur from time to time and its impact on operations of the companies in the industry are considered while rating debt of those companies. As far as ratings of companies in textile industry are concerned, there has been deterioration in credit profile of small to mid size companies having leveraged balance sheet and having limited presence in the textile value chain. However, credit profile of large, integrated players having presence across the textile value chain has remained largely stable.   21Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 CARE RATINGS INTERVIEW
  • 24. Bombay Dyeing and Manufacturing Co Ltd. was established by Nowrosjee Wadia in 1879, as a very small operation. The Company dip dyed Indian spun cotton yarn and dried it in the sun in three colours; turkey red, green and orange. From such modest beginnings, over the last 133 years, Bombay Dyeing has transformed themselves into one of the most reputed and esteemed establishments in India. Bombay Dyeing is the flagship company of the Wadia Group, a multi-product conglomerate with turnover in excess of 1.5 billion dollars and employee strength of 20,000 people. Some of the well known group companies include Britannia, Go Air, Bombay Dyeing, Bombay Realty, Bombay Burmah and many more. In January 2009, Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Company acquired the shares of White Horse Real Estate Company at face value and consequently it became a 100% subsidiary of the company. The Indian textile industry is one of the oldest and prominent players in global textile industry. Currently it is a $52 billion industry and is anticipated to grow to $115 billion by 2012. India accounts for 25% of the world yarn exports and it also accounts for 12% of the world’s production of textile fibres and yarn. Companies like Bombay Dyeing play a tremendous in India’s growth. Textile manufacturing is the main activity of Bombay Dyeing with 5 manufacturing facilities confirming to international standards. Bombay Dyeing is country’s largest exporter of home textiles. Bombay Dyeing's production is exported to USA, Canada, UK, Germany, Netherlands, Italy, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, New Zealand, Switzerland, and many more countries. Presently, Bombay Dyeing has a distribution chain of over 600 exclusive stores across the country. Bombay Dyeing’s product range encompasses various categories of home furnishing, premium and stylish bed and bath linen, suiting and shirtings. Let us take a brief look at their products: Chemicals: Bombay Dyeing is the largest manufacturer of Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT) in India. It has a capacity to manufacture 1,65,000 tonnes per annum (TPA). DMT is raw material for manufacturing polyester fibre, film, filament & yarn and engineering plastics. Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF): PSF is manufactured from 100% Virgin Polymer from continuous polymerisation plant. Product range from PSF includes micro fibres, semidull/ optically white/ dopes dyed black/ Hollow/ Super High Tenacity and trilobal products mix, amongst others. The entire gamut of textile products includes: Bedding range: Bed sheets, bed covers, quilts, duvet covers, dohars, bed-in-bag sets, blankets, pillow cases, cushion covers and shams Bedding accessories: Cushions, pillows, duvets, comforters, diwan sets and bed décor sets Bath linen: All types of towels for all purposes, bath robes and bath mats Hotel linen: Twills, dobby weaves, satins, jacquards, high-thread-count-sheeting and satin fabrics Industrial fabrics: microdot interlining fabrics for shoe uppers, adhesives, abrasives and leather cloth. All Bombay Dyeing products are manufactured to the highest quality standards. The company has stood the test of time on the basis of the wide range of high quality products that it offers to the consumers. It also creates the widest range of designs and offering with more than 1000 designs per year that are unmatched by any other company in its category and is the ultimate destination for the latest trends in the industry. Bombay Dyeing holds undisputed leadership in its category since its inception. The vision of the 1st generation created by Nowrosjee Nusserwanje Wadia, is being continued thru generations with the 2nd generation of Sir Ness N. Wadia, 3rd generation of Neville N. Wadia, 4th generation of Nusli N. Wadia and the 5th generation of Jeh Wadia and it will indisputably continue with even more fervour. It is a Legacy of over 130 years, driven by the vision to excel. It is an enterprise that generates sustainable value on the strength of trust and transparency. CORPORATE PROFILE Shri. Nusli N. Wadia Chairman Wadia Group Shri.Jeh N. Wadia Managing Director Bombay Dyeing 22 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 25. TVC: Bombay Dyeing is a leader in home textiles segment and has ruled at the top for many years. However recent impressions of the Company not much being very active in the textile industry are doing the rounds. Our readers would like to know your take on the same. D.M.: Impressions are actually not correct. Growth of our Company is more than 20% in last year as compared to general market growth rate of 5 % in textile business. We are totally committed to textile business, particularly home textiles. We have recently hired a new CEO who is fully dedicated to expanding retail side of our business by adding number of company outlets. In addition, we are also increasing our focus on large format stores. So our Company is very much keen in expanding textile business and we are absolutely active. TVC: What is your Company’s current production capacity? D.M.: Our production plant for home textiles is at Rajangaon, near Pune, Maharashtra. Capacity is 50000 lac meters per month. We procure grey fabric from our suppliers and various ancillaries, process it and make final finished products to sell at retail counters. Our Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) plant is situated at Patalganga, in Raigad district, Maharashtra has a capacity of 13,000 tones per month & entire product is sold as a commodity in the market. Our spinning and winding facilities has an installed capacity of 1,35,336 ring spindles and our daily production of fabrics is 3,00,000meters. TVC: What is the scenario of the Company’s exports and domestic markets? D.M.: 90% of our turnover is from the domestic business in our own brand. 10% turnover is from Exports with made- to-order. We do not yet sell our own brand in the international market. We have 400 Exclusive Retail outlets & other 2000- 3000 outlets in India in which Bombay dyeing products are available. We also have institutional business where we supply to Hotels, Hospitals, schools, charitable trusts and many more. TVC: What is the current market size & share of Bombay Dyeing products in India? D.M.: Home textile segment is estimated at Rs. 10,000 crore of industry in India, in which organized sector is only 10 %. In the organized sector, Bombay Dyeing’s India market share is 40%. In the total market (Organized & Unorganized) Bombay Dyeing’s market share is 4%. TVC: What is your take on branding of PSF; will that improve your profitability? D.M.: It is an industrial product. It will not impact profitability but will impact innovation in terms of special features and benefits and will increase growth of profit. TVC: What is Bombay Dyeing’s Business Model? D.M.: For Our Business Model for Marketing, we follow multiple channels such as: our own retail stores, franchisee stores (which are more successful), large format stores (in recent times) and Multi-brand stores in 2 & 3 tier cities For our Business Model for Manufacturing we have: dedicated suppliers for yarn, Job work for weaving, direct outsource of fabrics and in-house processing like bleaching, dyeing, value added activity, etc. Currently, however our focus is on R e t a i l i n g a n d marketing rather than manufacturing. Our further plans also include product a n d d e s i g n development. TVC: What are the Company’s plans and reasons for investing in textiles & other industries? D.M.: We are investing for growth. We want to be closer to the customer and improve our turnover and margins. Our Current turn over for Home textile is Rs. 500 crore, 25 % of total, PSF is 1 5 0 0 c r o r e , 5 0 % o f t o t a l . O u r c u r r e n t utilization capacity is 60%. We are not planning for more manufacturing capacity. However, upgrading production technology is on the cards. We are expanding more on front end, that being Retail. We are planning to expand our retail outlets, building brands, advertising, promotions and more in those lines. Currently our Company is investing in these 3 business Verticals now: Home Textiles, Polyester Staple Fibre & Real Estate Development. We are not very keen on concentrating on the international market. We want our domestic established brand to go from strong to stronger. Marketing and brand building activity in international market is very expensive. In international market, we are taking baby steps, small way towards expansion. In the Middle East we sell our brands but we do not have strategic tie up as of now. We do have plans in expanding in furnishings, kitchen, dining linens, shopping bags and more. TVC: Does your Company or as a matter of fact any company, face any obstacles while putting up projects in India? D.M.: Approval on conversion of land used to take unduly long time and make projects unviable. Industrialists need to avail Shri. Durgesh Mehta Jt. Managing Director & CFO, Bombay Dyeing We had a chat with the affable Mr. Durgesh Mehta, Jt. Managing Director & CFO of Bombay Dyeing regarding the Company & its affairs. Bombay Dyeing Retail Store 23Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Interview
  • 26. Aryan Silk Mills Head Office : Andheri East , Factory : J-2, 2nd Floor,Shree Arihant Complex,Kalher, Bhiwandi, Thane - 421302. Tel - 02522-646969 / 646901 | Mobile - 09324778264 email id : aryan.silkmills@gmail.com Contact Person : Mr.Vineet Arya : 9324525002 Aryan Silk Mills is synonymous with quality fabrics, FANCY fabrics… Since 25 years Aryan silk Mills into manufacturing blended fabrics in 58’’ width plain, fancy shirting fabrics & has 65 dealers network in India. “Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen” ADVT. services of multiple official agencies which is a major obstacle and results in long delay in completion of projects. Prompt availability of Infrastructure like power, water and effluent treatment at the right time and pricing is a major hindrance. Government initiative in TUFS scheme is very attractive. Organizations should be able to get advantage from this scheme. Financial institutes / Banks check the credibility of promoters & owners. Today financial institutes record Textile Industry in the Low Margin but Stable with Lesser Risk profile. So there isn’t much problem getting finances from Banks. Of course, there are companies, individuals who do speculation in raw material in commodity market for Cotton and Yarn prices, where intrinsic margin is very low. But Banks have norms and rules to control risks in businesses. TVC: How do you foresee the market for your products? D.M.: There is maximum opportunity in Home textiles. Indian consumer is upgrading themselves from low price, unbranded home linen to branded home linen. Consumer tastes and preferences have changed tremendously and are continuously changing. Consumers want more variety in colour, texture, design and at the same time want value for their money. TVC: What is Bombay Dyeing’s USP for being competent and competitive for many years? D.M.: Our brand is known for Quality and Value for Money which includes variety for every pocket, class, age group and education level. Sustaining its quality and novelty is the biggest advantage and challenge for Bombay Dyeing. We have a special design studio where we get designs from leading designer Sabyasachi, Wendell Rodriguez and also have tie ups with other designers. Wadia Group’s USP is that they continually focus on innovation, make competitive products which are relevant to the industry Shri Durgesh Mehta assured that in a short period of time, with our new CEO on board for our textiles segment, industry and consumers will see amazing improvements in Bombay Dyeing. Bombay Dyeing is a heritage that continues to inspire generations of people across time and we are proud of being a part of it.   CORPORATE PROFILE
  • 27. Advt.
  • 28. FIBRE FOCUSBirla Spundyed Viscose Fibre – An Eco Concept for Future Textile Abstract Viscose is the most preferred choice in case of knitwear usually in blends with Spandex and as 100% Viscose. Excellent colour brilliance, drape and luxurious feel are hallmarks of the product. Yarn dyed and fabric dyed sorts are in vogue and form a part of almost all leading brands. Spunshades is the spun dyed Viscose fibre which gives excellent all round fastness with colour uniformity. This paper deals with the study carried out at TRADC to optimize the process parameters for spun dyed fibre & the benefits comparison of spun dyed with the piece dyed route fabrics as a key to success in textile. Key words: Spun dyed Viscose, Spinning, Knitting, Dyeing. Introduction: Spundyed VSF of Birla Cellulose is coloured through mass pigmentation and hence has the best colour fastness rating of nearly 5 on 5 for wash/rub fastness and nearly 7 light fastness rating. Spundyed VSF is a country advantageous product of India and is available with leading spinners who export large quantities of quality yarn. Knitwear with spun dyed VSF in 100% form as well as in blends with Spandex ensure the same colour year after year as the fibre base is fixed. There is absolutely no need for the complicated colour matching operations and the batch to batch variations will be avoided in case of spun dyed Viscose. Spundyed knits are virtually free of barre problems. Spundyed VSF is Oeko Tex certified and is eco friendly and biodegradable. Sushil Hada, Ravinder Tuteja, Ganesh Jadhav, Praveen Kumar & Alkesh Darji TRADC, Birla Cellulose. Birladham, Kharach, Gujarat. Stock dyed fibre / piece dyeing Fig. A Fabric / garment printing Spun dyed Viscose Pigment & not Dyes Above Figure A suggests the Symbolic comparison illustrates Uniformity is maximum with excellent fastness in spun dyed Viscose as injection of the pigment is at the viscose solution stage. The coloration for piece dyeing & garment dyeing is only at the surface, so the core remains un dyed giving poor fastness properties. Also chances of batch to batch variations are more in case of piece dyed fabrics. SpunShades™ is the registered brand name for the spun dyed viscose manufactured by Birla Cellulose. It is available in 150 shades with 69 standard shades. For knitwear's we have shortlisted 13 regular shades which will be readily available to the customers. Rest shades can be customized as per the customer requirements. Material & Methods: Yarn Spinning Spun dyed Viscose fibre has different surface characteristic than the normal fibre. In case of spun dyed the fibre to fibre friction is higher. Hence it is necessary to optimize the spinning parameters to achieve the good yarn quality in terms of lesser imperfections. 30s single ring yarn is identified for the project trial. For the initial trial, we have selected 1.3 D X 38 mm spun dyed Viscose Shade no. 9676 for the yarn manufacturing. As this shade was showing higher imperfections, as per our previous experience. Below mentioned table shows the fibre properties for the fibre used for the trial: Parameters Denier X Cut Length Shade No. Denier OPU % Conditioned tenacity (Gms/Den) Conditioned elongation% 1.3d x38 mm 9676 1.3 D 0.35 -0.38 2.58 – 2.61 18 – 20% Values Our main focus was to attack on the neps in the yarn. As blow room & carding are the prime processes which are responsible for the neps, we have optimized the process parameters for the same. Methodology followed for the optimization of Spundyed viscose yarn at spinning stage is as mentioned below, 1) As compared to fibre opening through machine (MBO) the hand opening is a gentle opening process. It helps to minimize the fibre entanglements. So the hand opening was done. 2) Finer Lap and 4 thou wider gauge between lap feed plate to licker-in improved fibre opening with less entanglement. 3) Higher flat PPSI, Closer setting of flats to cylinder & higher flat speed improved carding & cleaning efficiency. Better yarn quality was achieved by better carding action & cleaning efficiency. 4) Drafting was improved by finer roving & slight wider spacer at ring frame. It helped to improve short thin-thick faults in association with less spindle speed. 5) The results achieved with 9676 spun shade are comparable with the Uster 25% norms of normal greige viscose. Knitting A knitting trial was conducted with the perfected yarn to check the knitting ability of the yarn & knitting efficiency on a single jersey knitting m/c. Following mentioned were the knitting machine parameters for the trial: 26 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 29. M/c Parameters Below are the grey fabric parameters for the trial: Wet Processing Process route followed for the spun dyed fabric - Results & Discussion: Yarn Quality Reports – M/c Make M/c Diameter M/c Gauge M/c Speed (RPM) Yarn Tension (CN) Mayer & Cie Single jersey circular knitting m/c 30” 24 22 rpm 3 - 4 Details M/c Parameters Wales per Inch Course per Inch Stitch Length Grey Fabric GSM 28 52 2.7 mm 126 Details Greig Fabric Pre wash Scouring Water extration Exhaust finish Washing & Neutralising Relax Drying Compaction (optional) Fig. B Process Details Uster Unevenness (%) Uster Thin (-30 %)/Km Uster Thin (-50%)/Km Uster Thick(+35%) /Km Uster Thick (+50%)/Km Uster Neps (+200%)/Km Total IPI/Km RKM 8.72 NA 1 57 7 19 27 16.9 9.52 NA 2 35 13 34 49 15.5 10.4 NA 4 62 25 65 94 14.2 9.6 687 1 152 10 32 43 15.3 Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% TRADC acheived 30s Normal Grey Viscose 30s Spundyed Viscose Table no. 2 Fig. B & Fig. C shows the process route followed for the spun dyed & piece dyed viscose fabrics for the study. All the wet treatments done on the soft flow machines with MLR 1:10.Dyeing process is not required in case of spun dyed fabrics giving huge water, time & energy (steam, power) savings. Table 1 shows the process recipes & conditions maintained during the study. Piece Dyed Viscose process route: Greig Fabric Pre wash Scouring Pretreatment Exhaust finish Washing Dyeing Washing & Neutralising Water Extraction Relax Dry Compaction (optional) Fig. C Process Loading, Prewash Post processes Scouring Pretreatment Washing Dyeing Exhaust Finish 0.5 % washing agent at 70°C for 15 mins followed by hot wash & cold wash cum neutralization. Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable 0.5% cationic softener at 50°C for 10 mins. 1 % washing agent & 3% caustic flakes at 95°C for 20 mins. 1 % washing agent & 6% caustic flakes, 0.6% peroxide stabilizer & 8% peroxide at 98°C for 60 mins. 1% Peroxide killer at 95°C for 20 mins followed by hot wash, cold wash cum neutralization. Cold wash, neutralization, 2 hot wash, 2 soaping, dye fixing & rinsing. 2.0 % cationic softener at 50°C for 10 mins. 1% Lubricant & 1% wetting agent at 60°C for 10 min. Hydro extraction, relax dry followed by compaction. Spun Dyed Viscose Piece Dyed Viscose Table no. 1 Process recipes & condition : 27Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 FIBRE FOCUS
  • 30. As per the Table no. 2 & the graphs, spun dyed Viscose yarn is showing results comparable to the Uster 25% norms for 30s normal Viscose yarn. All the testing done at controlled lab conditions of 65% RH with 27±2°c temperature. Fabric Quality Reports – Spun dyed Viscose scores over piece dyed Viscose in terms of chemical, water & energy cost as mentioned in the above table. The costing done for the study carried out TRADC, Birla Cellulose. Conclusion: From the above mentioned study, it can be summarized that the spun dyed Viscose scores over piece dyed Viscose as below, 1. Reduction in processing cost due to shortened process route. 2. Excellent all round fastness properties. As described earlier, Viscose Spun dyed is dyed through pigment injection at fibre manufacturing stage hence, giving excellent all round fastness properties 3. No batch to batch variations in terms of shade. 4. Value for money owing to reduced cost of yarn dyeing in Above mentioned table shows the benefits comparison of spun dyed viscose fabrics over the piece dyed fabrics. As the Spun dyed are manufactured by injecting pigments at the fibre spinning stage, the fastness ratings for the Spun dyed fabrics are excellent as compared to the piece dyed fabrics. Colour fading Values – case of auto stripers & yarn dyed sorts. 5. Yarn quality results comparable to 25% Uster norms for normal Viscose. 6. Total Eco concept for future Textile being saving in water, power, effluent load, higher productivity with improved product quality. Acknowledgments: The Authors want to acknowledge the Birla Cellulose management for providing the opportunity to carry out the study at TRADC. (Textile Research and Application Development Centre). References: 1. www.birlacellulose.com 2. China Textile Science (June 2012) - Benefits of Spun dyed Viscose fabrics over stock dyed fabrics & cotton fabrics. Table no. 4 Original After 1 wash After 3 Wash After 5 Wash After 10 Wash 5 5 5 5 5 5 4-5 4 3-4 3 Spun Dyed ViscoseWash Sample Piece Dyed Viscose Table no. 5 Chemical Cost Rs/Kg Power Cost Rs/Kg Water Cost Rs/Kg ETP Cost Rs/Kg Coal + Furnace oil Cost Rs/Kg Total Cost Rs/kg Total Water Used in Ltr/kg Total Time in mins per batch 55.4 2.39 1.09 1.82 8.41 69.11 91 575 14.54 1.21 0.37 0.62 5.14 21.88 31 190 73.75 49.37 66.06 65.93 38.88 68.34 65.93 66.96 Piece Dyed ViscoseParameters Spun Dyed Viscose Percentage Saving Table no. 3 Test Fastness To Wash Change in shade Staining on Cotton Fastness to Rubbing Dry Wet 5 5 5 4-5 4 4 3-4 3 IS 764 -1979 IS 766 - 1988 Spun Dyed Viscose Piece Dyed Viscose Test Method As per the above mentioned table, spun dyed Viscose shows no colour fading even after repetitive washings. Value 5 denotes no colour fading & solid appearance where as 1 denotes poor colour fading & fuzzy appearance. Process savings in Spundyed Viscose Knits - Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% Spun Dyed Viscose 17 16 15 14 13 12 RKM Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% Spun Dyed Viscose Total IPI/Km 100 80 60 40 20 0 28 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 FIBRE FOCUS REPRINTED DUE TO CORRECTION
  • 31. ADVT.
  • 32. In spite of a last minute change in v e n u e d u e t o u n f o r e s e e n circumstances, the twin shows; Fabrics & Accessories Trade Show (F&A Show) and India International H o m e Te x t i l e Exhibition (Homtex), which concluded on May 25, 2013, turned out to be a highly successful exhibition with a majority of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e superior, business-like environment besides the high quality of visitors. The show was held at the Bangalore International Exhibition Centre, Bangalore, May 23 - 25, 2013. “Even the number of visitors was not affected and we were able to maintain it at the same level as that of last year’s,” said Mr P. Krishnamurthy, CEO & Executive Director, S S Textile Media (Pvt) Ltd, organizers of the events. A total of 124 exhibitors, besides a separate Chinese pavilion, and 3,154 visitors from all over the country besides countries like Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Singapore, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, UAE, France, Spain, Brazil, UK, etc. attended the show. Exhibiting companies, once again, presented a top-class range of textile products to highly qualified trade visitors from all over the world. The show was therefore able to further develop its position as India’s leading event and business barometer for the textiles and accessories industry. F&A Show stands for innovation and quality and attracts a highly international trade audience. The quota of visitors from top management was very high; more than every fourth visitor belonged to the management of a company or was the owner of a company. Over two-thirds of all exhibitors were able to fully or largely reach their target groups at the F&A Trade Show 2013, and the other one third at least partially. Besides approaching new markets, important aims of exhibiting were attracting new customers, product presentation and reuniting with old customer. Excerpts from industrialists, entrepreneurs & alike who participated in the successful show… Mr Dhrub T. Panda, Textile Designer, Gayatri Design Studio, Mumbai, said: “A lot of opportunities opened up for us. The show has been very good with a lot of manufacturers and exporters evincing keen interest in our activities.” Mr Deendayal B. Jhanwar, Managing Director, Shree Ramkrishna (Jhanwar) Texfab Pvt. Ltd., Ichalkaranji, noted: “The show was really good for us; we were able to meet new customers and had visitors from China, Korea, Sri Lanka and even Turkey. The people who came to our stall were genuine and appreciated the range of our new products displayed. The facilities at this location are also par excellence.” Mr Rakesh Patel, Proprietor, Satvah Creation, Ahmedabad, said: “This is the first time I am participating at this show and I must say it has been very effective. This is a good show with lots of quality buyers. We even had buyers from Spain, France and Sri Lanka.” Visitors too were extremely positive about the F&A Trade Show. 93% of the visitors rated the show as excellent and could find new vendors from whom they could possibly source their requirements. But said, they would have been with a few more stalls and variety especially in the trims and accessories; and home décor segments. Mr Koji Asai, Senior Leader, Flex Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo, said: “The show gave me an insight into what India had to offer, especially the very interesting patchwork at Satvah, an exciting range of cottons from Ramkrishna Group stalls.” Mr Mandeep Singh, Senior Merchandiser, Global Brands, Li & Fung (India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, noted: “The show is good with a lot of fabrics. Overall, it’s been a good experience and I found some interesting products at the Angel Group, Uflex stalls, especially, new laces and trims. I wish there were a few more stalls.”   KEY RATES UNCHANGED: AEPC DISAPPOINTED WITH RBI STAND 17th June 2013, Gurgaon In the credit policy issued today, RBI has not touched the Key rates and unchanged. In his reaction to RBI's monetary policy, Dr.A. Sakthivel, Chairman - AEPC said Industry has been disappointed with RBI's Stand. Apparel SMEs were expecting a rate cut of 0.5% which is mainly required to remain competitive in the international market due to higher interest rate. The median lending rates on pre-shipment Rupee export credit upto 180 days ranged between 10.55 – 13% in end 2012 as compared to 10.75 – 12.88% in March, 2012. These remain high in same range. Dr. Sakthivel noted that in last financial year the Tirupur district banks had fixed a credit target of Rs.3,661 crore, whereas the credit availed by the units were only Rs.2,742 crore which is 75% of the target. Out of Rs.70000 crores of garment exports, approx. Rs.52000 crores exports is from SME sector (75%). The Industry is not able to take credit at such high rates and losing its competitiveness in the world market. At the beginning of the 12th Plan period, the outstanding credit gap for the MSME sector is estimated at 62%, which is estimated to reduce to 43% in March, 2017 with the assumption of minimum 20%year-on-year credit growth to MSME sector. Thus rate cut is necessary to achieve this and reduce gap. The figures truly reveal that the units are reluctant to avail the credit due to higher interest rate apart from market conditions. The garment exporting units are expected to invest in product development and also replace the old machineries to remain productive and therefore, the credit needs are required to be replenished at a flat rate of interest. AEPC has proposed a flat rate of 7.5% on pre and post shipment export credit under a separate chapter for exports.   AEPC PRESS RELEASE 30 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 SHOW REPORT F & A Show & HOMTEX, TWIN SHOWS
  • 33. th 30 May, 2013, CIRCOT, Mumbai A one day pre-commercialization workshop on “Flexi Check Dam, popularly known as rubber dam made of Textile-Rubber Composite for Watershed Application”, was organized by ZTM-BPD unit, CIRCOT, Mumbai, on 30th May, 2013. The workshop aimed at sensitizing the textile and allied manufacturing industry about the technology for manufacturing the textile-rubber composite and its conversion into a suitable water-proof and wrinkle free check dam as per the required d i m e n s i o n f o r watershed application, developed under the National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP)-Component-IV project titled ‘Design and Development of Rubber Dams for Watersheds’. It was also intended to sensitize the potential clients about the technology commercialization protocol followed in the ICAR system. The workshop was attended by delegates from various rubber manufacturing industries, farmer groups, engineers from the Command area Development Authority, Maharashtra, and various other stake holders. Mr. Suresh Kotak, Chairman, Kotak Ginning & Pressing Industries Ltd., Mumbai, presided the inaugural session as the Chief Guest with Dr. M. S. Kairon, Former Director, Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur as the Guest of Honour and Dr. A. N. Desai, Director, The Bombay Textile Research Association (BTRA), Mumbai as the Special Guest. Other dignitaries present were Dr. A. Kumar, Director, Directorate of Water Management (DWM), Bhubaneshwar, Dr. S. K. Chattopadhyay, Director, CIRCOT, Dr. P. Thavamani, Director, Indian Rubber Manufacturers Research Association (IRMRA), Thane, Dr. M. K. Talukdar, Vice President, Kusumgar Corporates, Mumbai, Dr. S. K. J e n a , P r i n c i p a l Scientist, Directorate o f W a t e r M a n a g e m e n t ( D W M ) , Bhubaneshwar and Er. A. K. Bharimalla, CPI, ZTM-BPD Unit, CIRCOT, Mumbai. Various informative topics like use of Flexi Check Dam for agricultural purposes, requirements for making rubber textile composites used for the flexi check dam, importance of check dam for enhancing agricultural productivity etc. were covered in the technical session. The technology was very well appreciated amongst the stakeholders and a positive feedback was received from them.  ''Cleaner Technologies for Textile Processing, For Greener Tomorrow….. ” The Society of Dyers and Colourists, India (SDC th EC) organised its 10 International Conference t h e m e d ' ' C l e a n e r Technologies for Textile Processing … For a Greener Tomorrow”on th 14 June, 2013 at The Club, Andheri, Mumbai. Supporters: The conference was supported by three leading ZDHC Brands C&A, H&M and -Levi Strauss & Co, as also by leading suppliers like CHT, Jay Chemical Industries Limited, Dystar, Raymond, Clariant, Britacel, ATE, Colourtex, L N Chemicals, Nimkartek, Colourage, Control Union, Huntsman, Atul Ltd., KISCO, etc. Delegates: Over 230 delegates from Brands, Process houses, retailers and industries from India, and Sri Lanka attended the conference. Inaugural Panel Discussion: The technical sessions started with Draft 2 of ZDHC Roadmap. Ullhas Nimkar gave an overview of the same, while Rashmi Chakrabarty (C&A) and Lars Doemer (H&M) shared their views and expectations from the ZDHC Roadmap. Concluding Panel Discussion: The Concluding Panel Discussion was centered around who will absorb the increased costs that will result from the implementation of the ZDHC. The Panel Members were Tirtha Ghosh (Chemical Industry – Huntsman), SS Aich (Processor – Alok Industries), Dirk von Czarnowski (Testing/Certification – Bureau Veritas), Rajesh Balakrishnan (Dyestuffs – DyStar) and Niraj Singh (Brand – Levis), who all shared their own views on the subject, and also fielded queries from the audience on the same. The Panel was moderated by Bart van Kuijk of Jay Chemicals. Speakers Presentation: In between the two panel discussions, there were 7 technical papers which focussed on various aspects of cleaner production in the textile industry to meet ZDHC norms. These were Clay Technology for Cleaner Production by Ton Kaarsgaren (Farbotex, Italy), Membrane Technology by Samir Chaubal (Koch Membranes, India), Cleaner Dyestuff/Chemical Production Technologies by Mujeeb-ur-Rehman (Atul Limited, India), Textile Printing Solutions for Eco Compliance by Armin Traub (CHT GmbH, Germany), Clean production in a Dye House by D. Subaash Kumar (Freelook Fashions, Tiruppur), Zero Liquid Discharge: A reality by Silvano Storti (Europrogetti srl, Italy) and Enzymes for Cleaner Technology by Aparna Khurana (DuPont Industrial BioSciences, India). All of the papers were very crisp in content, backed with a lot of analytical data, and were in strict adherence to the core theme of the Conference.   PRESS RELEASE 31Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 CIRCOT
  • 34. www.texindiafair.comwww.yarnex.in; Fibres Yarns Services Fabrics Trimmings Embellishments Services S S Textile Media Pvt. Ltd. Tel.: +91 80 2554 4711, 4115 1841, Fax: +91 80 4115 1841 Mobile: +91 98454 46570, 93425 66532, 98451 19893 E-mail: sstm@yarnex.in, sstm@texindiafair.com Organised by: Trade Media Partners ADVT.
  • 35. We live in a culture of use & throw. In this scenario, it takes guts to recycle & reuse and reduce waste and yet be sustainable in ways that are environmentally, socially and economically viable. EVERFLOW PETROFILS LIMITED is one such company. Everflow Petrofils Limited, is a manufacturer and exporter of polyester yarn, spun blended yarn, draw texturised yarn, fibre yarn, viscose spun yarn, partially oriented yarn, polyester staple fibre and polyester PET chips and cotton yarns. EPL leads in all types of high quality fancy yarns in polyester and cotton. EPL firmly believes that "Quality is the best way to beat the competition" Following their motto of "Turning Waste into Wealth", they put their customers foremost. EPL follows eco- friendly methods and highly believes that waste can be converted into wealth if one really supports in Keeping the Globe Green. Located in the financial capital of India, the company has passed the evaluation of ISO9001 certification in 2001 and has been awarded the brand company. In an insightful interview with TVC, the dynamic Mr. Pinkesh Jain CEO of EVERFLOW PETROFILS LIMITED gives us the nitty gritty of the company & the Yarn business… TVC: EPL is presently in to manufacturing of cotton and synthetic yarns. What was the vision that made you enter this entire sector? P.J.: Yes, we are into manufacturing of cotton & synthetic yarns since more than 15 years. Our vision was very clear “Turning Waste into Wealth”. This is our company philosophy. We are an eco – friendly enterprise intending to protect our environment. MC brand carries goodwill & trust. We have established customers trust and faith in our brand & product. TVC: What are your current markets & where and whom does EPL supply to? P.J.: Our production unit is in China and we supply to major textile hubs in the world USA, Europe, South East Asia, and Middle-east. Our Indian Unit solely caters to the local market. TVC: What is your current Production capacity and Market size of your products? P.J.: Our current production capacity is 5500 tonnes in China & 600 tonnes in India per month of Recycled Polyester Spun Mr. Pinkesh Jain CEO Everflow Petrofils LTD. Yarn. We share around 25% of Chinese Recycled Yarn Production. TVC: What is EPL’s Green Process? P.J.: The yarn and other products manufactured by EPL are environmental friendly and produced with ethical consciousness. EPL's long-term philosophy is to strive for environmental sustainability, to efficiently utilize the limited natural resources, and to cut down CO2 emissions while providing its core recycled fabric and recycled yarn products. EPL is following a new method for saving the planet. A new recycled yarn textile is manufactured from used PET bottles. EPL has developed the latest recycling technology to reuse waste, avoiding the environmental burden from discarding them in landfills. The recycling technology does not utilize virgin PTA (terephthalic acid), which is made from petroleum as its main raw material, reducing energy and CO2 emissions and lowering the use of petrochemical materials. Today, there is great demand for eco friendly yarns bcoz synthetic yarns are also bad for the earth, since they are made from petroleum. Industrially- produced cotton brings with it a slew of environmental problems, including water and soil pollution. We have highlighted a few eco yarn options, such as repreve yarn recycled from post industrial waste, green yarn from Alpaca and recycled saris, hip knitting options, yarn made from corn and bamboo yarn. Soysilk is another renewable yarn made from the residue of soybeans from tofu manufacturing, the process is 100% natural and free of petrochemicals, soy is a completely renewable and biodegradable resource. TVC: What is the general approach followed by your company on a daily basis or while putting up projects? P.J.: Our in-house team of engineers helps us set up projects. The Simple Wheel which can be used in an intermittent process and the more refined Saxony wheel which drive a differential spindle in a continuous process. The growth of experienced adult factory workforce helps to account for the shift away from child labour in textile factories. We use dressing frames to enable the power looms to operate continuously. In short: General approach: cultivating & harvesting, Preparatory processes: Spinning – giving yarn, Weaving – giving fabrics, Finishing – giving textiles. 33Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 EVERFLOW PETROFILS LIMITED INTERVIEW
  • 36. TVC: Does EPL have any future plans for Expansion or Diversification? Please discuss. P.J.: We are expanding our production units in China & India every year. Expansion & modernization is done on continuous basis for growth & flexibility. We are planning to add 2 lakh spindles in China & 40000 spindles in India. Also we are looking to start PET Flakes manufacturing unit in India to cater to our Indian & Chinese units. TVC: How do you foresee the market for your product/s in India & globally? P.J.: MC brand is one of the top most & trusted Brand. We foresee very robust growth for our products in India & globally. TVC: What is the reason for your company to have a base in China? P.J.: In China, labour is easy, power is cheaper and raw material is available in the same province which helps us to function very efficiently. In China taking loan facilities are very easy as they support Textile Industries. While in India, Nationalized Banks takes longer time for the same. TVC: What are the major difficulties you face while dealing with Govt bodies? P.J.: Main problem with Govt bodies is that they are very slow in approving legal issues. One critical concern involves a concept known as agency capture. They adopt rules, regulations & policies that are favourable to the interest group that it is responsible for regulating or administering. TVC: How would you like the Govt to assist you to boost the market of your product/s? P.J.: Govt should conduct seminars to let people interact; understand the value of using recycled products. Everyday we are facing Global warming threats in way of climate changes. Scientific evidence conclusively demonstrates that human activities are creating measurable and increasingly negative impacts on the global climate. Industrial emissions have been the dominant influence in climate change, and facing this challenge, each member of the global village needs to shoulder its part of the collective responsibility to environmental protection. We at EPL are dedicated to make recycled fibre and yarn to support Environment as we are highly inspired by nature.   INTERVIEW Wadia Techno-Engineering Services Ltd., which is a part of the reputed Wadia Group of companies and Suvin Advisors to collaborate for providing value added services to industrial clients in India & around the world. In 2012, pursuant to mutual agreement Wadia group raised its stake in the erstwhile Gherzi Eastern Limited (GEL) to 100%, as a result of which Gherzi A.G. has ceased to be a promoter of GEL and the name of 'Gherzi Eastern Limited' has been changed to "Wadia Techno-Engineering Services Limited (WTESL)" with th effect from November 8 , 2012. WTESL has more than 53 years of experience and over 2500 real estate, industrial and infrastructure projects of various natures across the globe. WTESL has a wide network with branches in major cities like New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Pune, Gandhinagar, Bangalore, Hyderabad etc. and more than 380 employees on their roll. WTESL is also registered with renowned banks and financial institutions like World Bank, ADB etc. Suvin is one of the reputed consulting firms for “textile and food industries”in India, offering the entire gamut of Management & Engineering consultancy services from business strategies to overall project management to process management. Suvin, in the past few years, is known to have a good reputation as a qualified consultant in the textile industry providing satisfactory services for more than 125 projects in India & globally. The Wadia TESL – Suvin collaboration shall enhance the capabilities of both the organization as WTESL has enriched experience in implementation for varied sectors like residential & commercial projects, hotels & hospitals, educational institutions, urban planning, industrial, roads & highways while Suvin has a well-experienced team for management consulting and implementation of textile and food projects. Hence the services of both organizations are complementing each other to provide customers with one-stop solutions for specialized textiles and other industries. Wadia TESL & Suvin have come together to meet the dynamic demands of the rapidly expanding global and domestic industry. This association will enrich the industry with effective solutions for future growth which is particularly essential in today's highly competitive market.   Suvin and Wadia TESL : A perfect collaboration… 34 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 37. Preservation and rational use of agricultural by- products/residues assumes increased significance in modern times not only due to environmental issues but also as an answer to sustainability of agro-economies of the world. Use of cellulose fibres has many advantages: viz. environmentally friendly, recyclable and low in cost. It is reported that in the year 2008, the annual global production of lingo-cellulosic fibre mass generated from all the sources was about 4 billion ton, of which 60% came from agriculture and 40% from the forest (Justin-Smith et. al. 2008). Banana is one of the most important fruit crops grown in almost every state of India. India has the largest area under banana crop in the world (8 lakh ha) and is also the largest producer. Apart from fruit, it generates huge quantity of bio-mass in the form of pseudostem, leaves, suckers, etc. On an average about 60 to 80 tonnes of pseudostem is produced per hector. At present, banana pseudostem is absolute waste and does not find any commercial applications. CIRCOT has been working on extraction of textile grade fibres from pseudostem and utilization of its other bio-waste for the last 15 years. In order to develop value added products from banana pseudostem on large scale, National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) has sanctioned a sub-project under Component II entitled “A Value Chain on Utilisation of Banana Pseudostem for Fibre and Other Value Added Products”. The project is under operation since June 2008 in consortium mode with Navsari Agricultural University (NAU), Navsari, Gujarat, as lead centre. CIRCOT has been an important partner in the project with the objective of standardization of processes for extraction of textile grade fibres from pseudostem and convert it into yarn which can be used on handlooms and powerlooms. In some cottage industries, fibres are extracted from pseudostem for preparations of handicrafts. The fibre extraction is being done mostly by hand where the fibre output is about 0.25kg/day/man, i.e., in a shift of about eight hours. In order to mechanize the fibre extraction, research was carried out at Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT), Mumbai and modified fibre extraction machine "Raspador" was developed. After initial experiments some refinement and modifications were carried out in Raspador machine as well as procedure for extraction. These modifications improved the productivity of machine to 20-25 kg/day. After harvesting of banana bunches, the pseudo-stems are cut and usually abandoned, or are left in the soil to become organic waste. However, this causes environmental pollution. In some parts of India, there have been attempts to utilise banana pseudostem for fibre extraction. Hand extracted banana pseudostem fibres in these areas are being used by cottage industry for the preparation of handicrafts. But the total utilisation of these fibres is at the most of the order of tens of tonnes per annum. The handicraft articles produced are sold in niche market usually for foreign tourists. It is estimated that possible availability of banana fibre is around five lakh tonnes per annum if the entire pseudostem in the country is used for fibre extraction. This indicates that industrial utilization of banana fibres is a possibility and can boost the economyof banana planters. Studies conducted at CIRCOT and NAU show that these fibres can be spun into yarn of about 600 tex (1s cotton count) on jute spinning system, though with difficulty. The quality of yarn produced is also not good. Though it has good strength – about 10 to 12 g/tex tenacity with more than 3% breaking extension – it is highly non- uniform and hairy. Recently, attempt has been made at CIRCOT to develop a charkha to spin banana fibres at cottage level. This is peddle driven device, viz. CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha (applied for patent), which can be installed at every peasant household and produce good quality yarns from banana pseudostem fibres utilising their free time. CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is a pedal driven machine. The paddling action by the operator puts a flywheel in rotation. There are two pulleys coaxially coupled to the flywheel and these pulleys drive a bobbin and a flyer simultaneously. The difference in diameter between pulleys creates a difference in RPM between rotation of the bobbin and rotation of the flyer. When banana pseudostem fibres are fed into the charkha with help of a pair of rollers pressed against each other, the fibres are guided for spinning action with the help of a rotating flyer. While appropriate choice of the ratio of the diameters of pulleys decide the twist per inch (TPI) of the yarn, the fineness of the yarn is controlled by the operator by adjusting the rate of feeding of fibres into the charkha. Yarn produced on CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is finer and more uniform compared to that obtained on jute spinning system. The trial done at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat showed that CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha can produce yarn having fineness better than 3 Ne and with improved operator skills, the fineness can be improved further. The breaking tenacity of the yarn varied between 9 to 14 g/tex depending on the fineness of the yarn. Breaking extension was 2.6-2.9%. Coefficient variation in linear density was around 10%. CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is designed mainly for use in a village setting where availability of technical expertise is almost non-existent. The device is very simple in design and can be maintained by farmer himself with spare parts available in his nearby town. It is expected that one person can produce about 1 Kg of yarn per day and based on current market price, can earn around Rs. 150, thereby adding to the family income. Cottage industries set up at village level can add value to t h e y a r n p r o d u c e d . Considering the fact that the banana pseudostem fibre is otherwise a waste without any e c o n o m i c v a l u e , t h e CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha will be of great help to banana farmers.  M.G.Kurhade, M.V.Vivekanandan & Dr. N.Shanmugam Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology Matunga, Mumbai Dr. Rajan P. Nachane Pic: CIRCOT-Phoenix Chakha Spinning of Banana Fibres on CIRCOT-Phoenix ChakhaYARN FOCUS 35Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 38. We wrap up are 3 part series where we had started from new age fibre/yarn to fabric and now conclude with garments. The beginning of the 21st century has witnessed an exceptional period of change and innovation in the science, design and art of textiles. These innovations involve materials and prototypes that are so new that we can hardly foresee how the familiar functions of textiles will be transformed in the future: fabrics that can harvest solar energy and emit light or heat, interactive digital textile displays, fabrics that are touch-sensitive, primed to detect a faltering pulse or environmental pollutants, fabric buildings and fabric armour that can change colour, or flex textile muscles, all show how textiles are being fundamentally reinvented for predicted demands in the century ahead of us. Working of the Fabric Computer Intelligent textiles, variously known as smart fabrics, electronic textiles, or e-textiles, have attracted considerable attentions worldwide due to their potential to bring revolutionary impacts on human life. These textiles integrate conductive elements, often yarns or fibres into the textile. They are products that in some senses of the word are “active” themselves when used. They can be used in anything from curtains that sense the sun and change structure to clothes that adapt their func¬tion to extreme environments. Despite many promising progresses in this exciting newly emerged research field, there still exist a number of important obstacles. One of the most challenging issues is the conflict between the flexibility of the textiles and the need to incorporate sensing and computation modules. To address this critical issue, an innovative intelligent textile technology is proposed. The central hypothesis is that practical intelligent textiles can be realized by integrating fabrics with flexible transducers/ electronics that are made using a unique, ‘flexible-skin’ technology. The unique features of the silicon-based flexible skins are extremely desirable for intelligent textiles. A novel approach of making intelligent textiles by integrating the silicon-based flexible skins with textiles is proposed. The most important advantage of this novel technology is its compatibility with current MEMS (micro- machined transducers) and IC (integrated circuit) technologies, since MEMS devices and ICs can be fabricated on the silicon wafer before the formation of the skin. This not only saves significant R&D efforts by avoiding re-invention, but also enables the integration of abundant sensing and computational capabilities offered by the silicon-based technology. In order to be integrated with textiles, the original flexible skins are modified and a new perforated structure is proposed as schematically shown in Fig. 1. The new flexible skin consists of 4 components: (1) silicon islands that host sensors, electronics, and bonding pads; (2) metal interconnect wires between silicon islands; (3) polymer layers that sandwich silicon islands and metal wires; and (4) stitching holes etched through polymer layers, which allow the direct sewing into fabrics. One of the fabricated silicon flexible skins is shown in Fig. 2 (a). It can be easily twisted and bent without breaking the interconnect traces and silicon islands as shown in Fig 2 (a) (b) Fig 2. (a) A silicon flexible skin with stitching holes; (b) a folded silicon flexible skin. The flexible transducers/circuits made by the proposed method can be directly embroidered into textiles. It is worth noting that the stitching methods and patterns have substantial impact on the mechanical properties and robustness of the assembled fabrics. Numerous stitching patterns and methods, which have already been developed in the textile industry, will be an excellent resource to exploit. The following picture shows one skin stitched onto the surface of textiles using conductive yarns. The electrical contact was made by conductive epoxy. Fig 3. A silicon flexible skin stitched onto the surface of a piece of KEVLARÒfabric. Figure 1. Top and cross section views of the proposed flexible skin to be woven into textiles. Ms. Rajul J. Shah MFA in Textile and Fashion Design Editor in Chief for TVC 36 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 TECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS Intelligent Textiles
  • 39. Applications of Fabric Computer There are several companies and trademarks offering products which are smart. But all textiles have the same basic properties: Lightweight, durable, flexible, cost competitive with ability to be crimped, soldered and subjected to textile processing. Let’s take a look at few… Weave: Woven fabrics, whether flat or three-dimensional, display great versatility. Their strength allows textiles to be used on vastly different scales. The incorporation of conductive yarns into woven fabrics is an area of continued refinement. Bayer Material Science AG is combining CNT (carbon nanotubes) coated electro conductive fibre (CNTEC) – conductive yarns produced by Kuraray Living Co. Ltd – with their own Baytubes CNTs in a woven textile. The CNTs allow for high electrical and thermal conductivity. The fabric is anti-freezing and can be used in clothing, car seats and other applications. Stitch: Stitch and embroidery are no longer techniques confined to decorative applications. At an industrial level they are capable of very fine work both for large- and small-scale applications. Carbon fibre and electronics for wearable computers or heating systems are among the n e w developments in this area. This picture shows a p r o t o t y p e demonstrating the possibilities of stitch technology to incorporate electronics into an entire garment at the Techtextil trade show in Frankfurt, 2009. Functional Styling The Burning Tablecloth explores the notion of how to design for visual and tactile changes in a textile surface. It is also a way to investigate how our relation to mobile phones and mobile phone technology is affected by the way the phones are being expressed. The tablecloth is connected to mobile phones and reacts to incoming calls and messages with burned out patterns. Due to the mobile phone activity, changes in colour and structure appear in the tablecloth. Wearable electronics, ZSK, Germany. Phone bag In the Phone bag, the patterns pulse, fade and change colour when the mobile phone receives an incoming signal. The bag is made of cloth printed with thermochromic ink and woven from conductive fibres that are connected to an IT component. Anna Persson and Linda Worbin in collaboration with Kasthall designed three full- scale interactive carpets: Spår (Traces), Dimma (Foggy) and Glöd (Spark). The carpets are meant to exemplify various interactive textile expressions that could serve as inspiration for designers that aim to work within the field of expressive sensing and reacting textiles Spår (Traces) As a person walks on Spår, the footsteps leave traces as white and turquoise light stripes in the carpet. Spår looks like an ordinary woven carpet but is able to show that someone is, or has been, walking by lately. Dimma (Foggy). Dimma is a tufted carpet combined with light s o u r c e s . D u e t o s u r r o u n d i n g l i g h t conditions, Dimma’s light-pattern is able to change into three different states. The i n t e n s i t y o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l i g h t influences the ambience of the pattern into a range of different expressions Glöd (Spark) Glöd is a carpet functioning as a mobile heat-source for heating up cold floorings. The carpet changes pattern due to the amount of h e a t - e l e m e n t s turned on at the moment. Interactive textile touch sensor and light artworks combine Project by Hanna Landin, Anna Persson and Linda Worbin Intelligent Textiles 37Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 TECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS
  • 40. patented textile touch sensors with incandescent or LED light. These works allow viewers to touch the textile surface and control light and pattern. Software-generated dynamic patterns emerge and evolve over time. They explore the light-transmissive properties of textiles, such as colour and saturation. They are best displayed in low light environments and can be used as light sources as well as artworks. Maggie Orth's textile touch sensors are made from conductive yarn that is charged with a small, harmless amount of electricity. Because your body is a big bag of electrically conductive salt water, touching the conductive yarn allows the electrical charge to flow from the yarn, through your body, to ground. Sensors detect this change in charge and send an electrical signal to brighten and dim the lights. These sensors can be created with a variety of textile processes, on a variety of textile substrates. Fuzzy Sensors While combining smart materials with information technology, Maggie Orth created fuzzy light switches from POM POM’s. These switches combine low-tech craft aesthetics with the latest conductive yarns and manufacturing techniques. The lights are dimmed by squeezing and stroking the pompoms Reseached by Linnéa Nilsson, Mika Satomi, Anna Vallgårda, Linda Worbin in collaboration with furniture company IRE, Smart Textile Design Lab at the Swedish School of Textile, University of Borås and Smart Textiles Innovation System. Textiles always change expression over time due to use and exposure to sunlight, moist, etc. The textile on these pouffes changes expressions in a dynamic interplay with their use. A bright pattern is gradually revealed when someone sits on them but hid again when they stand idle by. In other words, their patterns are recurring in both space and time. These layered programmable patterns make it possible to let the pattern fade, dissolve, change color or disappear completely and do so as a recurring event. The changes can depend upon events happening far from or in near relation to the textile, or they can happen in a recurring temporal pattern. With these two pouffes we demonstrate some of the possibilities with this technology. The working of these pouffes is complex yet simple. Each of the two demonstrated ‘fabrics’ comprises of four parts: woven cotton with embedded conductive threads, a layered pattern printed with a combination of pigment color and thermo chromic ink (with a state change at 27C), pressure sensors to detect when someone sits on the fabric, a computer programmed to control which threads heats up and for how long depending which pressure sensors are activated. When the threads heat up, the pattern changes. Military British soldiers' uniforms could s o o n u s e e l e c t r i c a l l y conducting yarn woven directly into the clothing, replacing cumbersome batteries and cabling. The "e- textiles" could provide uniforms with a single, central power source. This would allow soldiers to recharge one battery instead of many and cut the number of cables required in their kit. Surrey-based Intelligent Textiles showcased the lightweight uniform at an event organized by the Centre for Defence Enterprise (CDE). The company has patented a number of techniques for weaving complex conductive fabrics. One of the problems with conventional cables is that breakages can be catastrophic. In addition, it removes the hindrance of the many wires and cables required in military equipment. These can add weight and can tangle and snag. Also being developed is a fabric keyboard for use with a portable computer that will be integrated with the uniform. The company is currently working with BAE Systems to integrate other next-generation equipment into the uniform. Photonic textiles An early prototype of a photonic textile by Philips(Netherlands), 2005 Photonic textiles can be made interactive. Philips has achieved interactivity by incorporating sensors (such as orientation and p r e s s u r e s e n s o r s ) a n d communication devices (such as Bluetooth, GSM) into the fabric. Cont.. Page 63 38 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Intelligent TextilesTECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS
  • 41. IndiaIndia MumbaiMumbaiMumbaiMumbaiMumbaiMumbaiIndia MumbaiIndia MumbaiIndia MumbaiIndiaIndia MumbaiMumbaiMumbaiIndia MumbaiIndia MumbaiIndia MumbaiIndia Innovations for life 3 – 5. 10. 2013 www.techtextil-india.co.in International Trade Fair for Technical Textiles and Nonwovens Platinum Partner Gold PartnersGold Partners Techtextil India is one place where you can be sure of meeting the entire value creation chain of technical textiles & nonwovens. To visit call: 91 22 6144 5900
  • 42. ADVT.
  • 43. FABRIC FOCUS 1. Introduction: In recent years there has been an increasing awareness about environmental friendliness in all human activities [1]. The textile industry is a water intensive industry with water being used in every stage of wet processing from sizing, desizing, scouring and bleaching of fibres to the dyeing, finishing and printing of fabrics. Every textile plant requires large volumes of water and produces high volumes of effluent wastewater. The typical textile dye wastewater composition is quite complex. The demand for environmental friendly dyes and application processes is therefore very strong [2]. Reactive dyes have become very popular for cotton due to its brilliancy, variety of hue, high wet fastness, convenient usage and high applicability [3]. Reactive dyes are anionic in character and cotton fibres also adopt anionic surface charge in water causing limited exhaustion of dye due to charge repulsion. Large quantities of electrolyte (30-100 g/l) are thus added to overcome this problem. One of the major problem of reactive dyeing is the large amount of electrolyte required for exhaust and pad application [4] which leads to environmental problem. In addition, inadequate dye exhaustion and fixation result in coloured effluents. As environmental problems arising from dyeing with reactive dyes have become critical, many studies have been devoted to improving the substantivity of cotton fibre for reactive dyes, thus reducing or eliminating the amount of electrolyte used. The problem has many solutions of which cationic reactive dyes and the modification of cotton by cationisation with various cationising agents seems to be the most promising [5]. In this paper, we have reviewed problems of pollution due to electrolytes in reactive dyeing and finding a solution through cationic reactive dyes. The agenda of this review paper is to show that cationic reactive dyes are more suitable than conventional reactive dyes wherein there is a possibility of elimination of electrolyte with enhancement of the fabric fastness properties. 2. Problems caused by use of Electrolytes in Reactive Dyeing  Impairs the delicate biochemistry of aquatic organism.  If sodium sulphate is used as electrolyte, due to the formation of alumina-sulphato complexes which swell and crack concretes with considerable alumina content, there is a destructive attack on the concrete pipes.  Evolution of hydrogen sulphide gas under anaerobic conditions occurs when sodium sulphate is used as electrolyte. Dissolution of such sulphides and subsequent bacterial oxidation happens under the influence of harmful sulphuric acid.  Increase of the TDS of the effluent [6, 7]. 3. Approach for Electrolyte-free Dyeing: The two approaches by which a solution for the problems caused due to the use of electrolytes in reactive dyeing of cotton and its blends are Cationic Reactive Dyes and Modification of Cotton by Cationization 3.1 Cationic Reactive Dyes: An important factor in reactive dyeing is that of the electrostatic repulsion between the sulphonic acid-containing reactive dyes & the surface of the fibre. Another kind of electrostatic repulsion operating is again that between the fixed dye & the incoming dye. Thus, to increase the exhaustion of the dye one needs to employ a high concentration of electrolyte in the dye bath. Among various remedies to this, the concept of having a cationic reactive dye in place of anionic reactive dyes has been suggested as an effective solution in recent years [8]. 3.2 Modification of Cotton by Cationization: Cellulose fibres when immersed in water produce a negative zeta potential and most of the dye classes suitable for cotton are anionic in nature. The negative charge on the fibre repels the anionic dye ions and consequently the exhaustion of the dye bath is limited. However this zeta potential can be easily offset by salt concentrations of a few ppm, about 10 – 100ppm [9]. Cationic cotton is cotton that is modified to contain a quaternary group. Such cationic cotton has an enhanced affinity for anionic dyes. This is because when cotton is cationized with a reactive type of quaternary ammonium compound it forms an integral part of the cellulose chain [10]. Cationization of cotton for dyeing is a long process as it involves cationisation of the fabric in the first stage followed by dyeing in the second stage. Also, this increases the overall consumption of water and effluent load and as complete exhaustion of cationizing agent does not take place, small quantity of the cationizing agent is also released. Also, if cationization process does not take place uniformly or crease formation takes place, the following dyeing obtained would be non-uniform. Hence in comparison, cationization of cotton process is time consuming, giving more effluent with the cationizing agent as compared to the alternative process i.e. dyeing using cationic reactive dye which is a single bath process so of shorter time and thus no additional effluent load being produced. 4 Applications of Cationic Reactive Dyes: Cationic reactive dyes can be applied for the following fibres. 4.1 Cellulosic Fibres: The dyeing of cellulose requires dyes that are in a water soluble form due to the hydrophilic nature of the cellulosic fibres. But due to anionic dye and fibre repulsion as discussed earlier, the dyeing method requires the presence of Electrolyte - Free Dyeing of Textiles with Cationic Reactive Dyes Prof. (Dr.) Ravindra Adivarekar Chet Ram Meena & Neha Mehra Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, I.C.T., Mumbai, India 41Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 44. electrolytes which suppress negative charge build-up at the fibre surface and promotes increased dye adsorption. An alternative approach to improve dyeability of cellulose with anionic dyes could be achieved by incorporating cationic groups into the cellulose structure. Cationic dye ranges are not yet practically used for the dyeing of cellulosic fibre, even though they offer the possibility of a salt-free dyeing process with high tinctorial strength at relatively low levels of dye application. By considering localized cationic dyes where quaternary ammonium groups attach to the chromophore via an aliphatic spacer linkage, it is speculated that removal of these quaternary ammonium groups after the dyeing process may be possible without causing a significant shift in colour hue [11]. The long alkyl chain quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) structures are incorporated into reactive dyes as both water-soluble and cellulosic fibre interactive groups. The QAS are water soluble and more importantly carries positive charge in water, which will increase dye interaction with negatively charged cellulosic surfaces. Thus, the reactive dye molecule can assist dye exhaustion onto cellulosic fibres without using salts and possibly increase reactivity between the cellulose and the dye. This consequently reduces potential hydrolysis of the reactive dyes and the dyed cotton exhibits good colour wash fastness [7]. Fig. 1: An Illustrative example of synthesis of cationic reactive dye [11] 4.1.1 Dyeing Procedure: Cotton fabric can be dyed by cationic reactive dye as shown in the procedure described in Fig. 2. Initially the fabric and dye need to be rotated at room o temperature followed by raising the temperature to 85 C. At this temperature sodium carbonate needs to be added for fixation to take place. The dyeing can then be continued for another 45 mins and removed followed by soaping using non- ionic surfactant and sodium bicarbonate. Fig. 2: Dyeing procedure of the cationic reactive dye [11] 4.2 Protein Fibres: Reactive dyes are widely used for dyeing and printing protein fibres. The hydrophilic group of conventional reactive dyes is an anionic group, e.g. sulphonate or carboxylate, but the hydrophilic group of reactive cationic dyes is cationic. The general formula for this is given in Fig. 3. + R-D-N R ’3 Fig. 3: Hydrophilic group of reactive cationic dyes, where R is the reactive + group, D the chromophore and N R', the cationic group. The reactive dye molecules can react with wool fibre under suitable conditions because of their reactive group (monofluorotriazene). In general, the higher the pH value of the dyeing solution, the more easily the nucleophilic substitution reaction takes place. Reason being wool fibre has an isoelectric point, the higher the pH value; the more free amino groups are available. The surface of fibre is electronegative and the dye ion is positively charged, so it is easy for the latter to be adsorbed and react. Cationic reactive dyes are quite different from conventional reactive dyes in dyeing protein fibre. The presence of anionic groups in conventional reactive dyes means they tend not to be adsorbed [12]. 4.3 Synthetic Polyamide Fibres: Dyes for polyamide fibres normally form ionic bonds within the polymer matrix. In this, dyes bearing a negative (anionic) charge are used because polyamides carry a positive (cationic) charge – especially during the dyeing process [13]. - + + - - + Dye-SO Na + Nylon-NH Cl à Dye-SO H N-Nylon3 3 3 3 Fig. 4: Schematic representation of dye–polymer binding via ionic bonding on Nylon [13] Anionic (acid) dyes are commonly used to colour nylon. The dye attaches to nylon via electrostatic linkages between the + cationic, protonated amino end groups of the nylon (NH ) and3 _ the anionic sulphonate groups of the dye (Dye-SO ) [14].3 However, even fabrics coloured with these dyes suffer colour loss during laundering which causes staining of adjacent fabrics. An after treatment of the dyed nylon can result in somewhat improved wet fastness, repeated washing can still result in loss of colour and there remains much room for improvement. Reactive dyes resemble acid dyes in their basic structure, but additionally possess fibre reactive groups, their name being derived from their ability to react chemically with the fibre. Cationic reactive dyes possess either a single mono- or dichlorotriazine reactive group or a heterobifunctional (monochlorotriazine/sulphato ethylsulphone) reactive system, + containing one or two cationic trimethylammonium ((CH ) N )3 3 groups, which get attracted to the negative carboxylate groups - (COO ) of nylon via ion–ion attraction. The optimum pH of application is 8–10. These conditions provide the best balance of o NH2 NO2 o NH2 N CI CI CI + Room temp CI HN N N N CIO ONO2 NH2 1, 4 diamino-5nitro anthraquinone Cyanunic chloride 0 45-50 C pH 6.5-7.0 NH CH CH2 2 2 N-(2-aminoethyl) pyridinium chloride + N - Cl CI N N N NH CH CH2 2 2 HNO ONO2 NH2 - Cl + N Cationic Reactive Dye 0 85 C CC Cotton was taken out, rinsed and soaped-off 10 min 45 min 10 min Room temp. 0 85 C 0 2 C/min A, B Where A = Cootn Fabric B = Cationic Reactive Dye C = Na CO 20 g/l2 3 42 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 FABRIC FOCUS
  • 45. electrostatic attraction between dye and fibre, together with a high concentration of free (nucleophilic) amino groups on the fibre. These cationic reactive dyes exhibit very good build-up and fixation efficiency, comparable with anionic monochlorotriazine commercial reactive dyes for nylon [15]. However, mild staining of polyamide and secondary cellulose acetate occurs in some cases wherein mild acidic soaping-off treatment can reduce the staining [16]. A high pH is used because at that pH the build up and fixation of anionic reactive dyes on nylon is limited by electrostatic repulsion between dye and anionic carboxylate groups present in the nylon. At low pH, the effective concentration of anionic carboxylate groups is greatly reduced, and that of cationic protonated amino groups increased, leading to electrostatic attraction between dye and fibre but a massive reduction in the concentration of free amino groups which are the nucleophilic species responsible for reacting with dye. Under alkaline conditions the fixation and build up of cationic reactive dyes on nylon are excellent. Also, because covalent bond formation between dye and nylon is efficient, dyeing shows excellent wet fastness [17]. 4.4 Multifibres: The present method of dyeing multifibre fabrics such as polyester/wool/CDP (Cationic Dyeable Polyester), polyester/viscose/CDP blends involves the use of various two-bath processes, disperse dyes for polyester, reactive dyes for wool or viscose, cationic dyes for CDP using a lot of disperse agents. The use of various multi-bath processes is time-consuming and expensive to operate. The effluent pollution from dyeing bath containing dispersing agents and leveling agent is large, having a high biological oxygen demand (BOD). The temporarily solubilized cationic reactive disperse dyes containing pyridine-quaternary group have been designed for dyeing of multifibre fabric. As heterocyclic nitrogen atoms of pyridine cause an electron deficiency at the adjacent carbon atom, the dyes containing pyridine-acetylamino are susceptible to react with natural fibre. These dyes are temporarily solubilized disperse dyes. After hydrolyzing, they become disperse dyes for PET. The dyes containing quaternary group can be used for one-bath processes with cationic dyes without dispersing agents and levelling agent for polyester/wool/CDP and polyester/ viscose/CDP. Cationic reactive disperse dyes shows good degree of exhaustion and fixation on wool. The light fastness, rubbing and wash fastness on wool is excellent as compared to any conventional reactive dyes [18]. 5. Conclusion: To put it in a nut shell, the main problem faced by the dyeing industry is due to electrolytes used in the dyeing process. The cationic reactive dye can be looked upon as a solution to this problem as cationic reactive dyes shows high percentage exhaustion and fixation value, in the absence of electrolyte. None the less, tailor made cationic reactive dyes can be applied on almost all commercially used fibres. Fastness properties are considerably good compared to the conventional reactive dyes. Thus, cationic reactive dyes can offer not only simpler dyeing recipes but also possible environmental benefits. References: 1. N. Sekar, Colourage, pp 93-94, December 2001. 2. Environmental Protection Agency, Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Textile Mills; Points Source Category, EPA Document 440/1 – 79/ 022b, EPA, October 1979. 3. Zhang jie., Dyeing and Printing, 4, pp 47-50, 2005. 4. Haigh D., Review of Process in Coloration, 2, pp 27, 1971. 5. Jocic, D., Jovancic, P., Petrovic, Z. Lj., Bertran, E., Navarro, A., Julia, M. nd R., & Erra, P., In Proceedings of the World Textile Conference 2 AUTEX Conference. Bruges, Belgium, 2002.297–312. 6. M. Subramanian, Journal of Textile Apparel Technology and Management, 5 (2), pp 1-16, 2006. 7. Tao Zhao, Gang Sun, Xinyuan Song, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 108, pp1917–1923, 2008. 8. N. Sekar, Colourage, pp 47-49, March 2001. 9. Rakesh V. Tiwari, Colourage Special, Supplement on BTRA, Colourage Seminar on Reactive dyes, 28 Sept., 38 (9), pp 19 – 22, 1991. 10. R.B. Chavan, and D.P. Chattopadhyay, Colourage Annual, 45, pp 127 – 133, 1998. 11. Kawee Srikulkit and Pornchai Santifuengkul, JSDC, 116, pp398-402, 2000. 12. X. Kongliang, H. Aiqin, Journal of Society Dyers and Colourist, 114, pp 20-23, January 1998. 13. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol99/mono99-7.pdf, assessed on 18 November 2011. 14. A. Soleimani-Gorgani1, J.A. Taylor, Dyes and Pigments, 76, pp 610- 623, 2008. 15. Atasheh Soleimani-Gorgani, John A Taylor, Coloration Technology, 127, pp1–8, 2011. 16. D. M. Lewis, L. J. Sun, Coloration Technology, 119, pp 327- 330, 2003. 17. A. Soleimani-Gorgani1, J.A. Taylor, Dyes and Pigments, 76, pp 610- 623, 2008. 18. Kongliang Xie, Aiqin Hou, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 29, pp 436–439, 2008.   FABRIC FOCUS Correction Corner for Volume 1 Issue 1 (April –June 2013): 1- Fibre Focus Section: Page no.31 -33, Birla Spun Dyed Viscose Fibre, an eco-concept for future trends. On page 33, Table 5 columns of spun dyed viscose and piece dyed viscose has been involuntarily interchanged. We are republishing the article in Volume 2, Issue 2. 2- Page no. 44: Gadia Exports Advertisement, Exporter of Cotton, the 'tt' was missing in the word Cotton. The Company is also in to domestic market not only in exports. We deeply regret the errors and did not in any way mean to hurt the concerned parties. 43Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 46. COUNT REED PICK WIDTH IN INCHS LOOM PRICE 40 x40 132 x 73 63 POWERLOOM 70.5 40 x40 92 x 88 63 – 52 40 x40 92 x 88 63 AUTOLOOM 58 60 x 60 92 x 88 63 POWERLOOM 52 60 x 60 92 x 88 47 POWERLOOM 37 60 x 60 92 x 88 63 MILL MADE 58 80 x 80 92 x 88 63 POWERLOOM 51 80 x 80 92 x 88 63 AUTOLOOM 57 60 x60 132x108 1/1 63 AIRJET 85 20 x 10 108x54 63 RUTIC 73 20 x 300 108x54 63 – 68.5 20 x 300 124 x 56 58 RUTIC 90 20 x 16 108 x 56 63 RUTIC 72 20 x 20 56 x 56 63 RUTIC 72 20 x 20 56 x 56 63 RUTIC 44 30 x 150 124 x 64 63 RUTIC 63 45 PC X 45PC 102 X 76 60 CIMCO 57 COUNT REED PICK WIDTH IN INCHS WEAVE PRICE EX FACTORY per meter ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 3/1 Drill 97 ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 Broken Drill 97 ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 2/1 twill 97 Ne 30/10 144 x 64 63 31 drill 95 Ne 30/16+16 ly 144 x 56 69 4/1 satin 106 Ne 30/16+16 ly 144 x 56 69 Broken drill 106 Ne 30/20+20ly 144 x 68 69 4/1 satin 114 Ne 40/30 +30Ly 144 x 68 69 4/1 satin 114 Ne 40/20 165 x 74 63 4/1 satin 95 Ne 40/30 185 x 85 63 4/1 satin 102 Ne 40/30 185 x 90 63 4/1 satin 105 Ne 40/40 +150D 112 x 66 63 1/1 plain 61 Ne 40/40 124 x70 63 1/1 plain 68 Ne 40/40 124x96 63 1/1 plain 82 Ne 40/40 132x 72 63 1/1 plain 71 Ne 50/50 165 x 104 63 2/1 twill 100 Ne 60/60 +80D 132 x 96 63 1/1 plain 72 Ne 60/60 +80D 165 x 104 63 4/1 satin 91 Ne 60/60 +80D 165x120 63 4/1 satin 100 Ne 60/60 175x116 63 4/1 satin 100 Ne 60/60 180x115 63 4/1 satin 100 Ne 60/60 196x108 63 4/1 satin 100 Ne 60/60 196x110 63 2/1 twill 101 Ne 80/80 165 x 114 63 4/1 satin 95 COUINT REED PICK WIDTH 2/10 x 2/10 44 x 32 60 2/7 X 2/7 42X26 60 3/10 X 3/10 42X26 60 3/8 X 3/8 36 X 26 60 3/7 X 3/7 36 X 26 60 * Kindly please note all prices are indicative. * Kindly please note all prices are indicative. * Kindly please note all prices are Open CANVAS Construction Inch Weave Rate 40*40/132*72 63" 1/1 plain 69.00 40*40/124*70 63" 1/1 plain 66.00 40*40/124*96 63" 1/1 plain 80.00 40*30/185*90 63" 4/1 satin 102.00 60*60/165*104 63" 4/1 satin 90.00 40/30+30ly 173*76 69" 4/1 satin 110.00 Mr. Kirti Shah TEXTILE WORLD Contact : 9322282833 http://textileworld.net.in Report Given By : 44 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES * Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
  • 47. Sr. No. QUALITY GSM WEAVE PRICE EX. MILL COUNT REED PICK WIDTH IN INCHS per Meter 1 10X06 76X28 63 515 DUCK 78 2 16X08 84X28 47 270 DUCK 47 3 16X08 84X28 63 365 DUCK 61 4 16X12 84X26 47 235 DUCK 43 5 16X12 84X26 63 315 DUCK 57 6 16X12 96X48 63 415 DRILL 77 7 16X12 108X56 63 470 DRILL 86 8 16X16 60X56 63 300 PLAIN 58 9 2/20X10 40X36 48 240 PLAIN 47 10 2/20X10 40X36 63 315 PLAIN 59 11 20X20 60X60 63 245 PLAIN 49 12 20X20 60X60 67 255 PLAIN 54 13 20X20 60X60 72 275 PLAIN 57 14 20X20 60X60 78 300 PLAIN 61 15 20X16 108X56 63 360 DRILL 69 16 20X20 108X56 63 335 DRILL 66 17 30X30 68X64 63 177 PLAIN 47 18 30X30 124X64 63 260 TWILL 70 19 10 x 6 76 x 28 63” 320 Duck 74.00 20 10 x 6 76 x 28 67” 320 Duck 78.75 21 10 x 10 76 x 28 63” 270 Duck 66.50 22 16 x 8 84 x 28 47” 225 Duck 44.00 23 16 x 8 84 x 28 50” 225 Duck 48.50 24 16 x 8 84 x 28 63” 225 Duck 58.75 25 16 x 8 84 x 28 67” 225 Duck 63.25 26 16 x 8 84 x 28 72” 225 Duck 67.75 27 16 x 8 84 x 28 84” 225 Duck 79.00 28 16 x 8 76 x 27 63” 210 Duck 55.25 29 16 x 8 76 x 27 67” 210 Duck 59.00 30 16 x 8 76 x 27 72” 210 Duck 63.25 31 16 x 10 84 x 28 63” 210 Duck 56.50 32 16 x 10 84 x 28 72" 210 Duck 64.75 33 16 x 12 84 x 26 47” 192 Duck 40.00 34 16 x 12 84 x 26 63” 192 Duck 53.50 35 16 x 12 84 x 26 67” 192 Duck 57.00 36 16 x 12 84 x 26 72” 192 Duck 61.25 37 20 x 10 76 x 28 63” 170 Duck 48.25 38 10 x 10 38 x 34 63” 185 Plain 47.75 39 10 x 10 38 x 34 67” 185 Plain 51.00 40 10 x 10 40 x 36 50” 197 Plain 41.25 41 10 x 10 40 x 30 80” 180 Plain 57.25 42 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 50” 185 Plain 45.25 43 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 67” 185 Plain 58.50 44 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 72” 185 Plain 63.00 45 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 76” 185 Plain 66.50 46 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 80” 185 Plain 70.00 47 2/20 x 10 38 x 36 82” 190 Plain 73.50 48 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 63” 197 Plain 57.25 49 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 72” 197 Plain 66.25 50 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 84” 197 Plain 77.00 51 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 63” 197 Plain 65.00 52 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 72” 197 Plain 74.50 53 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 80” 197 Plain 82.75 54 20 x 20 60 x 56 48” 150 Plain 42.50 55 20 x 20 60 x 56 49” 150 Plain 43.50 56 20 x 20 60 x 56 72” 150 Plain 58.00 57 20 x 20 60 x 56 80” 150 Plain 64.50 58 16 x 16 56 x 56 63” 180 Plain 57.75 59 30 x 30 68 x 68 72” 117 Plain 60.25 60 40RSK x 40RSK 52 x 36 57” 57 Plain 30.00 61 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 81” 73 Plain 66.00 62 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 82” 73 Plain 66.75 63 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 84” 73 Plain 68.50 64 40RSK x 40RSK 68 x 44 63” 73 Plain 39.75 65 40RSK x 40RSK 64 x 44 67” 70 Plain 41.50 66 60CMP x 60CMP 92 x 86 63” 78 Plain 62.00 67 10 x 10 68 x 38 50” 275 Drill 55.75 68 10 x 10 68 x 38 63” 275 Drill 68.25 69 10 x 10 68 x 38 72” 275 Drill 78.00 70 16 x 12 108 x 56 63” 295 Drill 82.75 71 16 x 12 96 x 48 63” 258 Drill 73.00 72 16 x 12 96 x 48 67” 258 Drill 78.25 73 16 x 12 96 x 48 72” 258 Drill 84.00 74 20 x 20 108 x 56 63” 212 Drill 68.25 75 20 x 20 108 x 56 67” 212 Drill 72.75 76 20 x 20 108 x 56 80” 212 Drill 86.75 77 40CRS x 40CRS 124 x 64 63” 122 Twill 71.25 78 10 x 10 40 x 36 63” 197 Waffle 51.25 79 20 x 20 108 x 52 63” 207 HB 68.25 COUNT REED PICK BLEND PROCESS WEAVE 40 X 30 178 X 78 97% Cotton 3% Lycra Dyed Lycra Satin 40 X 30 178 X 78 97% Cotton 3% Lycra Rfd Lycra Satin 2/50 x 150 142 x 88 70% Cotton 30% Polyester rfd peach 2/1 twill 2/40 x 300 134 x 56 70% Cotton 30% Polyester Rfd 2/1 twill 30 x 10 152 x 68 100 % cotton Rfd 3/1 Drill 30 x 30 132 x 68 100 % cotton Bld 2/1 twill 30 x 30 124 x 64 100 % cotton Dyed 2/1 twill 16 x 12 116 x 56 100 % cotton Dyed 3/1 twill 16 x 12 116 x 56 100 % cotton Dyed peach 3/1 twill 20 x 20 116 x 56 100 % cotton dyed 3/1 twill 2/40 x 300 134 x 56 70% Cotton 30% Polyester bld peach 2/1 twill 30 x10 152 x 68 100 % cotton Bld 3/1 Drill 20 x 10 122 x 56 100 % cotton Bld 2/1 twill * Kindly please note all prices are indicative. * Kindly please note all prices are open. 45Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES
  • 48. * Kindly please note all prices are indicative. Sort Popular name Aprox. Grey price Rs/mtr Aprox. Finished price Rs/mtr Polyester x VSF Makhamali 30-32 60-65 Polyester x Modal Modal dress 40-45 70-75 PolYester x Excel dyed excel jacquard 50-55 75-80 Polyester x HT PV cotton chiffon 35-38 60-65 Nylon x staple viscose Chanderi 40-42 70-75 Viscose Filament x vsf Centone 42-45 70-75 Bamberg x modal, plain cotton silk plain 60-62 90-95 Bamberg x modal, satin cotton silk satin 65-66 100-110 Modal x modal pure modal 50-55 80-90 Excel x excel Fortune 55-60 85-95 vsf x vsf Staple dress 38-40 65-75 REPORT FOR FABRIC Grey Fabric Scenario: Recession has hit every sphere of life & the story of Grey Fabric is no different. It is running slow in the market and not fetching the price it requires for sustainability. Normally, fabric processing takes 15-20 days but due to heavy load in processing houses, delivery of Grey Fabric has been taking an exponential amount of time, i.e 2 to 2.5 months. Investment in Grey fabric is huge and purchasers are being hit hard as they do not get their invested money on time. Hence, day by day there is less interest in purchasing Grey fabrics. Processed Fabric Scenario: 70-75% processing in India is done in the State of Gujarat where processing house takes a mere 15-20 days. Still the sad part is that, the delivery of goods is stalled to not less than 2 months. Ahmedabad processing houses like many are interested in trading and not interested in job work which is tedious. When Grey Fabric owners’ request for dyed fabrics, processors prefer to buy new cloth, process it and sell it rather than deal with Grey Fabric. For earning profit, they sell goods on credit basis at maximum rates to the north and south markets. Southern mills do not give fabric for processing till the payment being RTGS in their accounts. Their payments are delayed resulting in the processing house helplessness in delaying payments to Grey Fabric manufacturers. In Piplej area of Ahmedabad, the Pollution Control Board (PCB) has given notice to 15 processing houses because of very poor quality maintenance during processing. These processing houses, process 1 lakh meter fabric on a daily basis. If they do not adhere by the rules laid down by PCB, they will soon have to shut their units. Similar problem is faced by the processing houses in Vapi. In many places in Vapi, processing or machinery fixing is done in open spaces in the units, which harms the environment. Hence the State Govt and Central government have started enquiry for the same which is not healthy for the business. Businesses need to tighten their belts & their understanding of what needs to be changed & improved for their own survival. Demand of Variety of Fabric: Demand for pitch-dyed fabrics, shirting and bottoms is very good. Yarn-dyed checks demand has reduced to 50%. Yarn dyed checks Grey fabric price are: • 40x40/ 108 x 72 : Rs. 100-102 • 40 x 40 / 110 x 80 : Rs. 110 Current trend is Corduroy fabric in 21 walles and 26 walles which is in huge demand. Finished goods of 40 x 40 / 120 x 80 are directly being sold at Rs. 125 to 130 across India, so distributors are not very keen to sell these products.   FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES Construction Inch Weave Rate 60COMP*60CBD-196*108 63" 4/1 SATIN 100 60COMP*60CBD-148*108 63" PLAIN 83 60COMP*60CBD-165*104 63" 4/1 SATIN 90 60COMP*60CBD+80D-132*96 63" PLAIN 73 2/50*30CBD-74*58-= 63" PLAIN n/a 40COMP*40CBD-124*72 63" PLAIN 66 40COMP*40LYCRA-106*68 69" PLAIN 90 40c*30c-185*85 63" 4/1 satin 99 40*30lycra-173*76 69" 4/1 satin 110 40c*20ring spun -165*74 63" 4/1 SATIN 92 30COMP*20+20LYCRA-144*68 69" 4/1 SATIN 110 20OE*16LYCRA-108*56 67" 2/1 TWILL 100 GREY FABRIC PRICES POPULAR NEW FABRICS FOR FUTURE GROWTH BY BIRLA CELLULOSE 46
  • 49. GARMENT FOCUS Abstract: Changing trends of legwear were studied through observation and questionnaire method. It was observed that the most preferred legwear was changing according to changing trends. Women working outside their home preferred loose legwear while housewife’s preferred their traditional wear according to their culture. Introduction: Two of the basic human wants is clothing and change. Clothing plays a vital role in every aspect of our lives. There is a great transition in the concept of clothing from centuries ago till now. There is also a constant need to change clothing as change is the only concept which is constant. Clothing and fashion trends change almost every six months. Consciousness and the average purchasing power have caused a sudden explosion. The present increase in economic growth in India has an important influence on changes in fashion. The input of the computer industry is rapidly changing labour market and our culture. Notable is the need to wear comfortable clothes during long working hours which has led to a dramatic change in the demand for office wear. Indian wear namely saris and salwar kameez have also changed and their looks have evolved for the metros. So in this sense, our clothing and style evolves as we change, as technology advances and as our attitudes towards the society changes. The way fashion changes can show how a society or culture changes and evolves. There is a significant change in women wardrobe specifically in the legwears as there has been lot of varieties which have come and gone from the market, being fad or classic. There were many more legwears which existed in the form of variation of the below legwears, howevermainly they are as below: • The oldest legwear used by Indian women is Ghagra choli which was observed around 1872 and gained immense popularity. Ghagra choli, which is also known as Lehenga choli, is the traditional clothing of women in Rajasthan,, Gujarat, MP, UP, Haryana, HP and Uttarakhand. Chaniya choli is another term commonly used to refer it. It is a combination outfit of a Lehenga, tight Choli and a Dupatta. Lehenga or Ghagra is a form of skirt which is long, embroidered and pleated. It is worn as the bottom portion of a Ghagra choli. The ancient version of skirt or Ghagra evolved from Bhairnivasani, which in turn evolved from the Antariya when stitched on one side became tabular and was worn gathered together at the waist, and held by a girdle. This was one of the earliest forms of a clumsily stitched skirt. It was worn using drawstring or nada. The ghagra was a narrow skirt six feet long the same length as original Antariya. This style can still be seen worn by Jain nuns in South Asia and during festive and auspicious and sacred occasions in the states where it is worn. ( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx) • Patiala salwars was accepted by Indian women during 1980 and is a type of female trousers which has its roots in Patiala City in the Northern region of Punjab state in India. The King of Patiala in earlier times had its Royal dress as Patiala Salwar. It has a close resemblance to the pathani suit which has similar loose lowers as salwars (Salwar are gathered at the waist and held up by a drawstring or an elastic band) and long knee length top known as Kameez. Over the years, the dress is not worn by men but has classically transformed itself with new cuts and styling into women's Patiala Salwar. The reason why the Patiala dress is preferred by most of the women of Punjab and other regions of Northern India is its comfort ability and durability in summers. Its distinguishing characteristic is folds of cloth stitched together that meet at the bottom. Patiala salwars require double the length of material to get stitched. The fall of the pleats of the Patiala Salwar is such that it gives a beautiful draping effect. ( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx) • Harem pants or harem trousers, also known as parachute pants were observed gaining popularity among Indian women after ghagra around 1988-1989. Harem pants are women's baggy long pants tapered at the ankle, with side flaps on the hip that button at the waist area. Harem pants, which originated in India, are like a cross between a skirt and a pair of skinny jeans. The legs, from the knees down, are fitted. The crotch area is loose and baggy as if it were cut to be a skirt. Traditional harem pants can be extremely large and baggy, with a very wide and full fit, very roomy, loose fitting, oversized, puffy, spacious, with elastic in waist and at ankles, and with the crotch below the knee almost to the ground. Harem pants are commonly worn with a pleated skirt — a short skirt that covers the top portion of the harem pants. They’ve also emerged as a "modern" version of harem pants made popular in the late 1980s by MC Hammer and thus known as hammer pants. They are intended to be made more fashionable. Similar pants are also known as dimije, tshalvar, schalwar, salwar kameez, kaccha, Patiala salwar, shintijan, sirwal, sharovary, Turkish trousers, aladdin pants, balloon pants, drop crotch pants, pantaloons, zouave, pluderhose and pumphose. • Women wearing pants (trousers) were thought by some to be historically almost non-existent, apart from Amazonian women, but have become more commonplace since the advent of feminism in the middle to late 20th century. In the 1970s, trousers became especially fashionable for women; today trousers are worn by many women while skirts and dresses remain common as well. Indian women began wearing trousers in the later part of the 20th century. ( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx) Changing Trends of Legwear in Women’s Wardrobe Padia D. Nirmala Niketan College of Home Science, Mumbai 47Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 Dr. Ela Dedhia
  • 50. • Jeans are trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth. Often the term "jeans" refers to a particular style of pants called "blue jeans" and invented by Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss in 1873. Starting in the 1950s, jeans, originally designed for cowboys, became popular among teenagers, especially members of the greaser subculture. Historic brands include Levi's, Lee, and Wrangler. Jeans come in various fits, including skinny, tapered, straight, boot cut and flare. Jeans are now a very popular article of casual dress around the world. They come in many styles and colours; however, "blue jeans" are particularly identified with American culture, especially the American Old West. (Http://www.Lifescript.Com/life/style/your- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx) • Capri pants (also known as capri’s, crop pants, long or three-quarter shorts, and clam diggers) are mid-calf pants worn in warm weather. Variants end below the knee and calf. Though widely popular with women they are also worn by men in many countries, especially in Europe, Latin America and Asia Capri pants were introduced by European fashion designer Sonja de Lennart in 1948. The pants' name derives from the Italian isle of Capri, where they rose to popularity in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Capri’s' acceptance in the United States was influenced by the 1960s television series. After a drop in popularity during the 1970s through the 1990s Capri’s returned to favour during the 2000s. • Leggings are a type of skin-tight clothing covering the legs, which can be worn by both men and women. Originally leggings were two separate garments, one for each leg. Modern leggings are typically made from a blend of lycra, spandex, nylon, cotton, or polyester blend, but they can also be made from wool, silk and other materials. Leggings are available in a multitude of colours and decorative designs. Leggings in the form of skin-tight trousers, a tighter version of the Capri’s ending at mid-calf or near ankle length, made its way into fashion in the 1960s. It was very common to see leggings worn with long oversized t-shirts, oversized sweatshirts or oversized sweaters, slouch socks and Ked. Fashion turned against leggings in the late 1990s. In 2005, leggings made a "comeback" into high fashion, particularly in indie culture, with Capri-length leggings being worn with mini skirts and dresses. Consequently, leggings are also now popular to wear with oversized, long sweaters, denim mini skirt, plaid skirts, and short dresses. Shiny leggings, sometimes called leather-look leggings have a shiny, metallic (lame), or wet-like appearance. They emerged as a popular f a s h i o n t r e n d i n t h e l a t e 2 0 0 0 s . ( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx) • Jeggings are a recent variant of leggings. They are leggings that take certain attributes from jeans, such as colour and style and particularly a coloured seam down the side, thus a mixture of the two and hence the adoption of the name "Jeggings". Some styles have even taken the jean-like look to such lengths as adding faux pockets and faux zip-flies to add to the look. Jeggings were brought on by the resurgence in style of skinny jeans in the mid- to late-2000s, when a higher demand for an even tighter style of pant came about. Since jeggings are typically made of a denim/spandex blend, they are often worn on their own as opposed to under a skirt or dress. Some jeggings have front fastening facilities while others just have an elastic waistband and no pockets. Objectives: • To study different leg wears and their origin. • To observe changes in women wardrobe. • To know which legwears are accepted by women. • To analyze the most currently happening legwear for women. Review of Literature: • Men and women are assuming new roles, both at home and in the work place because of this, there is an overlap of duties between work and the family (Cripps & MacDonald, 1986). • Ready to wear clothing can be produced in a quality & price range to suit the needs of most. Therefore, home sewing is no longer a necessity but a hobby (Maccleave Frazier & Murray) • Fashion is not just limited to the ramp or to the world of high society. Even a simple jacket or a muffler worn by a woman whilst buying vegetables in a market is a product of fashion that must have percolated from the ramp to the retail store. • Indian wear namely saris and salwar kameez have also changed and their looks have evolved for the metros. Indian fashion designers have experimented a lot by changing necklines, styling and silhouettes of salwar kameezes and sari blouses & sari draping. • Fashion trends always exist through various cycles. “Fashion trends do not change once in a season or once in a year, in fact fashion trends keep changing every day.” In today’s era, change in fashion has been significantly altered due to the expansion of fashion markets and cultural acceptance to fashion change (Feb 24th, 2011in Announcements,Designers). Methodology: • Data was collected through various sources like published books, magazines, internet, etc. • Observations were made to understand the current trends of legwears available in the market. • Based on current trends and review of literature, a survey was conducted to find out the legwear women most preferred and their comfort ability. Sample size was 236 Indian women ranging from age group 25-35 years, the results were then tabulated. • Observations were also made to confirm the preference of leg wear amongst working women. 48 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 GARMENT FOCUS
  • 51. YES NO SOMETIMES 30 150 180 Fig.6. Traditional legwear for the sake of modesty Results and Discussion: • Preferred legwear in daily routine: Women mostly preferred salwars as the most comfortable legwear for daily wear followed by leggings, harem, jeans, capri, ghagra respectively. • Most preferred legwear amongst working women: The most preferred legwear by working women was leggings as they wanted to be in trend with others and then followed by jeans, harem, and ghagra. Capri was the least preferred. • Looseness of legwear preferred: Majority of the respondents preferred loose garment (85 %) as compared to tight legwear (15%). It was observed that there is a great impact on preferences for legwear as and when the situation changes and occasion demand. • Impact on personality and body features: Majority of women feel that the legwear they choose has a major impact on their personality and affects the look of their body features whereas some women feel the reverse. • Selection of legwear according to growing fashion: It was seen that majority of women opine that “this is in fashion lets buy” if it’s very trendy, followed by women who do not have their selection matching to growing fashion, and some women agree that sometime their selection depend on fashion knowingly or unknowingly. • Reason for traditional legwear: When respondents were asked whether they prefer their traditional legwear for the sake of modesty, majority of them denied as their prime focus was their comfort level followed by respondents wearing it because of modesty purpose and then by respondents saying who sometimes wore it for reasons of modesty. • Change in preference for legwear with increasing age: It was observed that a large number of respondents felt that their preference for leg wear has changed with their increasing age while a good number of the respondents feel that their preference for leg wear changes irrespective of their age. 120 50 40 64 90 16 SALWARS JEANS CAPRI HAREM GHAGRA LEGGING Fig.1. Legwear Preference in % LEGGINS JEANS SALWARS HAREM GHAGRA Fig.2. Preferred Legwear 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% PREFERENCE TIGHT LEGWEAR LOOSE LEGWEAR Fig.3. Looseness of Legwear 30% 70% YES NO Fig.4. Impact on Personality & Body Features 43% 30% 27% 0% 20% 40% 60% SELECTION SOME TIME NO YES Fig.5. Legwear According To Growing Fashion GARMENT FOCUS 49Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 52. • Smooth transition observed over the years: Market study showed that: • Varieties of leg wears have made their appearance in the market. • The respondents were aware about the smooth transition taking place in the fashion and apparel world and they too had somewhat changed their wardrobe accordingly. Conclusion: • The latest trend for legwear happening in the market and widely accepted by the Indian women are full Patiala's and Leggings. • Mostly it was seen that the major influence in legwear was Bollywood, the surrounding society and fashion and the apparel industry. 60 40 20 0 23 20 57 0 Series 1 YES LITTLE HUGE NO Fig 9. Transition Observed • Designer tags lead to mass acceptance. • Many factors play a role for selection of legwear in their wardrobe. • Future trends can be designed by studying changing trends. Recommendations: • Changing trends for other apparel wear can also be conducted. • Changing trends with relation to other aspects like fashion market, recession, psychology of the people, etc. can also be studied. • Observation method can be used for other groups also.  References: • Apparel magazines articles • Traditional textiles books • Elements of fashion & apparel design: Sumath, G.J., 2002 • Http://www.Answers.Com/topic/leggings#ixzz23qhu6n5 • Http://www.Answers.Com/topic/leggings#ixzz23qhta6dd • Http://www.Answers.Com/topic/jeans#ixzz23qjwhohm • Http://www.Lifescript.Com/life/style/your- look/the_brief_history_of_fashion_trends.Aspx • Http://www.Utepprospector.Com/fashion-trends-of-today- s-society-1.1575464#.Uli7bgcsivo Manufacturers, Exporters & Wholesalers of Fancy, Modern, Latest, Embroidered Salwar Kameez, Kurta, Lehnga, Saree, Designer Blouse, Sherwani etc. made to order also. Very Reasonable Rates, Prompt Delivery, New Designs are our specialty! Contact: M/s. Sharron Enterprise, E-5-5,Nutan Jeevan, Kripa Nagar, Rla, S. V. Road, Opp. Jain Mandir, Vile Parle (west), Mumbai-400 056, INDIA. Mrs. Minaxi Shah, M:99309-66788, Mr. Jagat Shah, M: 93201-66788, Tel:(022) 2671-2228 E-mail: sharron.ent@gmail.com ADVT. GARMENT FOCUS
  • 53. We all read and are aware about the FASHION ADOPTION THEORIES namely “TRICKLE DOWN”, “TRICKLE UP” and “TRICKLE ACROSS”. These theories explain how a consumer accepts a style. In the past 4-5 years, I have observed that a style can also take many routes simultaneously when introduced and I call this as “BUBBLE BLAST” mode of acceptance. A particular style, at the same time, is accepted by all the social groups, all the income groups and all the age groups with the same charm. One does not require approval from the fashion leaders, neither do they need permission from social gurus nor are they not acceptable because youngergenerations have used it or are using it. How is this “Bubble Blast Theory” different from the other FASHION ADOPTION THEORIES? Here, acceptance is based on UTILITY and not mere fascination or blind acceptance of a particular style and this theory will remain prevalent in the years ahead too. This talks about the self intuition driver acceptance mode. Here, to accept a style, UTILITY FACTOR becomes more important for the approval. Today, across the world, the consumers / customers literacy is growing at an unexpected rate. Everyone is aware about the facts or wish to know them before they make any purchase. The development in information technology has united the world in so many ways. The increased competition has given customers many choices in a particular product category and of course the other main factors - The CONSCIOUS CONSUMERISM and EASY FINANCE from the various banks, has changed consumers acceptance patterns. Let's take an example of a consumer product like “MAGGIE NOODLES”. From the day it was launched till date, everyone accepted this product at the very time it was introduced (whether it was a villager or an urbanite, a farmer or a business executive or a movie star). This product acceptance was as a result of metro life culture, a best option for quick snacks, suitable in the current fast lifestyle. The product was and till date BUBBLE BLASTTRICKLE DOWN TRICKLE ACROSS TRICKLE UP is being accepted at all socio-economic levels without any guilt. The product has the utility and it delivers. There are many examples like utensils cleaning liquids or bars, biscuits, detergent powders, etc. BLACKBERRY mobile was once understood only for the business or top executive class. When launched in India, it became an overnight hit and was not only in the hands of top executives but was widely accepted by youth too at the same time. Even though the product was costly, all income groups accepted it. It could be because of the UTILITY FACTOR i.e. “black berry messenger service” facility and additionally because of the easy finance and re-payment facilities. A multi brand apparel online store, www.very.co.uk introduced the EMI option to promote the sales by giving its customer a breathing space during this economic crisis. This would certainly push the customer to go for slightly high budget products, which probably he/she could not have afforded at that time. This” BUBBLE BLAST FASHION ADOPTION THEORY” is prevalent in apparel & clothing too. There was a time when people used to watch, what “who is who of the society” is wearing in terms of brand or label and it was dutifully followed. Today, the scenario is very different. Customers are fully aware of products and buy them only if it meets the respective customer's requirement in terms of price, quality, utility, fit or maintenance and not just because it has been first accepted by the upper class or because a particular product is newly introduced in the market. When fresh collections of different brands are launched in the market, people from all segments, first explore various options available to them and then make a purchase. Earlier, it was very brand name driven. Not only that, today, a customer who at one time, was fond of a particular brand, does not even hesitate to try other options, whether, cheaper or costlier, as long as it meets his/ her aspirations. So, the same brand's product category is accepted by various social class or income group at the same time. This Theory is very important in current context from the fashion business point of view. In Bottoms, SLIM FIT still continues. It made an entry to become mainstream fashion in the year 2006-07. Even though designers/ brands or labels have tried/ trying to introduce BELL BOTTOM / STRAIGHT / CARROT FIT it has failed year after year since the last 4-5 years. Individualism is at Extreme. People are driven by self intuition. There is a clear shift from “class, age and income” to “Utility Factor”. Hence, while framing the target market, due importance needs to be given to the UTILITY factor. If one is able to apply creatively, one can function very well in any market with lots of ease, especially in the current scenario, where every retailer is desperately looking to be their customer's brand of choice and thus seek loyalty from them.  Anup Kumar Owner - UBHO by Anup Kumar Fashion Designer & Trend Forecaster 51Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 THE BUBBLE BLAST THEORY OF CONSUMER ACCEPTANCERETAIL FOCUS
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  • 55. ADVT.
  • 56. Shri S. Hari Shankar, Chairman, Textile Machinery Manufacturers’ Association (India) The Textile Engineering Industry (TEI) in India is one of the 5 key Engineering Sectors responsible for the growth of the Indian economy. It consists of more than 1400 units, with a total investment of approx. Rs. 7,800 crores. More than 80% of the units are SMEs. The total installed capacity is approx. Rs. 9100 crores. The industry provides direct/indirect employment to 250,000 people. The TEI contributes greatly to the competitiveness of the Indian Textile Industry (TI). It meets 45- 50% of the demand of the Indian textile industry. (Source: Textiles Committee Survey TMMA) Production: It is a matter of concern that the TEI was not able to grow steadily during the last 5 years. This is seen from the table Fig. 1 CATEGORY 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 (P) Spinning allied machines 3662.22 2417.44 2105.00 3500.00 2570.00 Synthetic filament yarn machines 625.30 412.79 830.00 900.00 925.00 Weaving allied machines 621.64 410.35 495.00 600.00 480.00 Processing machines 635.19 419.29 460.00 700.00 750.00 Misc.(spinning, weaving processing, jute) machines 185.26 122.00 120.00 150.00 100.00 Textile testing measuring instruments 121.86 80.43 30.00 50.00 65.00 Hosiery machines/ hosiery needles 50.46 33.31 35.00 50.00 20.00 TOTAL OF MACHINERY 5901.93 3895.61 4075.00 5950.00 4910.00 SPARES ACCESSORIES 253.07 167.39 170.00 200.00 370.00 GRAND TOTAL 6155.00 4063.00 4245.00 6150.00 5280.00 % INCREASE/DECREASE -34% 4% 45% -14% The unprecedented recession during 2008-09 2009-10 had shattered the pace of growth of the Indian TEI. The companies, which increased the capacity to meet the hyped demand from the domestic textile industry, suffered the most. Their equity took a severe beating in the market. The after- shocks of 2011-12 also rattled the industry and today it is living with the hope of a positive growth during 2013-14 with sustained demand from the domestic textile industry Fig. 2. The capacity, production and utilization chart also shows how the domestic machinery manufacturers suffered during 2011-12. Fig. 1 (Value in Rs.crores) Fig. 3. Shows how the textile industry became over dependent on imports steadily from 2009-10 onwards. While the domestic production has gone down due to less demand, imports have surged ahead. This is only due to the import of second hand machinery and also cheaper imports from China. In all the categories, price factor ruled in favour of China which is becoming our main competitor. Chinese companies’ main advantage is that they get 11% subsidy from their own country, subsidy (duty exemption) in India and the TUFs benefits. They can afford to reduce the cost to a considerable extent. On the other hand, Indian companies have to pay several duties and taxes which are not included under CVD, thereby rendering the Indian companies uncompetitive to that extent. Technology/Capacity: 1. Ginning Spinning: The entire range of Spinning machinery manufactured in India, including ginning machinery, blow room machinery, cards, draw frame, combers, speed frame, ring frame, ancillary machinery, two-for-one twisting and auto-cone winding machines and parts and accessories, in general, are at par with international standards. In ginning there are innovations to control the contamination in cotton by reducing human handling, maintaining humidity in pala houses and bins, auto feeding etc. There are 5/6 manufacturers in ginning. • Capacity of ginning machinery is adequate and there are exports and practically no imports. • There is adequate capacity in spinning. The total capacity of Fig. 3. Production, exports imports of TM its Parts 54 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 TEXTILE MACHINERYTHE INDIAN TEXTILE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY TODAY
  • 57. Ginning and Spinning is Rs. 4,561 crores. It meets over 75% of domestic requirement. In the coming years, it is likely to meet 90% of the requirement. There are domestic as well as foreign players. And the technological gap is minimal. • Auto Coner with auto feed and auto doff high speed rotor spinning machines are not manufactured in the country  2. Weaving: The total capacity in the weaving sector is Rs. 703 crores.  Weaving Preparatory: The technology is at par with international standards. There is enough capacity and production. Some of the reputed manufacturers are Prashant Gamatex Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad, Jupiter Comtex Pvt.Ltd., Ahmedabad, etc.  Weaving (Shuttle loom): Many manufacturers are supplying almost 40,000 to 50,000 powerlooms per annum. There are few manufacturers of automatic shuttle looms for which demand is less.  Weaving (Shuttleless Looms): A number of manufacturers of old technology Rapier looms (Crank Beat-up) has come into existence. These numbers are on the rise. Present installed capacity is almost 16,500 per annum, though production has not reached beyond 2,000 per annum. However demand is increasing, it is hoped that within a span of another 2 years there would be approx. 25 manufacturers in the country. It is assumed that shortage of labour is responsible for increase in demand for this type of low cost - low tech shuttleless looms.  New technology rapier looms (Cam beat up) have been developed indigenously. But the same has not been tested commercially. The preference for second hand looms and cheaper Chinese looms are responsible for nil demand. Things may change if the Government restricts the import of second hand looms. But as the things stands today, it appears to be a far cry.  New technology Air Jet Loom has been developed indigenously. Though it has made its presence felt in some centres, the commercial success is still missing. The reason is very simple. Why should one buy untested looms when the second hand looms are available at 50% costs of domestic looms?  New technology water Jet Looms have also been developed. Their cost is ⅓of the imported new looms. The question here is how domestic manufacturers would be in a position to offer same quality of imported looms at this cost. At the same time if they make it more sophisticated, the increase in cost will jeopardise the marketing because the second hand water Jet looms and Chinese new looms are cheaper. Therefore, the commercial success is still far off. 3. Synthetic Machineries: The capacity is Rs. 1,000.00 crores approx. All kinds of synthetic machines such as Draw Texturising, TFO Twister, H.S. Winder etc. except fibre/ filament manufacturing chemical plants are produced. India is self sufficient in such machinery. There are also exports to different countries. We are competing with the reputed manufacturers of the world on equal footing. There is practically no import as there is no technology gap. Most of the components of the synthetic fibre/ filament mechanical processing machinery are made in India. Surat, Rajkot, Surendranagar are the main centers for the manufacture of spindles, spindle pots, spindle inserts, etc. Only critical electronic equipment like PLC controls, servo motors etc. are imported. There are no manufacturers of fibre/filament producing machinery except PP production line. 4. Processing Machinery: The total capacity is approx. Rs. 900 crores and existing capacity meets over 50% of the requirement. There are more than 50 manufacturers of processing machinery in the country. Almost the entire range of processing machinery is now being manufactured in the country, with continuous scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, washing, dyeing plants, preshrinking ranges and more, being produced by domestic manufacturers. The indigenous machinery available now competes on an even footing with their European counterparts with low material to liquor ratio, and is capable of processing fabric with comparable results at a very reasonable cost. All critical electronic components and equipments are imported and all other types of parts and accessories are made in India. Perhaps, for batch processes, we have the best quality machines when compared with other countries. Quality of textiles processing in Indian machines is at par with international standards. Technology gaps exist only in case of special purpose processing and finishing machinery and continuous plants. In recent times, this gap is also reducing. Many hi- tech machineries are being manufactured in the country for e.g. Continuous Bleaching Plant, Dyeing Plant, Washing range, Preshrinking Range, Indigo dyeing Plant etc. 5. Testing Monitoring Equipments: The Indian textile engineering industry started developing testing and monitoring equipment in the 60’s and today a wide range of high quality latest generation testing and monitoring equipment is being manufactured in the country. Almost 80% of the requirement is met by the domestic manufacturers. The total capacity is Rs.220.17 crores. In this segment critical components and electronic controls are imported. 6. Jute Machinery: Even in jute machinery the percentage share of demand is over 60%. There are half a dozen good manufacturers of jute machinery in the eastern sector. Many items of jute machinery are being manufactured in the country. The total capacity may not exceed Rs. 70 crores. Lagan Engineering Co.Ltd., Kolkata is the major manufacturer of jute machinery and its parts, components and accessories. There are some small engineering units which also manufacture jute machinery parts and accessoriesin Kolkata, West Bengal. 7. Parts/ Components and Accessories: The capacity is almost Rs. 1,000 crores and it plays a major role in manufacturing and maintenance of the textile machineries. These are Bearings, Beams, Bobbins, Bobbin Holders, Bushes, Card Gauges, Ceramic Guides, Cone and Tubes, Cops-Aluminum/Steel, Drums, Filters, Flat Tops, Motors, Needles, Pins, Pirns, Belts, Rollers, Humidifiers, Over Head Traveling Cleaners, Shuttles, Healds, Reeds, Spindle Tapes, Trolleys, etc. • Except some critical parts, most of the items are manufactured • High speed cam dobby, electronic dobby and jacquard are not manufactured 8. Machinery items not manufactured: It is true that hi-tech garment making machinery and knitting machinery are not made in India. There is of course no shortage of ordinary domestic sewing machines and low tech knitting machines. The decentralized character of the hosiery and garment sector was TEXTILE MACHINERY 55Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 58. not conducive for indigenous development. The capacity of domestic hosiery and garment making machinery is approx. Rs.70 crores. Similar is the case of nonwoven and technical textiles machinery. There was very little demand in the past. However, there are many technical textile items which are being manufactured in indigenous machines eg. Glass fiber fabrics, fish nets, mosquito nets, filter fabrics etc. etc. The Indian TEI has been playing a significant role in the growth and development of the TI in the country over the past 50 years. But it should have grown further to meet the entire demand of the domestic textile industry. It has not happened due to various reasons. China has outgrown our industry and has become the largest producer of textile machinery in the world. Comparison of Indian Textile and Machinery Industry with China: Chinese textile industry has installed spindleage of approx. 120 million spindles, 7.20 lacs shuttleless looms. Total textile production is approx. US$ 565 billion, with an export of approx. US$ 150 billion. Its textile machinery industry produced approx. Rs.500 billion worth of textile machinery. As a matter of fact China became the largest producer of textile and textile machinery in the world. Import of second hand machinery is highly restricted. Practically there is no such import. China encouraged/ forced global textile machinery players to set-up manufacturing base in China (through investor-friendly FDI/ restriction to import if no local manufacturing set-up/ VAT acts as duty). Entire range of high tech machines is being produced. As against the above, in India, the installed spindleage is approx. 42 million (approx. 34 million working spindles) and shuttleless looms about 1.20 lakh. Total textile production is approx. US$ 62 billion while the export is approx US$ 23 billion. The position is less than ⅓of China in textiles. Highest production of textile machinery was in 2007-08 i.e. approx. Rs. 63 billion which works out to 12-13% of China. Import of second hand machinery is freely permitted (including for modernization!). Only a part of high tech machines are in sectors other than spinning, the textile industry is considerably import-dependent. Future prospect: The Indian TI is very critical to the Indian economy. It contributes 4% to India’s GDP, 14% to India’s industrial production 17% to India’s export earnings. Furthermore, it is the 2nd largest employer after agriculture, with direct employment to over 35 million people. With ever growing population approx. @ 20 million per annum, the demand for fabric will grow substantially. The rapid changes in fashion and style would facilitate development of niche category and improve the profitability of the textile industry. India’s textile apparel industry (domestic + exports) is expected to grow from the current Rs. 3, 27,000 crores (US$ 70 Bn) to Rs.10, 32,000 crores (US$ 220 Bn) by 2020. (Source: Technopak). The assessment, though an ambitious one, indicates the future of the TEI and its scope. We may not catch up with China, but may improve our position to a considerable extent. A vibrant Indian TI calls for a strong Indian TEI to provide state-of- the art textile engineering solutions, to meet the growth potential. There is a need for unstinted support from the Govt. as well as the TI. While the Govt. should give strong financial support for infrastructure and RD, the Indian TI should stop importing used machinery and encourage domestic manufacturers. The TI should not forget that the machinery industry was initially set-up by them and they are duty bound to protect it.   (Thisarticle reflects the personal views of the author) TEXTILE MACHINERY Chamunda ENGINEERING WORKS Mfg. of All Types Of Textile Machinery Hydraulic Press. Sahjanand Udhyog Nagar, Junagadh Road, JETPUR-360 370 Dist, Rajkot,Ph. 02823 - 221255 Mo. 91 98259 33118 chamundadeepak@gmail.com ADVT. Hydraulic Baling Press
  • 59. The main contributor to global warming is carbon dioxide, which accounts for nearly 80% of emissions from the industrialized countries. Carbon footprint originates from the ecological footprint discussion and is based upon Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The carbon footprint reveals how much CO2 in total is emitted along the value chain of a product. It is the total set of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event or product and is calculated for the time period of a year and expressed in terms of the amount of CO2, or its equivalent of other GHGs emitted. As greenhouse gases produced by human activities accumulate and their concentration increases in the atmosphere, it causes global warming. Factors behind Textile CO2 Emissions: There are many reasons which affect the environment through the textile industry, mainly: • The vast majority of fibres produced are synthetic. These materials, such as petrochemical-based nylon and polyester, and chemical-treated rayon, use massive amounts of energy. Also, the chemicals used during the manufacture of these materials end up as toxins polluting the air, soil and water. • Conventional cotton, which makes up the next largest percentage of worldwide fibre production, is also heavily detrimental to the environment. Cotton growth and manufacturing requires intensive use of pesticides, chemicals, water and energy. • Dyeing, bleaching of fabrics and wet finishing processes involve chemicals, energy, and huge amounts of water. Approximately one million tonnes of chemical dyes are used every year. The textile industry is a gigantic industry – and it is gigantically polluting. It uses copious amounts of two things: water and chemicals. It is the number one industrial polluter of water in the world. Wet treatment of textiles like desizing, pre-washing, mercerizing, dyeing, printing etc. includes a lot of chemical applications on the fibres or fabric. Water is used at every stage in fabric manufacturing - to dissolve chemicals to be used in one step, then to wash and rinse out those same chemicals to be ready for the next step. Some fibres need to be bleached with chlorine before dyeing. This causes organo-chlorine compounds to be released, which are very dangerous to the environment. It takes between 10% and 100% of the weight of the fabric in chemicals to produce that fabric. From dyes to transfer agents, around 2000 different varieties of chemicals are used in textile industries. Despite stringent environmental laws and regulations, the compliance level by the textile industry has not been very satisfactory. Although, with 16% of the global population, India's share of CO2 emissions is only 3.11%, yet in one study from the Stockholm Environment Institute it was found that the embodied energy of organic cotton from India was greater than conventionally produced cotton from the USA because the yields are much less in India, requiring more land to grow the same amount, and much of India’s energy is generated by coal. Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint: The Indian textile industry will need to cover a lot of ground on crucial environmental issues that will impact both competitiveness and bottom line in a regime driven by environmental and sustainability concerns. A worldwide paradigm shift toward cleaner and greener processes is already underway and it can no longer afford to remain a mute spectator if wants to emerge as a significant player in the global market. Only a systematic approach including a continuous improvement process reduces the carbon footprint of textiles. Companies will realize how they can benefit from increasing energy efficiency and thus cutting costs for fuel and electricity. In fact, it can be a triple win; for the textile retailer, supplier and the environment. Environmental sustainability can be achieved by looking at the full life cycle of our clothing, from the design and materials sourcing process onwards. An individual, nation or organization’s carbon footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions assessment. All of the energy used at each step of the process needed to create that fabric is known as embodied energy and it is sum total of the energy required to produce the fibre and yarn/ filament as well as to weave those yarns/ filaments into fabric. Beyond fibre production, the dyeing and finishing sector is the largest energy and water consumer in the whole textile chain and has the highest potential for energy and water savings and efficiency improvements. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological developments, better process and product management, changed Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), Carbon capture, consumption strategies, and others. The mitigation of carbon footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as solar or wind energy, or reforestation, represents one way of reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon Offsetting. (A) To create new green paradigm the textile and apparel industry needs to adopt 3R Concept, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Reduce: Low carbon foot print processes cut costs by reducing waste of raw materials and energy. Water and energy usage reductions by the textile dyeing and finishing sector can help reduce global carbon dioxide emissions. By saving energy and water, the textile industry can not only save a lot of money, but also help to slow down climate change. I. Substituting organic fibres for conventionally grown fibres as it uses less energy, no petrochemical-based fertilizers and pesticides for production, emits fewer GHG and supports organic farming (which has myriad environmental, social and health benefits). Other “greener” alternatives include organic wool, linen, bamboo, hemp, abaca, soybean fibre, biopolymers and polyester recycled from used clothing. Natural fibres, in addition to having a smaller carbon footprint in the production of the spun fibre, have the benefit of being able to be degraded by micro-organisms and composted. In this way the fixed CO2 in the fiber will be released and the cycle closed, whereas, Synthetics do not decompose. In spite of that natural fibers also sequester carbon. Sequestering carbon is the process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by plants through - Rena Mehta, Asst. Prof. IIS University, Jaipur Chavi Goyal, Lecturer NIFT Kangra 57Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 ENVIRONMENT FOCUS Role of Carbon Footprint in Textile and Apparel Industry
  • 60. photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass (leaves, stems, branches, roots, etc.) and soils. II. The textile industry needs to adopt more energy efficient processes; such as innovative textile chemicals and processing technologies that contribute to eco-efficient processes for textile mills can save costs and help reduce the environmental burden. Some Innovative products with smaller carbon footprints are: a. Polymer fibre, made with agricultural feedstocks, provides a 30% CO2 reduction while its manufacturing process reduces GHG emissions by 63%, compared to conventional nylon made from petroleum. b. Polymer fibre products with optimized properties including improved dye ability. c. Bleaching system that can save up to 40% in energy and water use and reduce cotton loss by 50%. d. Aftersoaping agent for dyeing can reduce the processing time and water consumption compared to the conventional system. e. The revolutionary air technology for dyeing requires only one- forth of water and also reduces energy and chemicals consumption. f. Digital printing, using ink from the dyes, wastes neither fabric nor ink and does not use harmful salts and significantly reduces the environmental footprint. g. Formaldehyde-free pigment printing system, which ensures zero add-on of formaldehyde during production and needs no further treatment. h. Colour Fast Finish, is a one-step-process of textile can reduce the processing time and carbon dioxide emissions. i. C6-based fluorocarbon finish for stain repellence and release. j. Innovative machine that applies finishes to fabrics using foam, which conserves water. k. Industrial enzymes, which are basically proteins, replace harsh chemicals used to remove impurities from the fibre or fabric, which reduces energy costs, water consumption and also improves the feel of the fabric. III. While effective laundry management has always included a comprehensive effort to contain energy and labour, green initiatives will force the adaptation of technology and business methodologies that will create profound change in the way laundries work. The ultimate goal of a green initiative should be to achieve effective stewardship of natural resources and to work toward carbon neutrality (zero net carbon emission through reduction of emissions and sequestered or offset carbon amounts). For laundry, green chemistry would include elimination of certain detergent/surfactant ingredients such as alkylphenol and ethoxylates, and other chemicals including phosphates, chlorine, carcinogens and/or heavy metals. Alternative bleaches to chlorine include peracetic acid and hydrogenperoxide that, while hazardous, are more biodegradable and therefore considered greener than chlorine. Underscoring the need for careful chemical selection is that hydrogen peroxide requires higher operating temperatures than chlorine. All the pros and cons of chemical selection should be evaluated. IV. Use of natural light to serve most of its illumination needs, upgrading the lighting systems, installing of heat recovery plants and developed energy efficient in-house weaving and other equipments, efficient use of energy sources to generate water temperature and for the drying and finishing of textiles, as well as environmental control to include facility heating, cooling and lighting, methods for transporting textiles to use areas, as well as those used by the laundry’s labour force to get to and from work should be considered in order to reduced carbon footprint. While outside the laundry operator’s direct control, the electricity/steam source has a substantial impact on the operation’s carbon footprint. Business travel, outsourced activities, the extraction and processing of purchased materials, and the use of sold products and services also have their impact on GHG. Reuse: Effluents of chemically treated textiles are discharged in water. Treatment of wastewater obtained from chemically treated textiles is a must. Use of chrome mordant dyeing and limiting the emission of copper, chromium and nickel into water reduces impurities in dyes and pigments. Using dyeing carriers with high chlorine content should be evaded. During the process of bleaching, alternative agents that are less or not hazardous can be used. Households currently throw out 1.17 million tonnes of textiles each year, most of it clothing, which could be recycled or reused. It’s therefore important, whether as designers, retailers or consumers, that we begin to tackle some of these issues that have been highlighted today. Recycle: The textile and apparel industry should more utilise recycled fibers. The environmental impact of recycling worn-out polyester or cotton waste into new polyester or cotton fiber respectively, for instance, is significantly lower than making that same fiber a new. A wide range of innovative, sustainable clothing can be made from recycled textiles. We should take care of the ways to combat ‘fast-fashion’ and to reduce its negative environmental impact as the issues of textile recycling, cheap clothing or “throwaway fashion’ affects us all. a. Eco-Circle environmentally friendly closed-loop recycling system chemically converts used polyester products into new polyester raw materials. The reclaimed polyester is of purity comparable to virgin fibres, but the system reduces energy consumption by 84% and CO2 emissions by 77%. Recycled polyester products include Ecopet polyester fibre made from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, Eco Circle fibres and recycled polyester fibre recreated from used clothing and uniforms. b. Rayon, which is produced from wood pulp, seems to be an attractive option, but the manufacturing process still consumes large quantities of energy and creates significant amounts of wood waste. Introduced in the early 1990s, Lyocell is also made from wood fibre (harvested from tree farms). It is biodegradable and recyclable, and the production process is more sustainable and includes recovery of most chemicals. c. Ingeo fibre is the first man-made fibre from 100% annually ENVIRONMENT FOCUS 58 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
  • 61. renewable plant sugars, is supplied into apparel, home textile, and increasingly the personal care hygiene (nonwovens)markets. (B) Development of Standards and Labels: a. The Global Recycle Standard: This brand new standard was developed to help verify claims regarding recycled products. The Gold level requires products to contain 95 – 100% recycled material; Silver requires 70 – 95% and Bronze contains a minimum of 30%. The definition of “recycled” under this standard is based on criteria already laid down by Scientific Certification Systems. In addition, the standard contains environmental processing criteria and strict raw material specification (water treatment and chemical use is based on GOTS and Oeko- Tex 100) and social responsibility is incorporated – which ensures workers health and safety and upholds workers rights in accordance with International Labor Organisation (ILO) criteria. b. In the U.K., the Carbon Trust, working with Continental Clothing, has developed the world’s first carbon label for clothing. The new label will provide the carbon footprint of the garment, from raw materials and manufacture to use and disposal. c. There exist several third party certifications which we think every conscious consumer of fabric should be aware. We should all know what the certification does – and doesn’t – cover. Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) is a tool for an international understanding of environmentally friendly production systems and social accountability in the textile sector. It covers the production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, labelling, exportation, importation and distribution of all natural fibres. That means, for example: use of certified organic fibres, prohibition of all GMOs and their derivatives and prohibition of a long list of synthetic chemicals. Formaldehyde and aromatic solvents are prohibited; dyestuffs must meet strict requirements (i.e.: threshold limits for heavy metals, no AZO colorants or aromatic amines); and PVC cannot be used for packaging. A fabric that is produced to the GOTS standards is more than just the fabric. It's a promise to keep our air and water pure and our soils renewed; it's a fabric, which will not cause harm to you or your descendants. An organic fibre fabric processed to GOTS standards is the most responsible choice possible in terms of stewardship of the earth, preserving health, limiting toxicity the load to humans and animals, reducing one's carbon footprint – and emphasizing rudimentary social justice issues such as no child labour. Cradle to Cradle (C2C)’s minimum requirement for certification is that a product be 67% recyclable or biodegradeable. Oeko-Tex, GreenGuard and SMART (Sustainable Materials Rating Technology)are some other examples of these certifications. © Educate Consumers to Change Attitude: Consumer education to inspire consumers to change their habits regarding the huge carbon footprint in mainstream textiles is a must. It will also assist in changing consumer attitudes. The inclination towards “organic fabrics” not simply fabric made from organic fibres; eco- friendly fibres, not cotton or synthetics; minimizing purchase of fabrics that are blends of natural and synthetic fibres (i.e., cotton and polyester), or blends of two or more different synthetic fibres (polyester and acrylic), because there is no hope of recycling these fabrics right now; Search for a fabric or product that is certified by any third party, independent textile certification agency - GOTS, SMART, C2C, etc.; paying attention to the carbon footprint of the fabrics they buy; Keeping themselves educated on the progress of the eco-textile community – are few of the steps that will truly reduce carbon footprint of textile and apparel industry. To maintain and grow their customer base of this new generation of environmental and ethically aware consumers, retailers in particular are pushing sustainability requirements back down their global supply chains. (D) Low-carbon manufacturing programmes and carbon accounting in factories, carbon footprint calculation projects, benchmarking energy consumption across the textile and apparel supply chain are few of the strategic measures required to reduce carbon footprint of textile and apparel industry in India. Conclusion: The global textile industry has taken several strides towards reducing its carbon footprint and meeting the challenges of building a more sustainable future. At the same time there is a growing awareness of environmental issues among consumers who are increasingly now increasingly insisting on textile products complying with environmental standards. These complementary trends will hopefully continue to drive the industry toward offering the consumer products that are not only red, blue, white etc. but also green. Beyond fibre production, the dyeing and finishing sector is the largest energy and water consumer in the whole textile chain and has the highest potential for energy and water savings and efficiency improvements. Action is needed, but the industry cannot do it alone. National and multinational governments should support the industry with incentive plans to change old technology with modern equipment.   References: • http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/ carbon_credit.asp#axzz1sqTy0KQF on May 15, 2012. • Emerging Issues in Apparel Trade, Sustainable Development and Carbon Neutrality Report, Apparel Export Promotion Council, Retrieved from www.aepcindia.in. • UK Launches First Carbon Footprint Label for Retail Clothing. (Environmental Leader, March 27, 2009): http://www.environmentalleader.com/2009/03/27/uk-launches-first- carbon-footprint-label-for-retail-clothing. • Market Emerging for Green Textile Chemicals. (Sustainable Plastics): http://www.sustainableplastics.org/news/market-emerging-green- textile-chemicals. carbon footprint label 59Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 ENVIRONMENT FOCUS
  • 62. Prof.V.K.Batra Mrs. Parvin Batra Skills Development Experts Global Competence, Panipat, Haryana Educators, Consultants, Trainers and Auditors Abstract “Everyeducatedpersonmustrememberthateducationalone isnotenough”–Anon We are living in an era of managing everything. We see numbers of public and private institutes mushrooming all over India, who claim themselves as the best managers of careers and education for Indian Youth promising an excellent life. Are their claims genuine? Are they able to impart the skills based education required in today’s dynamic times? Are we able to catch up with the dynamism of our times and learn Life and Employability skills which are becoming obsolete day by day? Are they developing employability skills of the students or are they also creating many idiots (remember the movie; Three Idiots) who specialize in mugging up the syllabus and getting high grades without understanding or experiencing the real tough world that lies ahead of them? Chetan Bhagat called it the Indian Institution of Idiots. Introduction: The Employment Commission of India in the report The Challenges of Employment in India laid heavy stress on the issue of Skills Development in India and pointed out that serious action has to be taken in this regard. As a result Govt. of India has formed National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC) to identify skill gaps and to promote skill development in India. A goal of training 50 million people in employability skills has been fixed. The Textile Ministry had given grant of Rs. 140 Crores during the Eleventh Five Year Plan and an amount of Rs. 1900 Crores has been provided in the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-13)in this regard. Some basic issues related to life employability skills have been discussed below. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS: Employability refers to a person's capability of gaining initial employment, maintaining employment, and obtaining new employment if required (Hillage and Pollard, 1998). For individuals, employability depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) they possess, the way they use those assets and present them to employers, and the context (e.g. personal circumstances and labor market environment) within which they seek work. Carnevale emphasized upon set of sixteen employability skills; in terms of the changing needs of the employers and their expectations from future employees. A. Academic Basics 1. Reading Skills: Basic literacy, reading in order to learn, reading in order to do 2. Writing Skills: Preparing organizing information, writing, editing, revising 3. Computational Skills: Quantification, computation, measurement estimation, quantitative comprehension, quantitative problem solving B. Communication 4. Speaking Skills: Non-verbal skills, vocal skills, verbal skills 5. Listening Skills:Assigning meaning to aural stimuli, C. Learning to Learn 6. Foundation Skills: Learning how to learn- how to collect, know comprehend, how to give receive feedback and how to learn collaborating D. Adaptability 7. Problem Solving Skills: The ability to bridge the gap between what is and what ought to be 8. Creativity Skills: The ability to produce a novel idea and then turn it to practical one E. Personal Development 9. Self-esteem skills: The ability to maintain a realistic positive image 10. Motivational Goal setting Skills: The ability to translate work into an instrument for development of self 11. Personal Career Development Skills: The ability to adapt to changing work requirement to ensure employment security and to fulfill personal potential F. Group Effectiveness 12. Interpersonal Skills: The ability to judge appropriate behavior; to absorb stress, to share responsibility, to deal with ambiguity 13. Negotiation Skills: The ability to overcome disagreements by compromising accommodating 14. Team Work Skills: The ability of groups to pool human resources to pursue common goals G. Influencing Skills 15. Organizational Effectiveness Skills: The ability to work productively in the context of explicit and implicit organizational cultures sub cultures 16. Leadership Skills: The ability to influence others to serve the strategic purposes of an organisation or the developmental needs of an individual Source: Derived from Carnevale’s America (1984) and the New Economy (1991) and based on the three year ASTD/DOL Study of Work Place Basic Skills (1988) All these researches have become the base of worldwide research of employers’ expectations. Broadly speaking all the above sixteen employability skills fall under three basic skills: Conceptual, Human Technical- Managerial Skills. Since work itself is a primary motivating factor (Herzberg) and the nature of work includes the physical, mental and emotional aspect (Mewes 1975); a holistic work study of each individual job must be well inducted amongst the potential employees to enable them to work effectively as individuals and team members in highly competitive, globally industrialized economies. The employees must be able to practically understand work MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION: A Skills based Approach 60 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 SELF MANAGEMENT
  • 63. and they should be assessed as auditory, visual kinesthetic learners to understand time motion study in detail, while introducing them to the Division of Work (Adam Smith1775) Scientific Management (F W Taylor 1909). Since skill development depends upon repetitive exercises and practice; the methodology for skill development has to be training rather than teaching. It is the lack of development of work life skills which results into stress at the work place and the resultant damage it causes to the society as a whole. LIFE SKILLS: If we notice carefully most of the employability skills mentioned above relate to the behavioral aspect of the employees. WHO and its allies have been seriously advocating Life Skills Based Education as a priority issue in the pattern of education in a conclusive manner. Department of Mental Health (WHO) identified five basic areas of life skills that are relevant across cultures: • self-awareness and empathy; • coping with emotions and stress • creative thinking and critical thinking; • communication and interpersonal skills; • decision-making and problem-solving; What is education? What is the purpose of education? How it is related to career and Life? • The essence of knowledge is having it to apply it - Confucious • Books don’t teach us how to use them…. - Sir Francis Bacon Benjamin Bloom (1956), in his treatise Taxonomy of Educational Objectives emphasized three key factors of education as Cognitive (Knowledge), Psychomotor (Skill) and Affective (Abilities) in the learning process. Srikant Datar and others (2010) have also researched similarly and pointed towards review of management education on the occasion of completion of 100 years of Harvard Business School. Knowledge, Skills Abilities (KSA) has been emphasized time and again as three main components of individual development. Although we cannot stress one factor more upon another yet what has been found to be missing as a quality factor is ‘Doing’ or ‘Psychomotor’ factor of education. Since the objective of knowing and being, is finally doing or action, it has to be understood that result depends upon the action finally. As such unless one is able to convert ones knowledge and behavior in concrete and well defined action plan to achieve the goals; the task of education would not have served the purpose as such. Thus the qualitative factor is the doing or the skills development factor which brings the result. Let us review the importance of skills before getting into the discussion regarding Hard and Soft skills and their role in employability. Hard Skills are the technical and conceptual information that is inducted during the education process. Soft Skills are the human or behavioral skills that are required to be inducted to develop the individual and social behavior to develop the leadership and team working capabilities which are required to execute the tasks of Hard skills. The element of being or abilities and attitude has to be given the higher priority; the reason being, giving due recognition to Emotional Intelligence leading to self development. To acquire knowledge we need to understand the learner’s behavior and learning process. We need to understand that the human brain that acquires information and processes it has two specialized hemispheres, the left hemisphere is specialized into the logical scientific rational thinking which is termed as intelligence the right hemisphere of the brain specializes in the artistic thinking process and is also called the emotional brain. How the left right hemispheres of the brain develop and interact is called Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence is the wisdom traditionally speaking, which determines how many right decisions any person takes the right time. This will also determine the type of personality and the level of success one attains in life. The life’s pace has disturbed our balance and we have lost the calmness and equanimity that was characteristic of our so called spiritual attitude that has been replaced by materialistic attitude. We all have lost the purpose of life. Coping with Emotions and Stress: Emotions are the real drivers behind action not the intelligence which only directs them towards the desirable goals. The id part of the human behavior normally dominates the ego and super ego especially during the state of mental stress which is the rule of the day rather than the exception. In today’s society where the civil behavior often runs out of control damaging destroying at a much larger mass scale rather than constructive positive behavior. What is important is that any person doesn’t learn decision making while studying, the choice of taking up the particular career itself depends upon the decision taken. Another aspect pointing out to the need of a strong being personality is the fact of how emotional brain overtakes the rational brain during the stress. Also with a continued exposure to the stressful stimuli the emotions overtake the intelligence so quickly that before the person can understand; the damage has already being done in terms of the aggressive negative behavior during anger stage and depressive withdrawal behavior during the frustration and sadness state. Self-awareness and Empathy: One needs to understand the real nature of one’s mind and how it operates before one can do goal setting or other important tasks of life. The primary tool of mind is the continuous thought which comes to forefront as impulses. Never does one’s mind ever sit idle. It is naturally restless. The first thing that one needs to learn about self is to sit quietly and look at the thought pattern emerging within one’s self. That way one will be able to recognize that one is more than these impulsive thought patterns. One can see and feel these thoughts emerging and going on and on as a third person. It is then that one can see there is someone still inside who can observe these thought patterns like an adult or a mature person observes some child doing some innocent or naughty actions and sees a pattern in it rather than reacting to it. This is awakening of Self Awareness or Calmness of the Self. When one starts approaching this stage one can realize the centre of vortex point of one’s self. It is from this activity that one can differentiate between one’s higher and lower selves as two distinct entities. Observing and enjoying the restfulness of this stage of one’s existence, helps one become more intuitive, since it leads to settling down of various thought patterns which have an impact on one’s day to day working. It is at this time that one sort of fits one’s thoughts into the subconscious mind. This is also called Experiential Learning 61Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION A Skills based ApproachSELF MANAGEMENT
  • 64. MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION: A Skills based Approach process. The knowledge cannot become a skill unless we experience it as a reality and a process. The process of knowing, doing and being is the intertwined development of one’s feeling, thinking, willing and behavior. Creative thinking and Critical thinking: A calm and relaxed thinking process only leads to a behavior during which the Leadership Team Management phenomenon leads to Creative Innovative results. Creative people have already been diagnosed to be mavericks having their own moody otherwise somewhat eccentric behavior which has been found prevalent mostly amongst the Creative Artists and the Advertising professionals who make the things happen by driving the masses emotionally and in a hypnotizing manner. The wisdom of the crowd also reflects the phenomenon that it is through the emotions dominated rational approach with which political, social, spiritual leaders bring about the behavior modification which the strongest of the autocrats have failed to sustain for long in the course of entire human history. Decision-making and Problem-solving: Are we really able to listen to and define the problems before we start solving them the normal practice and the behavior shows we do not do so. Decision making depends upon the level of our emotional intelligence or what has been traditionally called WISDOM. Wisdom I would like to reflect by WQ=EQ x IQ. Since wisdom depends upon how the two hemispheres of the brain work together as per the situation. Although conventionally; we considered the brain to be rational thinker and heart to be the emotional manager. That is why we are advised to develop assertiveness. But can behavior be so changed after having been deeply embedded into. How to recognize the role of feelings, willingness and thinking? For the last 40 years the concept of situational leadership by Hersey, Blankard and Johnson has been holding a firm ground in the Management World, but has it been given due recognition in the Management Education and been converted into skill by Management Educators. Are our faculty members really having these skills today? It is been found out by Sigmund Freud that most of our decisions are emotionally driven. We use the rational thinking or the defense mechanism to justify our emotional decisions the Id or the lowest level of instinct in the human beings provokes the mind to act towards gratification and sensual mental pleasure. The ego or the acquired behavior intelligently directs the Id to act in a purposeful manner superego further directs the ego the Id towards the norms practices of the society through ethics value systems to convert the action process in a socially useful manner. The scientific discoveries over the decade have shown that it is actually the specialization of the Left and the Right brain. “How to use the both part of your brain,” by Tony Buzan explains the whole concept in detail. But what matters is the skill of wisdom and how we recognize our emotions and logic while taking decisions on an everyday basis. But the psychologists like Sigmund Freud have reflected that most of our decisions are emotional while we use all our rationality to defend our emotional decision. This is leading to a very different kind of behavior more towards aggressive or submissive rather than assertive. Communication and interpersonal skills; The listening and visionary qualities of the leaders cannot be effectively practiced until unless the leaders exercise patience, calmly to observe and to give direction for a concerted and cooperative action. History is replete with respect to the incidence in cultures across all parts of the Globe reflecting the wise actions of the man kind in either creating a beautiful planet or using negative emotions to create a destructive environment of which the global warming and world war are shining examples. All these factors point out to the fact that the right knowledge and the right skills are only fruitful in the hands of the right person. Therefore the personality of any person determines how and what type of knowledge will that person acquire and use in the course of life. The learning process also depends upon the combination of the three types of learning behaviors called auditory, visual kinesthetic. Therefore an assessment should be made to determine the level of three aspects of learner’s behavior before starting the knowledge acquisition process. Acquiring knowledge effectively is a work having three aspects the physical work or the posture of the learner and the mental work of receiving and processing the information and finally the emotional work determines the mood and the concentration with which the learner acquires knowledge. WORK LIFE BALANCE Prof. Frank Parsons (1909) was the first person to recognize link between education, career and life; who in ‘Choosing your Profession’ highlighted the fact that a systematic approach should be taken towards selecting a career rather than an adhoc approach. His method in principle is still used by the professional career counselors along with the psychological testing methods that have been added for better understanding of the human traits in different personalities. Price Waterhouse Coppers study about work life balance as quoted in The Economic Times recently emphasizes on the fact that want of this millennium employees is ‘WORK LIFE BALANCE’. The conclusion is that seven out of ten millennial (born between1980- 1995) employees said that their work demands interfere with personal life. Even in a country having one of the oldest cultures in the world with Vedas and the others scriptures being practiced in the everyday life with such an excellent everyday life of wisdom remaining in practice and among the common man are we wiser or more confused as Indian and Global citizens. With a country being called a country of the youth the valueless, directionless youth become a developing power or destroyer of the Superpower called India. Finally it leads to a few questions. Are we really listening to Amaratya Sen, C. K. Prahlad and others who are pointing out the way that we need to follow to become saner human beings? Are those ideas only good for reading and closed after giving Noble Prize or just some good tributes. Is it a better society to live in? Do we really have the welfare economics put in the practice in the context of globalization today? Are we leading the world with the hope, that the people have some faith in? Will we really be able to get that Global New World order promised by WTO and the concepts that lead of Globalization? Is industrialized world 62 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 SELF MANAGEMENT
  • 65. proving to be better than the agriculturally settled world of yester years? Are we not moving about purposely in today’s hyper dynamic world? Has honesty rather than being the best policy has turned out to be a fool’s paradise with corruption and Swiss Banks and the Politicians behavior becoming the order of the day? Managing Yourself Leading Others What is our heritage? What have we learnt, practiced and are preaching in our everyday life? In other words are leaders and thinkers really taking right decisions in everyday life? Are we happier today? If not? Then we need to analyze what has gone wrong with our decision making? What happened to the sound cultural base that we have had? Is it serving any purpose? Materialism being at its peak; are we really behaving with some sense of direction or we are just mental emotional nomads looking for illusive greener pastures in the vast expanses of desert? More important than that, “Do we really have time to reconsider what we have gained or lost? What we want in the coming times ultimate what life rests upon is the great word OBJECTIVE or PURPOSE? Where is it ultimately leading to? Can unhappy today really lead of a happier tomorrow? Are we really well today with such advancement in the science of medicine? What about the feeling of losing a fortune today while going to the thought of being admitted in hospital? What is the level of faith today while visiting the hospital that the doctors will really prescribe what we need rather than what they want and need? Although we have costly machines, which can show the functioning of each organ in our body why are we helpless before AIDS and HIV? If our youth today is irresponsible towards its self, towards the family and the society how much are we responsible? Where do we stand? And do we really know where it is going? Are we really able to oversee the fact if the educational objectives of cognitive psychomotor and affective being fulfilled by the education pattern in general and in management education in particular? So what about the same three concepts of knowing, doing and being properly being included in the curriculum of education today? Is anybody overseeing that? Are our higher authorities ready to recognize these aspects of educational objectives and ready to bring about the necessary changes in the obsolete educational system? What is it that prevents us from enjoying our work and life? What they mean is the attitude we have towards life’s problem, situation at work and away from work? The Guru of Gurus Peter F Drucker has written the article Managing Yourself to give us the idea how we can sustain ourselves in this turbulent environment. Even leadership Guru Warren Bennis and his co author Bert Nanus in their bestseller Leadership spoke about Managing Yourself Leading Others as an important leadership trait. We will discuss this in Leadership Skills in our next article on skills development. Bibliography • www.wikepedia.org • Carnevale .A. P - America and the New Economy, Internet • Parsons. Frank (1909)- How to Choose a Vocation, Internet • Bloom. B (1956)- Taxonomyof Educational Objectives, McKay, New York • Toffler. Alvin (1970)- Future Shock, Bantam Books • Buzan. Tony (1974)- How to Use Both Parts of Your Brain, Plume Books • Bennis. Warren Leaders, Collins • Nanus. Burt (1985) • Drucker . F. Peter (1990)-The New Realities, Asian Books P.Ltd. • Goleman. D (1998) - Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books • Datar. Srikant (2010)– “Rethinking the MBA”, Harvard Business Press • Vallabhaneni. Devi (2010)- What’s your MBA IQ, Wiley   The results of these innovations are as various and promising as they are novel. Photonic textiles open up a wide range of applications in the fields of ambient lighting, communication, and personal health care. Photonic textiles are still a young business. Even at this early stage, however, Philips envisions partnerships with interior and apparel brands that see the potential of photonic textiles to revolutionize the very concept of fabric. The adjoining picture shows how engineers have succeeded in integrating flexible arrays of multicoloured LED’s into fabrics. Their lumalive textile garments were on show in 2006. Optical fibres are woven into cloth. Curtains are attached to a transformer plugged into the wall and clothes made from these fabrics are attached to a battery. The cloth can be cut and washed into a washing machine on the delicates cycle. IntelligentTextiles with a Purpose Zapper cushion is a pillow made of touch sensitive fabric, replacing traditional remote controls for children and people with motor-skill problems. New age Hospital beds are made with linens that detect your position, and can e.g. prevent bedsores. Using Smart upholstery in cars ensures proper inflation of airbags. Textiles can also sense and remember your movements to automatically regulate the seating position. Sensory textiles built into airplanes, roads, bridges and buildings can give early warning of potential catastrophic failures. Future of IntelligentTextiles A shift in consumer values has occurred; instead of wanting the finest natural materials, people look at the engineered beauty, innovative design and the intelligent aspects of products. We are still far from taking full advantage of the potential of information technology services, but the future for fully soft electronic products is very attractive. And it requires a different, but interesting Technical Textiles / Intelligent Textiles design approach. The geometric and mechanical properties of textiles (large flexible area) differ strongly from conventional electronics and can create new computer designs and architectures. Firms that understand how to incorporate emerging IET technologies into their new product strategies will establish and sustain financial and competitive advantages. To take the next step towards electronic clothing (made of electronic textiles) research has to be carried out in the following areas: • clothing technologyfor manufacturing • testing under wearing conditions and • washing/cleaning treatments • investigation of reliability Plastic was a revolution and nano-technology will probably be the next big change. There are a lot of thoughts about what could be done if we were able to manipulate, rearrange and build from molecules and atoms. It has unlimited potential and is called the key technology of the 21st century.   Reference: 1. Textiles Today – chloë Colchester 2. Advanced Textiles for Health and Well-Being – Marie O’ Mahony 3. www.maggieorth.com 4. www.euratex.org 5 www.ece.eng.wayne.edu/~yxu/doc/ researches/Intelligent%20textiles.htm 6. www.stdl.se/?cat=16 7. www.talk2myshirt.com/blog/archives/4412 8. www.gizmag.com/go/6183/ 9. www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-17580666 10. http://faculty.mu.edu.sa/public/uploads/ 1333565753.9991CarlAN_PD9article%208jan20 04%20version%20to%20print.pdf Cont.. From Page 38 63Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013 SELF MANAGEMENT MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION A Skills based Approach
  • 66. Marketed by:
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