1. July - September 2013 2 2 68
3. Kriplon Synthetics Pvt. Ltd.
P 118, Rajlaxmi Commercial Complex, Kalher Village,
Kalher, Bhiwandi, Thane .
127, Sanjay Building, 5-B, Mittal Estate, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400059, Maharashtra, India
(022) 28505452, 28501686, 28505983 (022) 28504142
Contact Person : Mr. Satish Kriplani : 9323646986
Email : ramdevsyntheties@rediﬀmail.com
4. Ratan GIitter Industries Limited
PURE SILVER ST YARN
PURE SILVER "M" TYPE YARN
Polyester Metallized Pure Silver Yarn, highly used on Schiffli Embroidery
Machines and Computerized Embroidery Machines. Also used in hand
embroideries. It is widely used for tapestry and made-ups.
We manufacture Pure Silver “M” type metallic yarn for making ST type rounded pure
silver yarn. Our range of product includes non-resistant and resistant yarns to dyeing
and finishing procedures. Pure Silver M Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 Micron and
24 Micron in different cuts of 1/69, 1/85, 1/100. These are capable of running on high
speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machine.
Pure Silver MX Type Metallic Yarn produced in 12 Micron and 24 Micron in different cuts of
1/69, 1/85, 1/100. The core yarn is Polyester or Nylon. These yarns are capable of running on
high speed weaving, knitting and circular knitting machine
PURE SILVER "MX" TYPE YARN
Along with pure Silver Metallic Yarn, we also produce ST and
Zebra Type Yarns in fluorescent, rainbow and Several other
Colours. These are hightly used in computerized embroidery
machines, circular Knitting and weaving Machines.
5. In the recent reshuffle of the Union Cabinet, the burden on Shri
Anand Sharma, Hon’ble Minister of Commerce and Industry has
been lightened by transferring the additional portfolio of textiles,
which he held as an interim arrangement.
Dr. K.S. Rao has taken over as the Hon’ble Minister of Textiles as of
June 19, 2013. TVC is indeed very happy and delighted to convey
its best wishes to the new minister.
Within a short span of ten days after he was sworn in, the Hon’ble
Minister made it a point to interact with all the stakeholders of the
industry. The addresses delivered by him at such meetings make it
abundantly clear that the Hon’ble Minister is bound to be
successful in putting back the textile industry on the fast track,
despite sluggish economic climate in the USA and EU, two major
importers of textiles.
Sooner or later, two major issues will have to be tackled by the
Union Ministry of Textiles, under the guidance of the Hon’ble
One issue is how to promote exports of man-made fibre textiles
At the global level, man-made fibres, with a share of 60% reign in
the consumption basket of fibres for the manufacture of textiles
and clothing. Despite such a strong preference, man-made fibre
textiles and clothing accounted for only 31 % in the Indian export
basket, while cotton textiles and clothing accounted for the lion’s
share of 69 % in 2012-2013[April – February]
Grand Welcome to the new Union Minister of Textiles
When cotton and man-made fibres are spun on the same system
of spinning yarn, when the technology of weaving and processing is
same, when the cost of labour, and power is same at a given textile
centre and when the cost of finance is same everywhere, how
come cotton textiles and clothing march over man-made textiles
and clothing in the international market?
The answer is simple. Cotton textile industry gets its raw materials
at or below the international price. Unfortunately, the man-made
textile industry by and large is not getting its inputs at international
prices. The international price is the price at which our competitors
in other countries get raw materials in their factories.
Various strategies can be thought of to bring domestic prices in
alignment with international prices, such as sector-specific scheme
for abolition of excise and customs duties on inputs of man-made
fibres, withdrawal of excise duty on man-made fibres, retention
price scheme etc.
The second issue is export policies for different segments of the
textile value chain.
Once India has accepted the policy of liberalization, the export
policy has to be the same for all segments. In other words, the
policy set-up cannot be dismantled as per demands of individual
segments. The only solution is increased production throughout
the value chain. Only in a real crisis situation, a different line of
action can be charted.
The industry is in the safe hands of the new Hon’ble Minister who
considers growth and development of the textile industry as his
Dr. Kavuru Sambasiva Rao, Union Minister for Textiles
7. Editor & Publisher
Ms. Jigna Shah
Chief – In – Editor
Ms. Rajul J. Shah
Mr. Devchand Chheda – City Editor - Vyapar ( Janmabhumi Group)
Mr. Manohar Samuel- Joint President, Birla Cellulose, Grasim Industries
Mr. Aditya Biyani- Marketing Director, Damodar Group
Dr. M. K. Talukdar – VP, Kusumgar Corporates
Mr. Ajay Sharma – GM- RSWM (LNJ bhilwara group)
Check Men’s wear colour Forecast : Fall - Winter 2013-14
Pic. Courtesy Fall 2013 Prada Runway
CONSULTANT / ASSOCIATION
Mr. Avinash Mayekar, MD, Suvin Advisor Pvt. Ltd.
Mr. Shivram Krishnan, Senior Textile Advisor
Mr. G. Benerjee, Management & Industrial Consultant
Mr. Uttam Jain, Director- PDEXCIL; VP of Hindustan chamber of commerce
Mr. Jaykrishna Pathak, President, Bombay Yarn Merchant Association & Exchange Ltd.
Mr. Shiv Kanodia- Sec General, Bharat Merchant Chamber
EDUCATION / RESEARCH
Mr. B.V. Doctor - HOD knitting, SASMIRA ,
Dr. Ela Dedhia- Associate Professor, Nirmala Niketan College
Dr. Mangesh D. Teli – Professor, Ex.HOD & Dean ICT (former UDCT) ,
Dr. S.K. Chattopadhyay,Principal Scientist & Head MPD, CIRCOT
Dr. Rajan Nachane, Retired Scientist, CIRCOT
Shri V.Y. Tamhane
Advertising & Marketing
Ms. Rajul J. Shah
8 & 9
Letter to PM & Textile Committee Prs Rls
Textile Ministry News & BTRA News
9 & 10
ATE & RIETER, BIRLA & LENZING
Skill Gap Analysis
Emerging Trends in Skill requirement
Men's Colour Forecast: Fall- Winter 2013-14
College Focus: Parsons Mumbai
CMAI- National Garment Fair Report
Cover Story: Need for Credit Rating
Interview with India Rating / Fitch, CRISIL, CARE
Corporate Profile: Bombay Dyeing
Interview with Mr. Durgesh Mehta, Jt. MD & CFO
Birla Cellulose (Reprinted)
Post Show Report : Fabric & Accessories 2013
AEPC Press Release
Post Event Report
CIRCOT Pre Commercialization Workshop
SDC Conference Report
Interview with Everflow Petrofil &
Collaboration: Suvin Advisor &
Spinning of Banana Fibres on
CIRCOT – Phoenix Charka
Technical Textile Focus
Intelligent Textile, Smart Fabrics
Electrolyte- Free Dyeing with Cationic
Fabric Report: Prices of Grey Fabric
Changing Trends of Leg wear in
Bubble Blast Theory of Consumer
Indian Textile Engineering
Role of Carbon footprint in
Textile & Apparel Industry
Managing career, life & Education,
A skill based Approach
Pre Show Report
Screen Print India 2013
June, M.K. Ananth for The Hindu
Effluents being discharged into River Cauvery at
Pallipalayam.— Photo: M. K. Ananth
With the water from Mettur dam hardly reaching River
Cauvery in Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, the effluents discharged
from the unauthorised dyeing units in Pallipalayam and
Komarapalayam into the river has become its only source of water.
“Anyone crossing the bridge that connects Erode and
Pallipalayam can easily see the extent of pollution caused to the
river”, says environmental activist R.K. Madeshwaran. Pallipalayam
and Komarapalayam towns developed primarily because of the
large number of power looms, handlooms and textile processing
units such as dyeing units. “But the people are suffering without
water and continuing pollution is adding to their woes”, he adds.
People living in villages in and around the two towns say that
they are unable to use water from open wells and bore wells due to
the large scale pollution that has changed the colour of the water.
“The impact was not so high when water was flowing in the
river as the dark coloured effluents were washed away by the force
of the water”, says K. Raja of Indra Nagar in Pallipalayam. About
three months ago the district administration made an
announcement through revenue department officials, asking
persons running dyeing units in Pallipalayam, Komarapalayam and
nearby areas to stop operation of the units, in a bid to put an end to
large scale discharge of effluents into the river – till water released
from Mettur Dam became normal. A few units were also evicted for
not taking the announcementseriously.
On April 19, the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board team led
by District Environmental Engineer, M. Murugan, raided an illegal
dyeing unit in an agricultural field at Kokarayanpettai near
Pallipalayam. The landlord opened fire on them but they luckily
escaped. The police registered a case and arrested the accused.
Since then, the TNPCB has not initiated major action against any
polluting dyeing units.
S. Saravanan of the Association of People’s Welfare
Organisations in Komarapalayam says that the dry river has made it
easy to identify illegal dyeing units as they can easily follow the path
through which the effluent flows into River Cauvery.
Solar lanterns to be given to weavers
Bhubaneshwar, June 10, The Hindu
In a bid to facilitate illuminated workplace, the State
government has decided to supply 10,072 units of solar lanterns to
handloom weavers during 2013-14. Handloom industry, second
largest cottage industry next to agriculture in the State, employs 1.03
As per Handloom Census-2009, there are 40683 weaver
households comprising 103158 weavers and allied workers
engaged in the profession. The government plans to cover 10,000
families every year.
The solar lantern designed by Odisha Renewable Energy
Development Agency (OREDA) would be given to each weaver
family. However, the government has made a priority list of
beneficiaries. Weavers working in areas which are yet to be
connected with electricity or suffering from low voltage problems
would be given preferences. Similarly, weavers belonging to weaker
section would be assisted on priority basis.
Directorate of textiles and handloom will be nodal agency for
distribution of solar lanterns. According to a top official, the
process of weaving involves handling of fine yarn with colour of
various shades continuously for longer period. Highest 2,900
solar lanterns will be distributed in Bargarh district and Sonepur
has second largest share with 1,250 lanterns.
Indian Govt may further relax FDI rules in
June 17, Fibre to Fashion
The Govt of India may further relax or simplify guidelines for
foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail trading (MBRT),
Minister of Commerce and Industry and Textiles, Anand Sharma,
The Indian Govt opened doors for multi-brand retailers around
nine months ago, allowing 51 percent investment through FDI
route, but the policy has not received expected response from
foreign retailers, who have so far stayed away. Last week, the
Government issued some clarifications related to 30% sourcing and
back-end infrastructure, but these too failed to generate any positive
response from foreign retailers.
If the foreign retailers have any other issues in mind, the Indian
Govt is receptive and it would further bring clarity to the guidelines,
because the objective of the policy is to attract FDI, Mr. Anand
Sharma told reporters. Mr. Sharma said, he would be chairing a
Retail Round Table on June 27, which would involve participation of
CEOs of Indian companies as well as foreign investors. The Round
Table would seek views of the participants on issues related to
implementation of the FDI Policy and address their concerns, if any.
The news of this conferenceis not yet out.
The Minister said that any proposal received by the Govt for FDI in
MDRT would be fast-tracked.
7Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
10. LBT IN MAHARASHTRA – ONE MORE
COMPLICATED TAX WINDOW, CAUSE OF BIG
OBSTACLE FOR INVESTMENTS
Please refer to your meeting with
Hiromasa Yonekura, chairman of Japan
India Business Leadership Forum on
28th May 2013, who pointed to you
the differences in tax regimes of each
state and the complicated tax structure
were big obstacles for investments in
You were candid in acknowledging
that the state governments belonging
to non-UPA parties were not in favour
of surrendering their tax power in
favour of the GST. Your ambitious vision of tax reforms & tax
simplifications could not be implemented due to opposition from other
political parties. Well, in reality, you will be shocked to note that your flag
ship state ‘Maharashtra’, ruled by Congress, is working contrary to your
vision. It is implementing LBT, in place of Octroi, which over a period of
time, every country and every other state in India has abolished. Your
UPA partners, opposition and the masses are against it, but your party
CM, alone, is adamant on LBTs’ implementation. The Maharashtrian’s
plea, of generating additional revenue, if required, to be collected along
with VAT, has fallen on deaf ears. LBT is obnoxious & creates another tax
collection authority leading to localized, unchecked corruption, which
will add to inflation, deter investments, and is anti - people.
The Hon’ble Chief Minister has been misguided by the legislative
machinery of the state by reasoning that autonomy of municipal
corporations will end, if single window tax, VAT is enlarged to abolish
Octroi or LBT.
Truth – Other states have seamlessly adopted single window tax
structure without compromising on autonomy. There is very thin line
between autonomy and factionalism. Such factionalism will only
weaken our country. Dividing our country religion, culture, region,
language, etc. will eventually lead India nowhere.
Truth – Your talks of Tax reforms & simplification will take a major hit
and Maharashtra will further fall from 2nd position to lower position.
We have been begging to all, local MLA’s, MP’s, Smt. Sonia Gandhi,
Shri Rahul Gandhi, Sri P. Chidambaram, but there is no response.
Democratic interaction, discussions with concerned, are very basis of
democracy. It is heartening to note that the letters sent to various
government functionaries are not even been acknowledged.
It’s a sorry state of affair and the Foreign Investors, when made
aware of this ground reality will only confirm the gradual deterioration
of Maharashtra. We request you to kindly look into this matter, on
merits and request Maharashtra Government to withdraw octroi & do
not impose LBT, in its place. If there is revenue shortfall, please increase
in VAT. By adding LBT window, you are adding fuel to fire and
complications will lead to further corruption. The people of
Maharashtra will never forgive this final nail in coffin, for centuries to
We propose to take this issue to numerous Foreign Investors,
global organizations at various forums.
Excerpts of Letter dated 1 July, 2013 from
Shri Shiv Kanodia, Honorary General Secretary, Bharat Merchants'Chamber ( BMC), Mumbai to
Sri (Dr.) Manmohan Singh ji, The Hon'ble Prime Minister of India
Textiles Committee (TC), a statutory body, under the Ministry
of Textiles, was set up to promote quality in Textile Trade & Industry.
TC provide services like Textiles Testing & Technical Services, Quality
Appraisal of textiles & Export Promotion, Consultancy on ISO 17025
(QMS), 9000, ISO 14000, SA 8000, and Training to industrial &
Educational institutes, through its vast network of 30 regional offices
and 16 Laboratories scattered all over major textile clusters of India.
All 16 labs of TC are committed to the timely disposal of testing
activities and also maintain the confidentiality of test results.
Wherever required, the labs invite the customers to witness tests
and have indisputably demonstrated the repeatability of test results. 9
of TC Labs are notified by DGFT for testing of import consignment
received from different customs. TCs labs, in order to become more
efficient in its routine activities, have initiated a pass book system wherein
any customer can deposit certain amount as advance payment
depending upon their volume of transactions. Test charges of a pass book
holder will be deducted as soon as tests are over and the test report will
be automatically forwarded to respective customs. This will reduce the
effort of customers to wait till the test is over to ascertain and make the
payment for further action.
In order to become more transparent, TC labs, in its routine
activities are implementing Laboratory Information Management System
(LIMS). TC’s Mumbai lab has already implemented LIMS and is now
working on it. In this system samples received from any source is
registered on LIMS. Then the sample is taken for testing and for further
action. Status of samples at any stage can be monitored by designated
officials. Along with this, lab has also initiated a digital display of information
related to receipt of sample, status of sample such as testing, dispatch,
payment, etc. This information is helpful to the customer to know the
status of the sample. This display system was inaugurated by Hon’ble
Chairman of Textiles Committee, Shri S.P. Oswal on 8th May ’13 at
Textiles Committee’s Sample Counter.
While inaugurating the new facility, Shri S.P oswal appreciated the
efforts taken by the TC. He urged it to be more customer friendly and
linking of LIMS information on to TC website. The Secretary of TC, Dr.P.
Nayak and other members of the Committee also graced the occasion.
Pic: Hon'ble Chairman of Textiles Committee
Shri S P Oswal inaugurating the LIMS Display facility
LETTER TO GOVERNMENT
ONLINE QUALITY STATUS REPORT THROUGH LIMS
BY TEXTILE COMMITTEE
Pic: Sri (Dr.) Manmohan Singh ji,
The Hon'ble PM of India
8 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
The ex- Union Minister for Commerce, Industry and Textiles, Shri
Anand Sharma, before finishing his tenure, launched 21 New Textile
Parks approved under Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP).
The SITP’s have been instrumental in development of wide range of
models for green field clusters from a 1000 acre FDI driven
integrated cluster, to a 100 acre powerloom cluster and a 20 acre
handloom cluster. Under the scheme, 61 parks have been
sanctioned – 40 projects were started in the 11th Five Year Plan and
another 21 projects are to be implemented in the 12th Five Year
Plan. Out of the 40 parks sanctioned earlier, a total of 25 Parks are
already operational. Most of the balance Parks are expected to be
completed during this financial year. The estimated employment
generation is over 10 lakh persons with total estimated investment
of Rs. 27, 562 crore.
Shri Sharma also released a coffee table book on SITPs. The
book encapsulates the broad features of various ITPs set up all over
India and is a ready reference for the same. The book gives a brief
physical and pictorial status of each ongoing Park approved under
SITP. He also released a short film on SITP and visited a photo
exhibition that was created to mark the event.
Out of the 21 new parks, six are in Maharashtra, four in
Rajasthan, two each in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and one
each in Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tripura, Karnataka, Gujarat,
Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.
In this year’s budget speech, the Finance Minister announced an
additional amount of upto Rs. 10 crores per park for setting up
apparel manufacturing units for the projects under the SITP.
Necessary action is being taken for implementing the
The Govt is aware that silk handloom industry in Assam is passing
through a difficult phase. Assam does not produce required quantity
of mulberry silk as per the demand of the its consumers. Mulberry
silk yarn is supplied by the traders from other parts of the country,
due to which consumers have to purchase yarn at higher rates from
the open market.
In Assam, few silk fabric traders have been doing business by
producing the Assamese dress materials, particularly Mekhela-
Chadar of mulberry silk at the weaving units outside the State with
Assamese traditional patterns and designs. As a result, the local
producers have protested for importing such hand woven silk
fabrics from outside the State. To address this issue, the state Govt
has constituted a Committee to look into their grievances.
In order to promote Mulberry, Eri and Muga silk production in
Assam, Govt through Central Silk Board is implementing a centrally
sponsored scheme viz “Catalytic Development Programme”
(CDP) in collaboration with State Sericulture Department of Assam.
Under this scheme, financial assistance is provided to the
stakeholders of silk industry through the State Sericulture Dept. The
components under CDP envisage development and expansion of
host plant, support for seed production, development of farm and
post cocoon infrastructure, up-gradation of reeling and processing
technologies in silk, enterprise development programme, support
for extension and publicity etc. Rs. 10319.11 lakh Central assistance
has been provided to Assam under CDP during the XI Plan period
for the development of silk industry, including mulberry, eri & muga.
To increase the number of trained qualified weavers, a number of
skill upgradation programmes have been implemented through
various schemes like cluster projects and group approach projects
under Integrated Handlooms Development Scheme (IHDS).
Besides, the State Govt has been imparting training to the weavers
through 102 Handloom Training Centres and 4 Handloom Training
Institutes every year.
Central Silk Board, Ministry of Textiles is implementing Silk Mark
scheme through the Silk Mark Organization of India for popularizing
the products made of pure silk to protect the interest of consumers.
Silk Mark is a quality assurance label attached to the products made
of pure silk and is applicable to all the silk products made of pure silk
covering all varieties of silk viz. Mulberry and Vanya (Tasar, Eri &
Mugs) silks. Under the Silk Mark Scheme, there are 177 authorized
users in NE region, including Assam, who uses Silk Mark labels.
Further, Muga Silk of Assam, has been registered under
Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act,
r e a c h e d a
( M o U ) w i t h
New Delhi on
22nd May, 2013.
A signing-in ceremony took place at BTRA that is attended by Dr. S.
Gangopadhyay, Director, CSIR-CRRI and Dr. A.N. Desai, Director,
MoU on Geotextiles between BTRA and CSIR-CRRI
The purpose of this MOU is to create a framework for
collaboration between CSIR-CRRI and BTRA with the following
I) To establish close linkage and functional coordination
between CSIR-CRRI and BTRA.
ii) To work collectively for the sector in Geosynthetics
particularly Geotextiles for road and transportation sector.
iii) Mutual sharing of resources to accelerate the use of
Geotextiles in road construction and maintenance including
usage of library at both the end.
iv) Submission of the joint proposals to MORTH/NRRDA on
comprehensive evaluation of Geotextiles.
9Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
News from the Textile Ministry
12. 10 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Rieter is a leading supplier on the world market for textile
machinery and components used in short staple fiber spinning.
Based in Winterthur (Switzerland), the company develops and
manufactures systems, machinery and technology components
used to convert natural and manmade fibers and their blends into
yarns. Rieter is the only supplier worldwide to cover spinning
preparation processes as well as all four final spinning processes
currently established on the market. Rieter has 18 manufacturing
locations in 10 countries.
Texgiulia becomes Com4®rotor Yarn Licensee
The Italian company, Texgiulia, is committed to yarn quality spun
on Rieter rotor machines type R 60. In order to optimally promote
the yarns, the company decided to become a Rieter yarn licensee
for rotor yarns. The ceremonial presentation of the Com4®rotor
certificate took place mid-March 2013 at the company’s
headquarters in north Italian Rovellasca-Como.
The fully-integrated open-end spinning plant Texgiulia is part of
the Italian Gabel Group and is one of the leading manufacturers of
bedding and home textiles in Italy. The company generates its
complete added value domestically – starting from yarn production
up to the product sales through its own distribution network.
First and foremost, Texgiulia produces for its own requirements.
By the acquisition of further Rieter R 60 rotor spinning machines, the
A little over a year after Zimmer tied-up with A.T.E. for the
marketing and sale of Zimmerdigital printing machines in India,
Zimmer Austria has also entrusted A.T.E. with the marketing, sales
and after sales service of its entire range of printing machinery
including rotary screen printing and flat-bedscreen printing
Zimmer, the world leader in printing technology, manufacturers a
complete range of machinery for textile and carpet finishing
covering digital printing systems, flat screen and rotary screen
printing, coating, steaming, washing, and drying in its plants situated
at Klagenfurt and Kufstein.
equipped with a
m a g n e t i c
and is modularly
allowing for a
wide spectrum of
a p p l i c a t i o n s .
Rotascreen enables top quality results with single or multi-colour
printing on different substrates such as home textiles, fashion
fabrics, automotive, and other materials.
Zimmer flat bed
m a c h i n e ,
Magnoprint, is a well
proven flat bed screen
successful world wide.
Its magnetic system
a n d r o l l r o d
technology in the
enables single or multi-colour printing on different substrates such as
flags, home textiles, banners, towels, blankets, and automotive
Zimmer triple coat is a
c o m p a c t c o a t i n g
machine with precision
back roll and is
equipped with knife,
screen, and slot coating
unit for different
substrates such as
textiles, paper foil,
nonwoven, fibre, glass,
tissues and other
innovative materials. With an expanded portfolio in printing
solutions, A.T.E. now provides the full range of the latest
technologies in processing and caters to the end-to-end needs of all
plant now has a sufficiently large capacity to also produce yarns for
third parties. The Rieter yarn license for high-quality Com4®rotor
yarns thus offers Texgiulia the optimal promotion platform to win
new customers for rotor yarn in future and to develop customer
The ceremonial presentation of the Com4®rotor certificate
was held mid-March at the headquarters of the Gabel Group in
Rovellasca-Como (north Italy). In the presence of Dr. Emilio
Moltrasio (Delegate of the Board of Directors and Partner in the
Gabel Group) and Sergio Zonca (Technical Director General of the
Gabel Group), Rieter sales engineer Matthias Stuessi handed over
the certificate to the Management.
With the yarns, spun on the new R 60 rotor spinning machines,
Texgiulia was able to further increase the already very high quality
standard of the yarns and substantially improve the running
properties in its own weaving unit. Yarn purchasers will also profit
from this quality in future.
Rieter actively supports and promotes the supply sources of
licensed yarns, one of the measures being a direct link on the Rieter
website to the licensee. Licensed customers have the opportunity
to profit from the expertise of Rieter specialists and to participate in
Rieter Com4® yarn further training courses. Over and above these
activities, Rieter supports licensed customers with the
implementation of their own marketing actions.
Zimmer triple coat
13. Indian textile market is a decentralized, unorganized, fragmented
market and with a hub centric mindset. eg. Surat is ladies fabrics &
polyester/ viscose fabric centric, Erode is a spinning & weaving
cluster, then Banaras is a silk cluster, etc. The problem is that these
hubs are unaware of each others activities and the organised players
play a back stage role in the same.
Birla Cellulose, is the umbrella brand of the Aditya Birla Group’s
range of cellulosic fibre. The Company has taken an initiative to have
a centralized and more organized Indian textile industry. On the
30th of May 2013, India’s 1st time large scale Hub meet was held in
Surat by the Birla Group. The idea is to integrate the entire textile
value chain and its members under one platform and help each
Surat is the largest Hub producing more than 70% of India’s ladies
dress material. More than 90% is with Polyester. And rest 10%
consists of all - Nylon, Cotton, Viscose and PC & PV Blends. The
questions are: World trend is going towards comfort as against our
Synthetic focus. Why are we not growing to our potential? Most
Buyers and orders are from outside Surat. There is Lack of Proactive
Product development in line with world trends. There is hardly any
awareness and links to consumer trends.
Bearing this in mind, Birla believes ‘If my customer grows, I will grow
and vice versa’. Hub meets and participation by all people involved
with the textile industry is one of the initiatives taken by Birla, that
none of the other Corporates have taken till date. Birla Cellulose
proposed the following measures at the Surat Hub Meet for a
fruitful textile partnership for mutual growth:
• For new design the challenge starts from yarn. We support
sourcing for yarns & fabrics
• Commercial information and vendor support for fabrics
beginning with outsourcing
• Successfully started with 60s x 60s, 92 x 88 modal sourcing @
Rs.52/mtr and now being developed indigenously for
• Successfully conducted trials for dyeing and printing of
cellulosic fabrics (samples were displayed at the meet)
• Further new products with 80s Modal, HT Modal Poly blends,
slub & fancy blends is in progress
• Sizing development support till successful weaving
• High speed weaving in shuttleless looms
• TRADC: Their innovation centre at Kosamba, to support
• Master designers like Mr. Nirmal Doshi, International designer
Mr. Sandy to offer Surat new innovations
• Birla targets to offer Surat over 100 new designs on regular
frequency and bring to international market samples from
mass suppliers like Indonesia and China – for inspiration on
• Accreditation support: All bench marks for quality of yarn,
fabric would be shared
• TechnologyTransfer Support (TTS) through TRADC
• Coordination with our front end team for marketing support
This kind of symbiotic relation will go a long way in the growth of
Indian textile Industry. Birla Cellulose is also planning to have these
meets in different cities of India. Next meet is in Mumbai where
hubs of Bhiwandi, Ulhasnagar and Tarapur will be included. Many
others are being planned at Ichalkanchi, Coimbatore, Erode etc on
every alternate month across the year.
Lenzing quality and innovative strength set global standards for man-
made cellulose fibres. With 75 years of experience in fibre production,
the Lenzing Group is the only company worldwide combining the
manufacturing of all three man-made cellulose fibre generations on a
large industrial scale under one roof – from the classic viscose to modal
and lyocell (TENCEL®) fibres. Lenzing supplies the global textile and
nonwovens industry with high-quality man-made cellulose fibres and is
the leading supplier in many business-to-business markets. The
portfolio ranges from dissolving pulp, standard and specialty cellulose
fibres to engineering services.
At Techtextil in Frankfurt from 3-5 Oct, 2013, Lenzing is presenting a
new flame-resistant fibre especially for use in upholstery fabrics in
public transportation vehicles.
The guidelines which apply to public transportation vehicles are
particularly strict. The fabric and materials used in these applications
have to satisfy the safety standards. With a newly developed Lenzing
FR® fibre, these satisfy all the safety standards for public safety. The
advantage of a safety fibre in public transportation is that Lenzing FR® is
made from beechwood and is endowed with all of the positive
properties this natural fibre has to offer. The seating “climate” remains
excellent even over longer distances since the good breathing
properties of the fibre take effect here.
The special thing about Lenzing FR® or the “divan fiber” is that, unlike
conventional protection fibres, it does not melt, drip or afterglow. The
latter properties represent an enormous risk for passengers. Another
important safety aspect is that the new flame-resistant fibre delivers a
lower rate of toxicity and flue gas density in the event of a fire.
The “divan fiber” is particularly well suited for use in blends with wool.
Both fibres complement each other superbly. Resistance to fading and
excellent pilling performance coupled with durability make upholstery
fabrics a pleasure to sit on. As a result of using the Lenzing FR® “divan
fibre”, treating wool with additional, ecologically harmful flame-
retardant agents is not necessary – another production advantage!
The new specialty fibre can be used in various transportation vehicles.
Wherever safety and comfort are in demand, Lenzing FR® is the
answer whether in maritime or rail transportation, air transportation,
subways or in public spaces such as cinemas and theatres.
Lenzing presents new fibre development
Mr. Manohar Samuel
VP, Birla Cellulose
11Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Birla Hub Meet
14. Completing our section of skill gap from spinning, to fabric
manufacturing, to fabric processing and ending with
garmenting; we continue with the emerging trends in skill
requirements, requirements state-wise and projected
requirements of human resources.
Current Training/Education Infrastructure: The current
training infrastructure is inadequate on both number of people
trained and also the quality of training being imparted. Also, very
few of the training initiatives are targeted at the shop floor level.
The newly inducted workers learn through informal training and
learning from the experience of the existing work force.
The availability of trained manpower is a key issue for the
garmenting sector. The ATDC, ITIs and NIFT annually train up to
50,000 workers. A few private sector players also provide
training specific to the garmenting sector. A large portion of the
requirement of human resource at the operator level is met by
on the job training. Hence training at the operator level is a key
gap. Acute shortage of skilled man power leads to poaching and
acts as a detriment to spending on in house training initiatives.
• Emerging trends in human resource requirements
1. Technology: The changes in technology would significantly
affect the profile of people involved. As mentioned earlier, the
share of shuttle-less looms in the Indian textiles industry is only 2-
3% as against a world average of 16.9%, thereby indicating a low
degree of modernization in the Indian weaving industry. Although
the Indian spinning sector is relatively more modernised, around
60% of installed spindles are more than 10 years old and open-
end (OE) rotors account for only 1% of total installed spindles. In
the apparel sector, India has much lower investment in special
purpose machines, which perform specific functions and add
value to the product. Very few export establishments have
invested in cutting machines or finishing machines. The low level
of technology and government incentives like TUFS would drive
modernization in the industry where as the high power costs
would be a detriment.
The technological upgradation would necessitate the human
resource to be trained in modern machinery and also greater in
house spending on training. The shortage of labour and
increasing wage rate would further induce greater automation
which will lead to higher productivity. For instance, the operating
hours per quintal of yarn have decreased from 77 to 25 on
account of modernization and would continue to fall. Also, the
numbers of people involved in post spinning operations have
come down on account of automatic cone winding machines.
The modern machinery would require skilled maintenance
people who have the requisite knowledge of the same. Proper
maintenance would be crucial as machine down time and costly
spare parts would significantly affect the performance of the
2. Quality Processes: There would be increasing focus and
adoption of quality and environment related processes, such as:
• ISO 9001:2008
• ISO 14001
3. Research & Development: The textile industry does not have
R&D as a focus area. The industry would have to invest more in
both process and product R&D to maintain product and cost
competitiveness. This requires industry-academia collaborations
as well as individual R&D efforts by the companies.
4. Labour laws: More flexible labour regulations will positively
affect the industry. Currently, T&C industry comes under the
purview of Contract Labour Act, 1970 which prohibits contract
labour for the work that is perennial in nature. The exporters find
it difficult to manage the seasonal and order based volatility in
demand on account of this. Change in the current regulations can
lead to opening up of more employment opportunities. Also, the
current regulations prohibit women from being employed in
night shifts. Relaxation of the same with adequate safeguards can
lead to more participation of women and also help in addressing
the skill shortage in the industry.
5. Human resource related: Modernization of technology
would necessitate more technical skills for operators in the
production and maintenance functions across the value chain of
the textile industry. The sector also needs multi-tasking/ multi-
skilling at the operator level. The human resource at the higher
levels as well as in other functions like procurement would need
to possess the knowledge of various types of machines and also
keep abreast with the changes in technology.
The garmenting sector would be the key driver of the
employment in the textile sector. Majority large portion of the
human resource requirement will be for operators who have the
adequate knowledge of sewing machine operations and different
types of seams and stitches. Although, the industry will continue
to have predominantly line system of operations, designer and
high end fashion exports would necessitate “make through”
system of operations which would require the operators to have
the ability to stitch the complete garment. The availability of
merchandising and designing skills would be crucial for increasing
share in export markets and tapping the potential in new markets.
• Regions which will drive human resource requirements:
The major centres in India where this employment generation
would take place are Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, and Gujarat. The state of Tamil Nadu will account
for around 30% of the employment in the textile sector.
By ICRA Managment Consulting Services Ltd. (IMaCS), www. nsdcindia.org
12 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS Emerging trends in skill requirements &
projected requirements of human resources.
15. 13Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Fig. 1. Share of various states of employment in the textile sector
Source: Annual Survey of Industries, IMaCS Analysis
The poor performance of the industry in the recent past has
resulted in the sector not attracting new investments. The cluster
development activities of various organizations have not found
takers and hence new clusters do not appear likely at this point of
time. However, Andhra Pradesh is a likely future destination for
new investments, especially in the garmenting sector with the
establishment of Apparel Parks. The government initiatives of
providing power at a cost of 2 Rs per unit will be a key factor in
attracting investments in spinning sector. Also, the state has
surplus cotton and would result in lower logistics cost. Availability
of raw materials and low power costs will also attract investments
in the downstream activities like fabric manufacturing, processing
The scheme of integrated textile parks and various SEZs
would also affect the regions availability of labour. States like
Uttaranchal necessitate that most of the labour force in the units
operating in SEZ should be local.
The states of UP, Bihar and Orissa etc would be key
catchment areas to meet the labour requirements. Already the
spinning sector in Tamil Nadu is seeing more and more influx of
labour from these states as the current wage rates in the states
are very high.
Environmental concerns would affect the processing sector.
The effluent treatment requirements might see units shifting to
coastal areas as marine discharge requirements are less stringent.
Projected Human Resource Requirements in the Textile &
Clothing Sector: This projection is based on the projection of
industry size. It is estimated that the PFCE on clothing will grow at
a CAGR of 7.5% between 2008 and 20224. Based on projected
growth of GDP and exports, we expect that the exports of
textiles will grow at a rate of 11% to 11.5%. Thus, the overall
T&C sector will grow at a CAGR of 9.5% to a size of Rs. 6,730
billion. Out of this, the share of exports is expected to increase
from just under 50% currently to about 60% in 2022.
Fig. 2. Projected size of the Textile and Clothing industry (in Rs. billion)
While analyzing the human resource requirement, the
categorization of the overall T&C sector as follows:
1. The Mainstream T&C sector – comprising of Spinning,
Fabric Manufacturing, Fabric Processing and Garmenting.
2. Other related industries such as:
Handloom, Woolen, Sericulture, Handicrafts, Jute.
While we expect the human resource requirement in the
Mainstream T&C sector to be closely related to market driven
T&C industry growth, the human resource requirement in areas
such as handloom and handicrafts would have to be
supplemented by initiatives from the Government and Industry.
The addition of human resource into these other sectors would
be at a much lower rate as compared to the Mainstream sectors
due to need for significant support for earnings, scope for
enhanced technology intervention and automation as compared
to current levels, the need to add value, and attractiveness of the
sector among the human resource supply.
Keeping in mind the above factors and the growth of the industry,
it is expected that the overall employment in the T & C sector
would increase from about 33 to 35 million currently to about 60
to 62 million by 2022. This would translate to an incremental
human resource requirement of about 25 million persons. Of
this the Mainstream T&C sector has the potential to employ
about 17 million persons incrementally till 2022.
In our next issue we will continue with NSDC Focus areas for
PFCE on cloting Exports
2012 2018 2022
Pradesh , 4%
Uttar Pradesh, 4%
SKILL GAP & ANALYSIS
17. WARM COLOURS
Courtesy: www.knitweartrends.com. Colour Codes based on Color World, www.csicolorworld.com
Men's Wear Colour Forecast 2013-14 Fall/ Winter
18. ISDI has entered into a collaboration with Parsons, the New
School for Design, New York. The Associate Campus of world’s
number one Fashion School – Parsons is called the Indian School of
Design & Innovation (ISDI), Parsons Mumbai.
Parsons Mumbai is a central part of Parsons agenda of ‘going
global’. Parsons Mumbai, like Parsons Paris & Parsons Shanghai will
function differently based on local regulations, and, more importantly,
on local traditions. Through the establishment of Parsons Mumbai and its
other global academic centres, Parsons global initiatives are designed to
build learning networks connected by major urban centres of art and
design. These initiatives join Parsons existing study abroad offerings,
online courses, and educational partnerships in Europe, Asia, and Latin
America. The plan allows Parsons to share their proven educational
methodology and give students opportunities to learn and work in real-
world settings. Parsons goal is to develop students' global awareness,
cultural literacy, and familiarity with the systems that shape creative,
humanitarian, and entrepreneurial endeavours around the world.
The Indian School of Design and Innovation (ISDI) opens its
doors to students in July 2013. ISDI is committed to a new educational
model inspired by the idea of design and innovation as transformative
forces in society. It is located in India’s fashion capital Mumbai and its
campus is situated in centrally located Parel at the Indiabulls Centre.
ISDI offers a series of globally benchmarked Undergraduate
Diploma Programmes (UGDP), four year intensive programmes
(foundation year plus three year specialisation) for students across the
disciplines of fashion, interior, product and communication design.
Opportunities to engage in design education for graduates and young
professionals start in September 2013, with the launch of ISDI’s one year
Post Graduate Programme (PGP) in Fashion Business Management and
The collaboration with Parsons will enable ISDI to benefit from
Parsons’ rigorous curriculum, prominent visiting faculty, well established
student exchanges and global relationships. The curriculum will include
development, quality assurance, student and faculty exchanges, as well
as collaborative projects with students at Parsons' campuses in New York
ISDI’s academic ideology moulds designers to cater to a
diverse range of industries and employers. All educational programmes
are built upon the foundation of a forward-thinking and innovative
curriculum, industry sponsored projects, national and international
collaborations and a deep sense of social and environmental
responsibility. Creativity, innovation and sustainability are core to ISDI’s
More programmes are on the anvil, so keep yourself
updated through their website www.isdi.in
Pic: Parsons, NY, USA
Last textile policy was declared in 2000. Thereafter, lots of
developments have taken place in the Textile Industry and new
sectors like technical textile have emerged. So, the Govt. has
appointed National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council
(NMCC) under the chairmanship of Mr. Ajay Shankar. The first
meeting of this committee will be taking place on 2 July 2013. This
committee will review the old textile policy and prepare a final report
on National Fibre Policy by 31 October 2013, said Mr. A.B. Joshi,
Textlle Commissioner, while inaugurating India's largest garment fair
on 1 July 2013.
The Clothing Manufacturers Association 0f India (CMAI), celebrating
its Golden Jubilee this Year, haD organized India's Largest ever
th st rd
Apparel Trade Show “The 57 National Garment Fair” from 1 – 3
July at Bombay Exhibition Centre, NSE Complex, Goregaon (E),
Mr. A.B. Joshi, Textile Commissioner has further stated that after
removal of 10% excise duty on branded readymade garments, it has
provided boost to the industry and it has started moving upwards
again towards growth path. Good monsoon will also increase the
The Fair was spread over approx. 3.75 Lakh Sq. Feet and had 589
Stalls displaying over 640 Brands. This has been the India’s Largest
ever Garment Fair held so far. Approx 35,000 Retailers from all across
CMAI'S: The 57 National Garment Fair
India visited this B2B
Fair. There were 4
fashion shows, 2
fashion shows each,
on 1st & 2nd July
2013 which were
highly received &
T h e B u s i n e s s
N e t w o r k i n g
Exhibitors to meet
A g e n t s &
Distributors in the
First Session, High
Street Retailers in
the Second Session and Merchandisers from National Chain Stores in
the Third Session. CMAI invited Reputed Agents & Distributors, High
Street Retailers from 15 States and All National Chain Stores to
Participate in the these Sessions.
CMAI’s next National Garment Fair will be held from 6th to 8th January
2014 at Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon-Mumbai.
16 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
COLLEGE FOCUS ISDI, Parsons Mumbai
20. Figure 2
Characteristics Rating categories
Strong • Use of latest machinery/processes
• Capacity utilisation >85%
‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’
Medium • Growing use of new technology
• Capacity utilsation: 60%-85%
Weak • Mix of old and new technology
• Capacity utilisation: 40%-60%
Very weak • Capacity utilisation below 40% due to old
technology and/or power supply or labour
‘IND B’ and below
18 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
WHAT IS CREDIT RATING & WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
These questions immediately come to the mind when one hears about Credit Rating.
Credit Rating is a pre-requisite for borrowing of funds by Corporate. Rating is an assessment of the financial strength of
company. Rating is intended to bring transparency and efficiency to build confidence of investors whether individuals, banks, financial
institution, foreign institution etc; by mitigating and managing risk, taking pricing decisions, generating more revenue and enhancing
Ratings help lenders and borrowers, issuers and investors, regulators, and market intermediaries to make better-informed
investment and business decisions. The rating exercise takes into account the management capability, industry dynamics, operational
performance, financial risk characteristics and the future prospects of the entity. Ratings help shape public policy on infrastructure in
emerging markets. Ratings catalyse economic growth and development in countries for a better tomorrow.
Even otherwise, it is advisable to conduct rating to know a company’s strengths and weaknesses. To give an insight in the
world of Credit Rating, we have interviewed with the best in the credit rating business in India.
1- India Rating & Research / Fitch Group
3- CARE , Credit Analysis & Research limited
Readers will definitely find their interviews knowledgeable, worthwhile and interesting.
Ind-Ra has issued a sector-specific special report describing
the credit factors the agency uses to analyse the Indian textile
Ind-Ra believes the Indian textile sector in general and
cotton textiles sector in particular is exposed to volatile raw
material prices which is the largest cost variant and can affect a
company’s finances. Price risk also emanates from the adverse
impact of regulation and low pricing flexibility of end products.
For synthetic textile players, raw material prices are correlated to
the demand-supply situation, crude oil prices, movements
of dollar/rupee and prices of cotton and chemical
Textile operations are working-capital intensive due to long
inventory periods and high debtor days. In the cotton industry,
profitability is determined by the efficiency and the timing of
cotton buying and inventory management. Ind-Ra gives rating
advantage to companies which have a proven track record of
managing the inventory risk.
The natural rating territory of the Ind-Ra-rated textile
universe is ‘IND BBB’ and below. This is due to lower margins
from a difficult operating environment on account of regulatory
influence, raw material cyclicality and fragmentation. Players
who demonstrate resilience to volatility, slowdown, adequate
liquidity and financial flexibility qualify for higher rating
categories. Companies with strong market position and
distribution network as well as with brand recognition enjoy a
comparative rating advantage.
The textile value chain is diverse and complex and every
company’s business model can be unique depending upon the
level of value addition, product sophistication and end-market
exposure. Ind-Ra looks at product quality and range, labour
and power cost and availability and the level of technology and
integration while assessing a company’s operational
competencies and earnings capacity.
Business risks are different for cotton and synthetic textiles.
Ind-Ra takes a positive note of companies which are diversified
into both cotton and synthetic textiles, or have the flexibility to
switch their primary raw material.
In the below tables, Ind-Ra Report tells us which sector is
rated, for what & their grades by Ind-Ra.
‘Indian Textiles: Rating Approach’ -
Factors Impacting Credit Ratings, A Special Report
Raw Material Sourcing Capability
Characteristics Rating categories
Strong • Efficient scale and timing of procurement
• Strong liquidity and supply chain
• Capacity to weather cyclicality
‘IND A’/’lower end of ‘IND AA’
Medium • Demonstrated ability to manage working capital
• Moderate scale of operations for efficient
Weak • Small scale of business
• Volatile working capital cycle
Very weak • Generally tight liquidity
• Small scale leading to lower ability to mitigate
raw material cyclicality
‘IND B’ and below
21. Figure 6
Leverage and Coverage Ratios
FY12 median adjusted debt net of
cash/op. EBITDAR (x) Net fixed charge cover (x)
‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ 2.5 4.4
‘IND BBB’ 3.2 1.8
‘IND BB’ 4.3 1.3
‘IND B’ 5.5 1.1
Access to External Financing
Rating categories Access to external funds
‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ Complete access to external financing; high financial flexibility
‘IND BBB’ Reasonable access to external financing
‘IND BB’ Access to external financial mainly in form of bank refinancing or
loans from founders
‘IND B’ and below Usually delays in obtaining additional bank limits; or non-injection of
funds from founders
Level of Value Addition
Value chain Level of integration Rating range
Strong Value added/branded products that
command stable demand/ pricing
‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’
Medium Reasonable value addition that enjoys
stable demand while pricing could vary;
wide product range
Weak Commoditised products; narrow product
Very weak Low-value added businesses (e.g. trading);
highly susceptible to price changes
‘IND B’ and below
EBITDAR and CFO Margin
Rating categories Op. EBITDAR margin (%) CFO/sales (%)
‘IND A’/‘lower end of ‘IND AA’ • Consistently stable EBITDA
margins of 10% or higher
‘IND BBB’ • Moderate volatility in profitability
• Expected to remain +ve
‘IND BB’ • Volatile, low margins
• Likely to turn –ve in downturn
‘IND B’ and below • Erratic or very low margins
• EBITDA losses
Consistently negative (>-10%)
In an engrossing interview with TVC, Mr. Rakesh Valecha,
Senior Director, Head - Corporate Ratings, talks about Ind-Ra’s
role in credit rating for textile companies, their parameters and
the state of Indian textile industry.
TVC: What is the role of your agency and what are the various
services you offer?
R.V.: India Ratings & Research (Ind-Ra) is India's most respected
rating agency committed to providing the India's credit markets
with accurate, timely and prospective credit opinions. Built on a
foundation of independent thinking, rigorous analytics, and an
open & balanced approach towards credit research, Ind-Ra has
grown rapidly during the past decade gaining significant market
presence in India's fixed income market.
Ind-Ra has six offices in India located at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai,
Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kolkata. Ind-Ra is recognised by the
Securities and Exchange Board of India, the Reserve Bank of India
and National Housing Bank
TVC: What are the different types of clients Ind-Ra caters to?
R.V.: Ind-Ra currently maintains coverage of corporate issuers,
financial institutions, which includes banks and insurance
companies, finance & leasing companies and managed funds,
urban local bodies and project finance.
TVC: What are the various factors considered by Ind-Ra
while assigning credit ratings for issuers of debt
R.V.: The ratings are assigned based on established criteria and
methodologies. These criteria are available on
www.indiaratings.co.in. The Key highlights of “Corporate
Rating Methodology” which is the Master criteria used for rating
Corporate are as below:
Qualitative and Quantitative Factors: India Ratings Corporate
ratings reflect both qualitative and quantitative factors
encompassing the business and financial risks of fixed-income
issuers and their individual debt issues.
Key Rating Factors
Industry risk Financial profile
Operating environment Cash flow and earnings
Company profile Capital structure
Management strategy/governance Financial flexibility
Source: India Ratings
Issuer Ratings: An Issuer Rating (IR) is an assessment of an
issuer’s relative vulnerability to default on financial obligations,
and is intended to be comparable across industry groups.
Issuers may often carry both Long-Term and Short-Term IRs.
Because both types of IRs are based on an issuer’s fundamental
credit characteristics, a relationship exists between them
Historical and Projected Profile: India Ratings’ analysis typically
covers at least three years of operating history and financial data,
as well as the agency’s forecasts of future performance. These
are used in a comparative analysis, through which the agency
reviews the strength of an issuer’s business and financial risk
profile relative to that of others in its industry and/or rating
category peer group.
Weighting of Factors Varies: This comparative analysis includes
consideration, where appropriate, of the potential for changes
in the issuer’s operating environment or financial strategy
relative to its ratings. The weighting between individual and
aggregate qualitative and quantitative factors varies between
entities in a sector as well as over time. As a general guideline,
Senior Director, Head - Corporate Ratings,
19Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
COVER STORY CREDIT RATING
INTERVIEWIndia Ratings & Research,
A Fitch Group Company
22. where one factor is significantly weaker than others, this weakest
element tends to attract a greater weight in the analysis.
TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the current
Indian textile industry?
R.V.: Indian textile industry has been undergoing through a
challenging phase over 2009-2012 characterized by demand
seasonality, uneven government policy and speculation-led cotton
price volatility increasing financial risks for sector. Current demand
prospects remain modest and Ind-Ra has a ‘negative to stable’
outlook on the sector for calendar year 2013. Policy for 2013 is
however encouraging with Budget 2013-14 focusing on expansion
and modernization via continuation of TUFS (Technology
Upgradation Fund Scheme- providing capital and interest subsidy to
textile sector) with an investment target of INR 1510 bn. However
sector’s appetite for large debt-led capex in the near-term could be
questioned as most companies are in consolidation mode.
Domestically, weak consumer sentiments, high inflation and
low wage growth have been dampening textiles and apparel sales.
Abatement of excise duty as announced in Budget 2013-2014 will
help reduce prices of end products and uplift demand. In 2012,
garment apparel exports declined by 6% due to economic
slowdown in key end-markets US and Europe. Going forward
garment exports outlook is mixed with Europe re-entering
recession, although US demand pick up is encouraging. Cotton
yarn growth outlook is positive with higher demand of cotton yarn
from China and improving margins on account of low cotton prices
and firm cotton yarn prices.
In this backdrop, investments in the textile sector have
slowed as reflected in the lower number of applications under
TUFS. In 2010-11 the number of TUFS applications plunged
manifold to 256 (total project cost INR 397 cr) from 2384 (total
project cost INR 28005cr) in 2009-10.
TVC: There is a downtrend in investment in textile sectors. Why do
you think the investors are not expanding/planning new projects?
Are these investors diverting to other industries?
R.V.: Investment activity slowed down across the textile value chain
in 2012 due to uncertainty on demand and volatile raw material
prices which led of funds being tied in inventories. Companies have
deferred or slowed on capacity expansion plans due to several
reasons including under-utilization of existing capacity, shortage/high
cost of self-generated power (Gujarat and South India) and even
regulatory reasons (such as environmental regulation in Tirupur).
Continuation of the TUFS in the Twelfth Five Year Plan and
INR 24bn allotment for technology upgradation is likely to
encourage investments in power loom modernization. To boost
investments in the spinning segment, the Gujarat Government in
September 2012 came up with The Gujarat Textile Policy (GTP)
targeting installation of 2.5m spindles worth INR 70 bn over the next
five years. The impact will remain credit neutral in 2013 as benefits
will accrue only in the medium term. Improvement in market
conditions and Foreign Direct Investment could provide impetus to
new projects in the medium term.
There is a general deceleration in the domestic investment
drive due to high cost of debt and paucity of equity funding. Textile
expansion has the benefit of 10% capital subsidy and 4% interest
subsidy under TUFS which is not available for other industries. RBI
also extended the 2% interest subvention for exporters till 2014, and
additional 2% incentive is provided by the government for entities
registering higher exports. Hence Ind-Ra believes that investors are
broadly not diverting to other industries but anticipating the right time
to make new investments.
CRISIL Ratings is India's leading rating agency. They pioneered
the concept of credit rating in India in 1987. They have rated over
60,000 entities, by far the largest number in India. They are a full-
service rating agency who rate the entire range of debt instruments:
bank loans, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, non-
convertible debentures, bank hybrid capital instruments, asset-
backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, perpetual bonds,
and partial guarantees
In a candid conversation with TVC, Senior Director at CRISIL
Ratings, Mr. Subodh Rai, gives the real picture of Ratings in the
TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the current
Indian Textile Industry?
S.R.: The textile industry comprising of yarn, fabric and readymade
garments is expected to grow a modest rate of 4-5% p.a. over the
medium term. This is likely to be supported by stable domestic
demand, and a marginal growth in international demand.
Investment in the textile sector is likely to remain subdued over the
near to medium term with respect to large capacity additions.
However, extension of Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme
(TUFS) for the 12th Five- Year plan is expected to provide some fillip
to the sector.
TVC: Is there a downtrend in investment in the textile sector? If
Yes, Why do you think the investors are not expanding/planning
S.R.: Yes. Given the uncertainties in the economic environment and
overcapacities prevailing in the industry, companies are adopting a
wait-and-watch approach towards investment in projects. Further,
shortage of labour and stressed power scenario in major textile hubs
of South India. are deterrents for additional investments.
TVC: What is the benefit of Ratings for textile companies?
S.R.: Rating is a prime input in deciding interest rate charged by banks.
In addition, the better-rated companies, across industries, are able to
diversify its funding sources e.g. access to capital market, and also
negotiate finer interest rates with banks thereby save on interest costs.
Rating is also perceived as a self-improvement tool; an independent
credit opinion from CRISIL provides the rated company pointers for
improvements. A large number of CRISIL’s textile clients have
indicated that besides the rating, the interaction and the feedback from
CRISIL is an important element in their strategic and operational
India Ratings & Research, A Fitch Group Company INTERVIEW
20 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
23. CARE Ratings has established itself as the second-
largest credit rating agency in India.
General Manager of CARE Ratings, Mr. Milind
Gadkari was kind enough to give TVC an exclusive
interview in his busy schedule.
Mr. Milind Gadkari
General Manager of
TVC: What is the role of your agency and what are the
various services you offer?
M.G. : Credit Analysis & Research Ltd. (CARE) is a premier Indian
Rating Agency providing full range of ratings as well as grading
services. It includes debt instrument ratings, bank loan ratings,
issuer ratings, SSI MSE ratings, SME ratings, Securitization ratings
etc. It also provides grading services like IPO grading, equi grade,
shipyard grading, maritime training course grading etc. CARE also
has a research division which provides Industry research,
customized research, etc
TVC: What are the different types of clients CARE caters to?
M.G. : CARE caters to a whole range of clients which includes
Industrial companies, Banks, Non-banking financial companies
(NBFCs), Infrastructure entities, Microfinance institutions,
Insurance companies, Mutual funds, State Govt. entities, urban
local bodies, services' organizations, etc.
TVC: Who are CARE's major clients?
M.G. : CARE's clientele includes large banks like State Bank of
India, ICICI Bank, Punjab National Bank, HDFC Bank, Axis Bank
etc. It also includes large corporate entities like Reliance Industries
Ltd., Grasim Industries Ltd., Tata Motors Ltd., Tata Steel Ltd., Aditya
Birla Nuvo Ltd. etc.
TVC: How do you find the growth & investment in the
current Indian Textile Industry?
M.G. : While the growth of Indian Textile Industry has remained
stable during last two years, incremental investments in new
capacity have not been aggressive. The investment in pipeline is not
uniform and it is distributed amongst some of the sectors of the
industry. Whereas there is capacity addition happening in sectors
like denim, continuous polymerization (CP) plants etc. some other
sectors like spinning are witnessing modest investments. Main
reasons for overall slowdown in investment climate have been as
Limited financial flexibility available with the textile companies,
with leveraged balance sheets
High interest rates
Heightened Volatility in commodity prices like cotton, cotton
yarn, crude oil
Increased power and fuel costs, with power shortages in
some of the states
After robust investment in FY11, spinning sector has witnessed
slowdown in investment flow in the next two years. At the same
time, denim sector has seen continued growth in investment,
which is likely to result in oversupply situation in the segment.
Polyester chain has witnessed investments in CP plants, with many
players implementing the same.
Union Budget 2013-14 has laid special emphasis on textile
sector by way of extension of TUFS in the 12th Plan with an
investment target of Rs.1,51,000 crores. Extension of TUFS
coupled with RBI's action on the monetary policy front will
encourage investment in the sector which has not seen much of
capacity addition in the past two years. Further, other budget
proposals like 'Zero Excise Duty Route' for Readymade Garment
(RMG) Industry, setting up of RMG Park within ITPs’ and financial
assistance for Handloom sector will also encourage investments in
With moderation in cotton prices and sustained demand for
cotton yarn from China on the back of China's concentration on
production of value added products, the prospect of cotton
spinning units is expected to improve. Exports of cotton yarn are
expected to touch an all time high during FY13 with 758 million kg
of cotton already exported during the period April-Dec 2012,
which is almost 20% higher as compared to corresponding period
a year ago. However, in case of Indian apparel sector wherein the
US and EU account for more than 70% of exports, the concerns
over the economic health of these regions puts pressure on the
Indian apparel exporters in the medium term.
TVC: Please explain whether peculiar problems faced in
textile industry like change in export policies, volatility in
prices of cotton, fibres, etc are taken into account during
credit rating or not. In other words, whether some
consideration is shown for the set back of financial
performance relative to factors stated above.
M.G.: As per rating methodology, CARE's rating process begins
with the evaluation of the economy/industry in which the
company operates, followed by the assessment of the
business-risk factors specific to the company. This is followed
by an assessment of the financial and project-related risk factors
as well as the quality of the management. This methodology is
followed while analyzing all the industries that come under the
purview of the manufacturing sector. Any policy changes which
may occur from time to time and its impact on operations of the
companies in the industry are considered while rating debt of
As far as ratings of companies in textile industry are
concerned, there has been deterioration in credit profile of small
to mid size companies having leveraged balance sheet and having
limited presence in the textile value chain. However, credit profile
of large, integrated players having presence across the textile value
chain has remained largely stable.
21Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
CARE RATINGS INTERVIEW
24. Bombay Dyeing and Manufacturing Co Ltd. was established by Nowrosjee Wadia in 1879, as a very small operation. The
Company dip dyed Indian spun cotton yarn and dried it in the sun in three colours; turkey red, green and orange. From such modest
beginnings, over the last 133 years, Bombay Dyeing has transformed themselves into one of the most reputed and esteemed establishments
Bombay Dyeing is the flagship company of the Wadia Group, a multi-product conglomerate with turnover in excess of 1.5 billion dollars and
employee strength of 20,000 people. Some of the well known group companies include Britannia, Go Air, Bombay Dyeing, Bombay Realty,
Bombay Burmah and many more. In January 2009, Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Company acquired the shares of White Horse Real
Estate Company at face value and consequently it became a 100% subsidiary of the company.
The Indian textile industry is one of the oldest and prominent players in global textile industry. Currently it is a $52 billion industry and is
anticipated to grow to $115 billion by 2012. India accounts for 25% of the world yarn exports and it also accounts for 12% of the world’s
production of textile fibres and yarn. Companies like Bombay Dyeing play a tremendous in India’s growth.
Textile manufacturing is the main activity of Bombay Dyeing with 5 manufacturing facilities confirming to international standards. Bombay
Dyeing is country’s largest exporter of home textiles. Bombay Dyeing's production is exported to USA, Canada, UK, Germany,
Netherlands, Italy, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, New Zealand, Switzerland, and many more countries. Presently, Bombay Dyeing has a
distribution chain of over 600 exclusive stores across the country.
Bombay Dyeing’s product range encompasses various categories of home furnishing, premium and stylish bed and bath linen, suiting and
shirtings. Let us take a brief look at their products:
Chemicals: Bombay Dyeing is the largest manufacturer of Dimethyl Terephthalate (DMT) in India. It has a capacity to manufacture 1,65,000
tonnes per annum (TPA). DMT is raw material for manufacturing polyester fibre, film, filament & yarn and engineering plastics.
Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF): PSF is manufactured from 100% Virgin Polymer from continuous polymerisation plant. Product range from PSF
includes micro fibres, semidull/ optically white/ dopes dyed black/ Hollow/ Super High Tenacity and trilobal products mix, amongst others.
The entire gamut of textile products includes:
Bedding range: Bed sheets, bed covers, quilts, duvet covers, dohars, bed-in-bag sets, blankets,
pillow cases, cushion covers and shams
Bedding accessories: Cushions, pillows, duvets, comforters, diwan sets and bed décor sets
Bath linen: All types of towels for all purposes, bath robes and bath mats
Hotel linen: Twills, dobby weaves, satins, jacquards, high-thread-count-sheeting and satin
Industrial fabrics: microdot interlining fabrics for shoe uppers, adhesives, abrasives and
All Bombay Dyeing products are manufactured to the highest quality standards. The company has stood the test of time on the basis of the
wide range of high quality products that it offers to the consumers. It also creates the widest range of designs and offering with more than 1000
designs per year that are unmatched by any other company in its category and is the ultimate destination for the latest trends in the
Bombay Dyeing holds undisputed leadership in its category since its inception. The vision of the 1st generation created by Nowrosjee
Nusserwanje Wadia, is being continued thru generations with the 2nd generation of Sir Ness N. Wadia, 3rd generation of Neville N. Wadia,
4th generation of Nusli N. Wadia and the 5th generation of Jeh Wadia and it will indisputably continue with even more fervour. It is a Legacy of
over 130 years, driven by the vision to excel. It is an enterprise that generates sustainable value on the strength of trust and transparency.
Shri. Nusli N. Wadia
Shri.Jeh N. Wadia
22 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
25. TVC: Bombay Dyeing is a leader in home textiles segment and
has ruled at the top for many years. However recent
impressions of the Company not much being very active in the
textile industry are doing the rounds. Our readers would like to
know your take on the same.
D.M.: Impressions are actually not correct. Growth of our
Company is more than 20% in last year as compared to general
market growth rate of 5 % in textile business. We are totally
committed to textile business, particularly home textiles. We have
recently hired a new CEO who is fully dedicated to expanding retail
side of our business by adding number of company outlets. In
addition, we are also increasing our focus on large format stores. So
our Company is very much keen in expanding textile business and
we are absolutely active.
TVC: What is your Company’s current production capacity?
D.M.: Our production plant for home textiles is at Rajangaon, near
Pune, Maharashtra. Capacity is 50000 lac meters per month. We
procure grey fabric from our suppliers and various ancillaries,
process it and make final finished products to sell at retail counters.
Our Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) plant is situated at Patalganga, in
Raigad district, Maharashtra has a capacity of 13,000 tones per
month & entire product is sold as a commodity in the market.
Our spinning and winding facilities has an installed capacity of
1,35,336 ring spindles and our daily production of fabrics is
TVC: What is the scenario of the Company’s exports and
D.M.: 90% of our turnover is from the domestic business in our
own brand. 10% turnover is from Exports with made- to-order. We
do not yet sell our own brand in the international market. We have
400 Exclusive Retail outlets & other 2000- 3000 outlets in India in
which Bombay dyeing products are available.
We also have institutional business where we supply to Hotels,
Hospitals, schools, charitable trusts and many more.
TVC: What is the current market size & share of Bombay Dyeing
products in India?
D.M.: Home textile segment is estimated at Rs. 10,000 crore of
industry in India, in which organized sector is only 10 %. In the
organized sector, Bombay Dyeing’s India market share is 40%. In
the total market (Organized & Unorganized) Bombay Dyeing’s
market share is 4%.
TVC: What is your take on branding of PSF; will that improve
D.M.: It is an industrial product. It will not impact profitability but
will impact innovation in terms of special features and benefits and
will increase growth of profit.
TVC: What is Bombay Dyeing’s Business Model?
D.M.: For Our Business Model for Marketing, we follow
multiple channels such as: our own retail stores, franchisee stores
(which are more successful), large format stores (in recent times)
and Multi-brand stores in 2 & 3 tier cities
For our Business Model for Manufacturing we have: dedicated
suppliers for yarn, Job work for weaving, direct outsource of
fabrics and in-house processing like bleaching, dyeing, value
added activity, etc.
our focus is on
R e t a i l i n g a n d
Our further plans
also include product
a n d d e s i g n
TVC: What are the Company’s plans and reasons for investing
in textiles & other industries?
D.M.: We are investing for growth. We want to be closer to the
customer and improve our turnover and margins. Our Current
turn over for Home textile is Rs. 500 crore, 25 % of total, PSF is
1 5 0 0 c r o r e , 5 0 % o f t o t a l . O u r c u r r e n t
utilization capacity is 60%. We are not planning for more
manufacturing capacity. However, upgrading production
technology is on the cards. We are expanding more on front end,
that being Retail. We are planning to expand our retail outlets,
building brands, advertising, promotions and more in those lines.
Currently our Company is investing in these 3 business Verticals
now: Home Textiles, Polyester Staple Fibre & Real Estate
We are not very keen on concentrating on the international
market. We want our domestic established brand to go from
strong to stronger. Marketing and brand building activity in
international market is very expensive. In international market, we
are taking baby steps, small way towards expansion. In the Middle
East we sell our brands but we do not have strategic tie up as of
now. We do have plans in expanding in furnishings, kitchen, dining
linens, shopping bags and more.
TVC: Does your Company or as a matter of fact any company,
face any obstacles while putting up projects in India?
D.M.: Approval on conversion of land used to take unduly long
time and make projects unviable. Industrialists need to avail
Shri. Durgesh Mehta
Jt. Managing Director & CFO,
We had a chat with the affable Mr. Durgesh Mehta, Jt. Managing Director
& CFO of Bombay Dyeing regarding the Company & its affairs.
Bombay Dyeing Retail Store
23Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
26. Aryan Silk Mills
Head Office : Andheri East ,
Factory : J-2, 2nd Floor,Shree Arihant Complex,Kalher, Bhiwandi, Thane - 421302.
Tel - 02522-646969 / 646901 | Mobile - 09324778264
email id : firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact Person : Mr.Vineet Arya : 9324525002
Aryan Silk Mills is synonymous with
quality fabrics, FANCY fabrics…
Since 25 years Aryan silk Mills into
manufacturing blended fabrics in 58’’ width plain,
fancy shirting fabrics & has 65 dealers network in India.
“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”“Feels like Cotton and looks like Linen”
services of multiple official agencies which is a major obstacle and
results in long delay in completion of projects.
Prompt availability of Infrastructure like power, water and effluent
treatment at the right time and pricing is a major hindrance.
Government initiative in TUFS scheme is very attractive.
Organizations should be able to get advantage from this scheme.
Financial institutes / Banks check the credibility of promoters &
owners. Today financial institutes record Textile Industry in the Low
Margin but Stable with Lesser Risk profile. So there isn’t much
problem getting finances from Banks. Of course, there are
companies, individuals who do speculation in raw material in
commodity market for Cotton and Yarn prices, where intrinsic
margin is very low. But Banks have norms and rules to control risks in
TVC: How do you foresee the market for your products?
D.M.: There is maximum opportunity in Home textiles. Indian
consumer is upgrading themselves from low price, unbranded home
linen to branded home linen. Consumer tastes and preferences have
changed tremendously and are continuously changing.
Consumers want more variety in colour, texture, design and at the
same time want value for their money.
TVC: What is Bombay Dyeing’s USP for being competent and
competitive for many years?
D.M.: Our brand is known for Quality and Value for Money which
includes variety for every pocket, class, age group and education
level. Sustaining its quality and novelty is the biggest advantage and
challenge for Bombay Dyeing. We have a special design studio
where we get designs from leading designer Sabyasachi, Wendell
Rodriguez and also have tie ups with other designers. Wadia
Group’s USP is that they continually focus on innovation, make
competitive products which are relevant to the industry
Shri Durgesh Mehta assured that in a short period of time, with
our new CEO on board for our textiles segment, industry and
consumers will see amazing improvements in Bombay Dyeing.
Bombay Dyeing is a heritage that continues to inspire
generations of people across time and we are proud of being a
part of it.
28. FIBRE FOCUSBirla Spundyed Viscose Fibre –
An Eco Concept for Future Textile
Viscose is the most preferred choice in case of knitwear
usually in blends with Spandex and as 100% Viscose. Excellent
colour brilliance, drape and luxurious feel are hallmarks of the
product. Yarn dyed and fabric dyed sorts are in vogue and form a
part of almost all leading brands. Spunshades is the spun dyed
Viscose fibre which gives excellent all round fastness with colour
uniformity. This paper deals with the study carried out at
TRADC to optimize the process parameters for spun dyed fibre
& the benefits comparison of spun dyed with the piece dyed
route fabrics as a key to success in textile.
Key words: Spun dyed Viscose, Spinning, Knitting, Dyeing.
Spundyed VSF of Birla Cellulose is coloured through mass
pigmentation and hence has the best colour fastness rating of
nearly 5 on 5 for wash/rub fastness and nearly 7 light fastness
rating. Spundyed VSF is a country advantageous product of India
and is available with leading spinners who export large quantities
of quality yarn. Knitwear with spun dyed VSF in 100% form as
well as in blends with Spandex ensure the same colour year after
year as the fibre base is fixed. There is absolutely no need for the
complicated colour matching operations and the batch to batch
variations will be avoided in case of spun dyed Viscose.
Spundyed knits are virtually free of barre problems. Spundyed
VSF is Oeko Tex certified and is eco friendly and biodegradable.
Sushil Hada, Ravinder Tuteja,
Ganesh Jadhav, Praveen Kumar
& Alkesh Darji
TRADC, Birla Cellulose. Birladham, Kharach, Gujarat.
Stock dyed fibre /
Fabric / garment
Above Figure A suggests the Symbolic comparison illustrates
Uniformity is maximum with excellent fastness in spun dyed
Viscose as injection of the pigment is at the viscose solution
stage. The coloration for piece dyeing & garment dyeing is only
at the surface, so the core remains un dyed giving poor fastness
properties. Also chances of batch to batch variations are more in
case of piece dyed fabrics.
SpunShades™ is the registered brand name for the spun dyed
viscose manufactured by Birla Cellulose. It is available in
150 shades with 69 standard shades. For knitwear's we have
shortlisted 13 regular shades which will be readily available to the
customers. Rest shades can be customized as per the customer
Material & Methods:
Spun dyed Viscose fibre has different surface characteristic
than the normal fibre. In case of spun dyed the fibre to fibre
friction is higher. Hence it is necessary to optimize the spinning
parameters to achieve the good yarn quality in terms of lesser
imperfections. 30s single ring yarn is identified for the project
trial. For the initial trial, we have selected 1.3 D X 38 mm spun
dyed Viscose Shade no. 9676 for the yarn manufacturing. As this
shade was showing higher imperfections, as per our previous
experience. Below mentioned table shows the fibre properties
for the fibre used for the trial:
Denier X Cut Length
Conditioned tenacity (Gms/Den)
1.3d x38 mm
2.58 – 2.61
18 – 20%
Our main focus was to attack on the neps in the yarn. As blow
room & carding are the prime processes which are responsible
for the neps, we have optimized the process parameters for the
Methodology followed for the optimization of Spundyed
viscose yarn at spinning stage is as mentioned below,
1) As compared to fibre opening through machine (MBO) the
hand opening is a gentle opening process. It helps to minimize
the fibre entanglements. So the hand opening was done.
2) Finer Lap and 4 thou wider gauge between lap feed plate to
licker-in improved fibre opening with less entanglement.
3) Higher flat PPSI, Closer setting of flats to cylinder & higher
flat speed improved carding & cleaning efficiency. Better yarn
quality was achieved by better carding action & cleaning
4) Drafting was improved by finer roving & slight wider spacer
at ring frame. It helped to improve short thin-thick faults in
association with less spindle speed.
5) The results achieved with 9676 spun shade are comparable
with the Uster 25% norms of normal greige viscose.
A knitting trial was conducted with the perfected yarn to check
the knitting ability of the yarn & knitting efficiency on a single
jersey knitting m/c. Following mentioned were the knitting
machine parameters for the trial:
26 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
29. M/c Parameters
Below are the grey fabric parameters for the trial:
Process route followed for the spun dyed fabric -
Results & Discussion:
Yarn Quality Reports –
M/c Speed (RPM)
Yarn Tension (CN)
Mayer & Cie Single jersey circular knitting m/c
3 - 4
Wales per Inch
Course per Inch
Grey Fabric GSM
Uster Unevenness (%)
Uster Thin (-30 %)/Km
Uster Thin (-50%)/Km
Uster Thick(+35%) /Km
Uster Thick (+50%)/Km
Uster Neps (+200%)/Km
Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% TRADC acheived
30s Normal Grey Viscose 30s Spundyed Viscose
Table no. 2
Fig. B & Fig. C shows the process route followed for the spun
dyed & piece dyed viscose fabrics for the study. All the wet
treatments done on the soft flow machines with MLR
1:10.Dyeing process is not required in case of spun dyed fabrics
giving huge water, time & energy (steam, power) savings.
Table 1 shows the process recipes & conditions maintained
during the study.
Piece Dyed Viscose process route:
0.5 % washing agent at 70°C for 15 mins followed by
hot wash & cold wash cum neutralization.
0.5% cationic softener at 50°C for 10 mins.
1 % washing agent & 3% caustic flakes at 95°C
for 20 mins.
1 % washing agent & 6% caustic flakes, 0.6% peroxide
stabilizer & 8% peroxide at 98°C for 60 mins.
1% Peroxide killer at 95°C for 20 mins followed by
hot wash, cold wash cum neutralization.
Cold wash, neutralization, 2 hot wash, 2 soaping, dye
fixing & rinsing.
2.0 % cationic softener at 50°C for 10 mins.
1% Lubricant & 1% wetting agent at 60°C for 10 min.
Hydro extraction, relax dry followed by compaction.
Spun Dyed Viscose Piece Dyed Viscose
Table no. 1
Process recipes & condition :
27Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
30. As per the Table no. 2 & the graphs, spun dyed Viscose yarn is
showing results comparable to the Uster 25% norms for 30s
normal Viscose yarn. All the testing done at controlled lab
conditions of 65% RH with 27±2°c temperature.
Fabric Quality Reports –
Spun dyed Viscose scores over piece dyed Viscose in terms of
chemical, water & energy cost as mentioned in the above table.
The costing done for the study carried out TRADC, Birla
From the above mentioned study, it can be summarized that
the spun dyed Viscose scores over piece dyed Viscose as below,
1. Reduction in processing cost due to shortened process
2. Excellent all round fastness properties. As described earlier,
Viscose Spun dyed is dyed through pigment injection at fibre
manufacturing stage hence, giving excellent all round fastness
3. No batch to batch variations in terms of shade.
4. Value for money owing to reduced cost of yarn dyeing in
Above mentioned table shows the benefits comparison of
spun dyed viscose fabrics over the piece dyed fabrics. As the
Spun dyed are manufactured by injecting pigments at the fibre
spinning stage, the fastness ratings for the Spun dyed fabrics are
excellent as compared to the piece dyed fabrics.
Colour fading Values –
case of auto stripers & yarn dyed sorts.
5. Yarn quality results comparable to 25% Uster norms for
6. Total Eco concept for future Textile being saving in water,
power, effluent load, higher productivity with improved product
The Authors want to acknowledge the Birla Cellulose
management for providing the opportunity to carry out the
study at TRADC. (Textile Research and Application
2. China Textile Science (June 2012) - Benefits of Spun dyed
Viscose fabrics over stock dyed fabrics & cotton fabrics.
Table no. 4
After 1 wash
After 3 Wash
After 5 Wash
After 10 Wash
Spun Dyed ViscoseWash Sample Piece Dyed Viscose
Table no. 5
Chemical Cost Rs/Kg
Power Cost Rs/Kg
Water Cost Rs/Kg
ETP Cost Rs/Kg
Coal + Furnace oil Cost Rs/Kg
Total Cost Rs/kg
Total Water Used in Ltr/kg
Total Time in mins per batch
Piece Dyed ViscoseParameters Spun Dyed Viscose Percentage Saving
Table no. 3
Fastness To Wash
Change in shade
Staining on Cotton
Fastness to Rubbing
766 - 1988
As per the above mentioned table, spun dyed Viscose shows no colour fading even after repetitive washings. Value 5 denotes no
colour fading & solid appearance where as 1 denotes poor colour fading & fuzzy appearance.
Process savings in Spundyed Viscose Knits -
Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% Spun Dyed
Uster 5% Uster 25% Uster 50% Spun Dyed
28 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
REPRINTED DUE TO CORRECTION
32. In spite of a last
minute change in
v e n u e d u e t o
u n f o r e s e e n
circumstances, the twin
shows; Fabrics &
Show (F&A Show) and
H o m e Te x t i l e
which concluded on
May 25, 2013, turned
out to be a highly
with a majority of the
p a r t i c i p a n t s
a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e
the high quality of
visitors. The show was
held at the Bangalore International Exhibition Centre, Bangalore,
May 23 - 25, 2013.
“Even the number of visitors was not affected and we were able to
maintain it at the same level as that of last year’s,” said Mr P.
Krishnamurthy, CEO & Executive Director, S S Textile Media (Pvt)
Ltd, organizers of the events. A total of 124 exhibitors, besides a
separate Chinese pavilion, and 3,154 visitors from all over the
country besides countries like Japan, South Korea, Thailand,
Singapore, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, UAE, France, Spain, Brazil, UK, etc.
attended the show.
Exhibiting companies, once again, presented a top-class range of
textile products to highly qualified trade visitors from all over the
world. The show was therefore able to further develop its position
as India’s leading event and business barometer for the textiles and
accessories industry. F&A Show stands for innovation and quality
and attracts a highly international trade audience. The quota of
visitors from top management was very high; more than every
fourth visitor belonged to the management of a company or was the
owner of a company. Over two-thirds of all exhibitors were able to
fully or largely reach their target groups at the F&A Trade Show
2013, and the other one third at least partially. Besides approaching
new markets, important aims of exhibiting were attracting new
customers, product presentation and reuniting with old customer.
Excerpts from industrialists, entrepreneurs & alike who participated
in the successful show…
Mr Dhrub T. Panda, Textile Designer, Gayatri Design Studio,
Mumbai, said: “A lot of opportunities opened up for us. The show
has been very good with a lot of manufacturers and exporters
evincing keen interest in our activities.”
Mr Deendayal B. Jhanwar, Managing Director, Shree Ramkrishna
(Jhanwar) Texfab Pvt. Ltd., Ichalkaranji, noted: “The show was really
good for us; we were able to meet new customers and had visitors
from China, Korea, Sri Lanka and even Turkey. The people who
came to our stall were genuine and appreciated the range of our
new products displayed. The facilities at this location are also par
Mr Rakesh Patel, Proprietor, Satvah Creation, Ahmedabad, said:
“This is the first time I am participating at this show and I must say it
has been very effective. This is a good show with lots of quality
buyers. We even had buyers from Spain, France and Sri Lanka.”
Visitors too were extremely positive about the F&A Trade Show.
93% of the visitors rated the show as excellent and could find new
vendors from whom they could possibly source their requirements.
But said, they would have been with a few more stalls and variety
especially in the trims and accessories; and home décor segments.
Mr Koji Asai, Senior Leader, Flex Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo, said: “The
show gave me an insight into what India had to offer, especially the
very interesting patchwork at Satvah, an exciting range of cottons
from Ramkrishna Group stalls.”
Mr Mandeep Singh, Senior Merchandiser, Global Brands, Li & Fung
(India) Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, noted: “The show is good with a lot of
fabrics. Overall, it’s been a good experience and I found some
interesting products at the Angel Group, Uflex stalls, especially, new
laces and trims. I wish there were a few more stalls.”
KEY RATES UNCHANGED: AEPC DISAPPOINTED WITH
17th June 2013, Gurgaon
In the credit policy issued today, RBI has not touched the Key rates and
unchanged. In his reaction to RBI's monetary policy, Dr.A. Sakthivel,
Chairman - AEPC said Industry has been disappointed with RBI's Stand.
Apparel SMEs were expecting a rate cut of 0.5% which is mainly
required to remain competitive in the international market due to
higher interest rate. The median lending rates on pre-shipment Rupee
export credit upto 180 days ranged between 10.55 – 13% in end 2012
as compared to 10.75 – 12.88% in March, 2012. These remain high in
Dr. Sakthivel noted that in last financial year the Tirupur district banks
had fixed a credit target of Rs.3,661 crore, whereas the credit availed by
the units were only Rs.2,742 crore which is 75% of the target. Out
of Rs.70000 crores of garment exports, approx. Rs.52000 crores
exports is from SME sector (75%). The Industry is not able to take
credit at such high rates and losing its competitiveness in the world
At the beginning of the 12th Plan period, the outstanding credit gap
for the MSME sector is estimated at 62%, which is estimated to
reduce to 43% in March, 2017 with the assumption of minimum
20%year-on-year credit growth to MSME sector. Thus rate cut is
necessary to achieve this and reduce gap. The figures truly reveal
that the units are reluctant to avail the credit due to higher interest
rate apart from market conditions.
The garment exporting units are expected to invest in product
development and also replace the old machineries to remain
productive and therefore, the credit needs are required to be
replenished at a flat rate of interest. AEPC has proposed a flat rate of
7.5% on pre and post shipment export credit under a separate
chapter for exports.
AEPC PRESS RELEASE
30 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
SHOW REPORT F & A Show & HOMTEX, TWIN SHOWS
30 May, 2013, CIRCOT, Mumbai
A one day pre-commercialization workshop on “Flexi Check Dam,
popularly known as rubber dam made of Textile-Rubber Composite
for Watershed Application”, was organized by ZTM-BPD unit,
CIRCOT, Mumbai, on 30th May, 2013. The workshop aimed at
sensitizing the textile and allied manufacturing industry about the
technology for manufacturing the textile-rubber composite and its
conversion into a
and wrinkle free check
dam as per the required
d i m e n s i o n f o r
developed under the
project titled ‘Design
and Development of
Rubber Dams for
Watersheds’. It was also intended to sensitize the potential clients
about the technology commercialization protocol followed in the
The workshop was attended by delegates from various rubber
manufacturing industries, farmer groups, engineers from the
Command area Development Authority, Maharashtra, and various
other stake holders. Mr. Suresh Kotak, Chairman, Kotak Ginning &
Pressing Industries Ltd., Mumbai, presided the inaugural session as
the Chief Guest with Dr. M. S. Kairon, Former Director, Central
Institute for Cotton Research (CICR), Nagpur as the Guest of Honour
and Dr. A. N. Desai, Director, The Bombay Textile Research
Association (BTRA), Mumbai as the Special Guest. Other dignitaries
present were Dr. A. Kumar, Director, Directorate of Water
Management (DWM), Bhubaneshwar, Dr. S. K. Chattopadhyay,
Director, CIRCOT, Dr. P. Thavamani, Director, Indian Rubber
Manufacturers Research Association (IRMRA), Thane, Dr. M. K.
Talukdar, Vice President, Kusumgar Corporates, Mumbai, Dr. S. K.
J e n a , P r i n c i p a l
o f W a t e r
M a n a g e m e n t
( D W M ) ,
Er. A. K. Bharimalla,
CPI, ZTM-BPD Unit,
topics like use of Flexi
Check Dam for
agricultural purposes, requirements for making rubber textile
composites used for the flexi check dam, importance of check dam for
enhancing agricultural productivity etc. were covered in the technical
session. The technology was very well appreciated amongst the
stakeholders and a positive feedback was received from them.
''Cleaner Technologies for Textile Processing, For
Greener Tomorrow….. ”
The Society of Dyers and
Colourists, India (SDC
EC) organised its 10
t h e m e d ' ' C l e a n e r
Technologies for Textile
Processing … For a
14 June, 2013 at The
Club, Andheri, Mumbai.
Supporters: The conference was supported by three leading ZDHC
Brands C&A, H&M and -Levi Strauss & Co, as also by leading suppliers
like CHT, Jay Chemical Industries Limited, Dystar, Raymond, Clariant,
Britacel, ATE, Colourtex, L N Chemicals, Nimkartek, Colourage,
Control Union, Huntsman, Atul Ltd., KISCO, etc.
Delegates: Over 230 delegates from Brands, Process houses, retailers
and industries from India, and Sri Lanka attended the conference.
Inaugural Panel Discussion: The technical sessions started with Draft 2
of ZDHC Roadmap. Ullhas Nimkar gave an overview of the same, while
Rashmi Chakrabarty (C&A) and Lars Doemer (H&M) shared their views
and expectations from the ZDHC Roadmap.
Concluding Panel Discussion:
The Concluding Panel Discussion was centered around who will
absorb the increased costs that will result from the implementation of
the ZDHC. The Panel Members were Tirtha Ghosh (Chemical
Industry – Huntsman), SS Aich (Processor – Alok Industries), Dirk von
Czarnowski (Testing/Certification – Bureau Veritas), Rajesh
Balakrishnan (Dyestuffs – DyStar) and Niraj Singh (Brand – Levis), who
all shared their own views on the subject, and also fielded queries from
the audience on the same. The Panel was moderated by Bart van Kuijk
of Jay Chemicals.
Speakers Presentation: In between the two panel discussions, there
were 7 technical papers which focussed on various aspects of cleaner
production in the textile industry to meet ZDHC norms. These were
Clay Technology for Cleaner Production by Ton Kaarsgaren (Farbotex,
Italy), Membrane Technology by Samir Chaubal (Koch Membranes,
India), Cleaner Dyestuff/Chemical Production Technologies by
Mujeeb-ur-Rehman (Atul Limited, India), Textile Printing Solutions for
Eco Compliance by Armin Traub (CHT GmbH, Germany), Clean
production in a Dye House by D. Subaash Kumar (Freelook Fashions,
Tiruppur), Zero Liquid Discharge: A reality by Silvano Storti
(Europrogetti srl, Italy) and Enzymes for Cleaner Technology by Aparna
Khurana (DuPont Industrial BioSciences, India). All of the papers were
very crisp in content, backed with a lot of analytical data, and were in
strict adherence to the core theme of the Conference.
31Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
35. We live in a culture of use & throw. In this scenario, it takes
guts to recycle & reuse and reduce waste and yet be sustainable
in ways that are environmentally, socially and economically
viable. EVERFLOW PETROFILS LIMITED is one such company.
Everflow Petrofils Limited, is a manufacturer and exporter of
polyester yarn, spun blended yarn, draw texturised yarn, fibre
yarn, viscose spun yarn, partially oriented yarn, polyester staple
fibre and polyester PET chips and cotton yarns. EPL leads in all
types of high quality fancy yarns in polyester and cotton. EPL
firmly believes that "Quality is the best way to beat the
competition" Following their motto of "Turning Waste into
Wealth", they put their customers foremost. EPL follows eco-
friendly methods and highly believes that waste can be
converted into wealth if one really supports in Keeping the
Globe Green. Located in the financial capital of India, the
company has passed the evaluation of ISO9001 certification in
2001 and has been awarded the brand company.
In an insightful interview with TVC, the dynamic
Mr. Pinkesh Jain CEO of EVERFLOW PETROFILS
LIMITED gives us the nitty gritty of the company & the
TVC: EPL is presently in to manufacturing of cotton and
synthetic yarns. What was the vision that made you enter this
P.J.: Yes, we are into manufacturing of cotton & synthetic yarns
since more than 15 years. Our vision was very clear “Turning
Waste into Wealth”. This is our company philosophy. We are
an eco – friendly enterprise intending to protect our
environment. MC brand carries goodwill & trust. We have
established customers trust and faith in our brand & product.
TVC: What are your current markets & where and whom
does EPL supply to?
P.J.: Our production unit is in China and we supply to major
textile hubs in the world USA, Europe, South East Asia, and
Middle-east. Our Indian Unit solely caters to the local
TVC: What is your current Production capacity and Market
size of your products?
P.J.: Our current production capacity is 5500 tonnes in China
& 600 tonnes in India per month of Recycled Polyester Spun
Mr. Pinkesh Jain
CEO Everflow Petrofils LTD.
Yarn. We share around 25% of Chinese Recycled Yarn
TVC: What is EPL’s Green Process?
P.J.: The yarn and other products manufactured by EPL are
environmental friendly and produced with ethical
consciousness. EPL's long-term philosophy is to strive for
environmental sustainability, to efficiently utilize the limited
natural resources, and to cut down CO2 emissions while
providing its core recycled fabric and recycled yarn products.
EPL is following a new method for saving the planet. A new
recycled yarn textile is manufactured from used PET bottles. EPL
has developed the latest recycling technology to reuse waste,
avoiding the environmental burden from discarding them in
landfills. The recycling technology does not utilize virgin PTA
(terephthalic acid), which is made from petroleum as its main
raw material, reducing energy and CO2 emissions and lowering
the use of petrochemical materials. Today, there is great demand
for eco friendly yarns bcoz synthetic yarns are also bad for the
earth, since they are made from petroleum. Industrially-
produced cotton brings with it a slew of environmental
problems, including water and soil pollution. We have
highlighted a few eco yarn options, such as repreve yarn
recycled from post industrial waste, green yarn from Alpaca and
recycled saris, hip knitting options, yarn made from corn and
bamboo yarn. Soysilk is another renewable yarn made from the
residue of soybeans from tofu manufacturing, the process is
100% natural and free of petrochemicals, soy is a completely
renewable and biodegradable resource.
TVC: What is the general approach followed by your
company on a daily basis or while putting up projects?
P.J.: Our in-house team of engineers helps us set up projects.
The Simple Wheel which can be used in an intermittent process
and the more refined Saxony wheel which drive a differential
spindle in a continuous process. The growth of experienced
adult factory workforce helps to account for the shift away from
child labour in textile factories. We use dressing frames to enable
the power looms to operate continuously. In short:
General approach: cultivating & harvesting,
Preparatory processes: Spinning – giving yarn, Weaving –
giving fabrics, Finishing – giving textiles.
33Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
EVERFLOW PETROFILS LIMITED INTERVIEW
36. TVC: Does EPL have any future plans for Expansion or
Diversification? Please discuss.
P.J.: We are expanding our production units in China & India
every year. Expansion & modernization is done on continuous
basis for growth & flexibility. We are planning to add 2 lakh
spindles in China & 40000 spindles in India. Also we are looking
to start PET Flakes manufacturing unit in India to cater to our
Indian & Chinese units.
TVC: How do you foresee the market for your product/s in
India & globally?
P.J.: MC brand is one of the top most & trusted Brand. We
foresee very robust growth for our products in India & globally.
TVC: What is the reason for your company to have a base in
P.J.: In China, labour is easy, power is cheaper and raw material
is available in the same province which helps us to function very
efficiently. In China taking loan facilities are very easy as they
support Textile Industries. While in India, Nationalized Banks
takes longer time for the same.
TVC: What are the major difficulties you face while dealing
with Govt bodies?
P.J.: Main problem with Govt bodies is that they are very slow in
approving legal issues. One critical concern involves a concept
known as agency capture. They adopt rules, regulations &
policies that are favourable to the interest group that it is
responsible for regulating or administering.
TVC: How would you like the Govt to assist you to boost the
market of your product/s?
P.J.: Govt should conduct seminars to let people interact;
understand the value of using recycled products. Everyday we
are facing Global warming threats in way of climate changes.
Scientific evidence conclusively demonstrates that human
activities are creating measurable and increasingly negative
impacts on the global climate. Industrial emissions have been the
dominant influence in climate change, and facing this challenge,
each member of the global village needs to shoulder its part of
the collective responsibility to environmental protection. We at
EPL are dedicated to make recycled fibre and yarn to support
Environment as we are highly inspired by nature.
Wadia Techno-Engineering Services Ltd., which is a part of
the reputed Wadia Group of companies and Suvin Advisors
to collaborate for providing value added services to
industrial clients in India & around the world.
In 2012, pursuant to mutual agreement Wadia group raised
its stake in the erstwhile Gherzi Eastern Limited (GEL) to 100%,
as a result of which Gherzi A.G. has ceased to be a promoter of
GEL and the name of 'Gherzi Eastern Limited' has been changed
to "Wadia Techno-Engineering Services Limited (WTESL)" with
effect from November 8 , 2012. WTESL has more than 53 years
of experience and over 2500 real estate, industrial and
infrastructure projects of various natures across the globe.
WTESL has a wide network with branches in major cities like
New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Pune, Gandhinagar, Bangalore,
Hyderabad etc. and more than 380 employees on their roll.
WTESL is also registered with renowned banks and financial
institutions like World Bank, ADB etc.
Suvin is one of the reputed consulting firms for “textile and
food industries”in India, offering the entire gamut of Management
& Engineering consultancy services from business
strategies to overall project management to process
management. Suvin, in the past few years, is known to have a
good reputation as a qualified consultant in the textile industry
providing satisfactory services for more than 125 projects in India
The Wadia TESL – Suvin collaboration shall enhance the
capabilities of both the organization as WTESL has enriched
experience in implementation for varied sectors like residential &
commercial projects, hotels & hospitals, educational institutions,
urban planning, industrial, roads & highways while Suvin has a
well-experienced team for management consulting and
implementation of textile and food projects. Hence the services
of both organizations are complementing each other to provide
customers with one-stop solutions for specialized textiles and
Wadia TESL & Suvin have come together to meet the
dynamic demands of the rapidly expanding global and domestic
industry. This association will enrich the industry with effective
solutions for future growth which is particularly essential in
today's highly competitive market.
Suvin and Wadia TESL : A perfect collaboration…
34 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
37. Preservation and rational use of agricultural by-
products/residues assumes increased significance in modern times
not only due to environmental issues but also as an answer to
sustainability of agro-economies of the world. Use of cellulose fibres
has many advantages: viz. environmentally friendly, recyclable and
low in cost. It is reported that in the year 2008, the annual global
production of lingo-cellulosic fibre mass generated from all the
sources was about 4 billion ton, of which 60% came from agriculture
and 40% from the forest (Justin-Smith et. al. 2008).
Banana is one of the most important fruit crops grown in almost
every state of India. India has the largest area under banana crop in the
world (8 lakh ha) and is also the largest producer. Apart from fruit, it
generates huge quantity of bio-mass in the form of pseudostem,
leaves, suckers, etc. On an average about 60 to 80 tonnes of
pseudostem is produced per hector. At present, banana pseudostem
is absolute waste and does not find any commercial applications.
CIRCOT has been working on extraction of textile grade fibres
from pseudostem and utilization of its other bio-waste for the last 15
years. In order to develop value added products from banana
pseudostem on large scale, National Agricultural Innovation Project
(NAIP) has sanctioned a sub-project under Component II entitled “A
Value Chain on Utilisation of Banana Pseudostem for Fibre and Other
Value Added Products”. The project is under operation since June
2008 in consortium mode with Navsari Agricultural University
(NAU), Navsari, Gujarat, as lead centre. CIRCOT has been an
important partner in the project with the objective of standardization
of processes for extraction of textile grade fibres from pseudostem
and convert it into yarn which can be used on handlooms and
In some cottage industries, fibres are extracted from
pseudostem for preparations of handicrafts. The fibre extraction is
being done mostly by hand where the fibre output is about
0.25kg/day/man, i.e., in a shift of about eight hours. In order to
mechanize the fibre extraction, research was carried out at Central
Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT), Mumbai
and modified fibre extraction machine "Raspador" was developed.
After initial experiments some refinement and modifications were
carried out in Raspador machine as well as procedure for extraction.
These modifications improved the productivity of machine to 20-25
After harvesting of banana bunches, the pseudo-stems are cut
and usually abandoned, or are left in the soil to become organic
waste. However, this causes environmental pollution. In some parts
of India, there have been attempts to utilise banana pseudostem for
fibre extraction. Hand extracted banana pseudostem fibres in these
areas are being used by cottage industry for the preparation of
handicrafts. But the total utilisation of these fibres is at the most of the
order of tens of tonnes per annum. The handicraft articles produced
are sold in niche market usually for foreign tourists.
It is estimated that possible availability of banana fibre is around five
lakh tonnes per annum if the entire pseudostem in the country is used
for fibre extraction. This indicates that industrial utilization of banana
fibres is a possibility and can boost the economyof banana planters.
Studies conducted at CIRCOT and NAU show that these fibres
can be spun into yarn of about 600 tex (1s cotton count) on jute
spinning system, though with difficulty. The quality of yarn produced is
also not good. Though it has good strength – about 10 to 12 g/tex
tenacity with more than 3% breaking extension – it is highly non-
uniform and hairy.
Recently, attempt has been made at CIRCOT to develop a
charkha to spin banana fibres at cottage level. This is peddle driven
device, viz. CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha (applied for patent), which can
be installed at every peasant household and produce good quality yarns
from banana pseudostem fibres utilising their free time.
CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is a pedal driven machine. The
paddling action by the operator puts a flywheel in rotation. There are
two pulleys coaxially coupled to the flywheel and these pulleys drive a
bobbin and a flyer simultaneously. The difference in diameter between
pulleys creates a difference in RPM between rotation of the bobbin and
rotation of the flyer. When banana pseudostem fibres are fed into the
charkha with help of a pair of rollers pressed against each other, the
fibres are guided for spinning action with the help of a rotating flyer.
While appropriate choice of the ratio of the diameters of pulleys decide
the twist per inch (TPI) of the yarn, the fineness of the yarn is controlled
by the operator by adjusting the rate of feeding of fibres into the
Yarn produced on CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is finer and more
uniform compared to that obtained on jute spinning system. The trial
done at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat showed that
CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha can produce yarn having fineness better
than 3 Ne and with improved operator skills, the fineness can be
improved further. The breaking tenacity of the yarn varied between 9
to 14 g/tex depending on the fineness of the yarn. Breaking extension
was 2.6-2.9%. Coefficient variation in linear density was around 10%.
CIRCOT-Phoenix Charkha is designed mainly for use in a village
setting where availability of
technical expertise is almost
non-existent. The device is
very simple in design and can
be maintained by farmer
himself with spare parts
available in his nearby town. It
is expected that one person
can produce about 1 Kg of
yarn per day and based on
current market price, can earn
around Rs. 150, thereby
adding to the family income.
Cottage industries set up at
village level can add value to
t h e y a r n p r o d u c e d .
Considering the fact that the
banana pseudostem fibre is
otherwise a waste without any
e c o n o m i c v a l u e , t h e
will be of great help to banana
& Dr. N.Shanmugam
Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology
Dr. Rajan P. Nachane
Pic: CIRCOT-Phoenix Chakha
Spinning of Banana Fibres on CIRCOT-Phoenix ChakhaYARN FOCUS
35Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
38. We wrap up are 3 part series where we had started from new age
fibre/yarn to fabric and now conclude with garments.
The beginning of the 21st century has witnessed an exceptional
period of change and innovation in the science, design and art of
textiles. These innovations involve materials and prototypes that
are so new that we can hardly foresee how the familiar functions of
textiles will be transformed in the future: fabrics that can harvest
solar energy and emit light or heat, interactive digital textile
displays, fabrics that are touch-sensitive, primed to detect a
faltering pulse or environmental pollutants, fabric buildings and
fabric armour that can change colour, or flex textile muscles, all
show how textiles are being fundamentally reinvented for
predicted demands in the century ahead of us.
Working of the Fabric Computer
Intelligent textiles, variously known as smart fabrics, electronic
textiles, or e-textiles, have attracted considerable attentions
worldwide due to their potential to bring revolutionary impacts on
human life. These textiles integrate conductive elements, often
yarns or fibres into the textile. They are products that in some
senses of the word are “active” themselves when used. They can
be used in anything from curtains that sense the sun and change
structure to clothes that adapt their func¬tion to extreme
environments. Despite many promising progresses in this exciting
newly emerged research field, there still exist a number of
important obstacles. One of the most challenging issues is the
conflict between the flexibility of the textiles and the need to
incorporate sensing and computation modules. To address this
critical issue, an innovative intelligent textile technology is
proposed. The central hypothesis is that practical intelligent textiles
can be realized by integrating fabrics with flexible transducers/
electronics that are made using a unique, ‘flexible-skin’ technology.
The unique features of the silicon-based flexible skins are
extremely desirable for intelligent textiles. A novel approach of
textiles by integrating
flexible skins with
textiles is proposed.
The most important
advantage of this novel
technology is its
current MEMS (micro-
and IC (integrated
since MEMS devices and ICs can be fabricated on the silicon wafer
before the formation of the skin. This not only saves significant R&D
efforts by avoiding re-invention, but also enables the integration of
abundant sensing and computational capabilities offered by the
In order to be integrated with textiles, the original flexible skins are
modified and a new perforated structure is proposed as
schematically shown in Fig. 1. The new flexible skin consists of 4
components: (1) silicon islands that host sensors, electronics, and
bonding pads; (2) metal interconnect wires between silicon islands;
(3) polymer layers that sandwich silicon islands and metal wires;
and (4) stitching holes etched through polymer layers, which allow
the direct sewing into fabrics. One of the fabricated silicon flexible
skins is shown in Fig. 2 (a). It can be easily twisted and bent without
breaking the interconnect traces and silicon islands as shown in Fig 2
Fig 2. (a) A silicon flexible skin with stitching holes; (b) a folded silicon
The flexible transducers/circuits made by the proposed
method can be directly embroidered into textiles. It is worth
noting that the stitching methods and patterns have substantial
impact on the mechanical properties and robustness of the
assembled fabrics. Numerous stitching patterns and methods,
which have already been developed in the textile industry, will be
an excellent resource to exploit. The following picture shows one
skin stitched onto the surface of textiles using conductive yarns. The
electrical contact was made by conductive epoxy.
Fig 3. A silicon flexible skin stitched onto the surface of a piece of
Figure 1. Top and cross section views of the proposed
flexible skin to be woven into textiles.
Ms. Rajul J. Shah
MFA in Textile and Fashion Design
Editor in Chief for TVC
36 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
TECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS Intelligent Textiles
39. Applications of Fabric Computer
There are several companies and trademarks offering products
which are smart. But all textiles have the same basic properties:
Lightweight, durable, flexible, cost competitive with ability to be
crimped, soldered and subjected to textile processing. Let’s take a
look at few…
Weave: Woven fabrics, whether flat or three-dimensional, display
great versatility. Their strength allows textiles to be used on vastly
different scales. The incorporation of conductive yarns into woven
fabrics is an area of continued refinement. Bayer Material Science
AG is combining CNT (carbon nanotubes) coated electro
conductive fibre (CNTEC) – conductive yarns produced by
Kuraray Living Co. Ltd – with their own Baytubes CNTs in a woven
textile. The CNTs allow for high electrical and thermal conductivity.
The fabric is anti-freezing and can be used in clothing, car seats and
Stitch and embroidery are no longer techniques confined to
decorative applications. At an industrial level they are capable of
very fine work both for large- and small-scale applications. Carbon
fibre and electronics for wearable computers or heating systems
are among the
n e w
this area. This
picture shows a
p r o t o t y p e
electronics into an entire garment at the Techtextil trade show in
The Burning Tablecloth explores the notion of how to design for
visual and tactile changes in a textile surface. It is also a way to
investigate how our relation to mobile phones and mobile phone
technology is affected by the way the phones are being expressed.
The tablecloth is connected to mobile phones and reacts to
incoming calls and messages with burned out patterns. Due to the
mobile phone activity, changes in colour and structure appear in the
Wearable electronics, ZSK, Germany.
In the Phone bag, the patterns pulse, fade and change colour when
the mobile phone receives an incoming signal. The bag is made of
cloth printed with thermochromic ink and woven from conductive
fibres that are connected to an
Anna Persson and Linda
Worbin in collaboration with
Kasthall designed three full-
scale interactive carpets: Spår
(Traces), Dimma (Foggy) and
Glöd (Spark). The carpets are
meant to exemplify various
interactive textile expressions
that could serve as inspiration
for designers that aim to work
within the field of expressive
sensing and reacting textiles
As a person walks on
Spår, the footsteps leave
traces as white and
turquoise light stripes in
the carpet. Spår looks like
an ordinary woven
carpet but is able to show
that someone is, or has
been, walking by lately.
Dimma is a tufted carpet
combined with light
s o u r c e s . D u e t o
s u r r o u n d i n g l i g h t
light-pattern is able to
change into three
different states. The
i n t e n s i t y o f t h e
s u r r o u n d i n g l i g h t
influences the ambience of the pattern into a range of different
Glöd is a carpet
functioning as a
for heating up cold
floorings. The carpet
changes pattern due
to the amount of
h e a t - e l e m e n t s
turned on at the
Interactive textile touch sensor and light artworks combine
Project by Hanna Landin, Anna Persson and Linda Worbin
37Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
TECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS
40. patented textile touch sensors with incandescent or LED light.
These works allow viewers to touch the textile surface and control
light and pattern. Software-generated dynamic patterns emerge
and evolve over time. They explore the light-transmissive
properties of textiles, such as colour and saturation. They are best
displayed in low light environments and can be used as light sources
as well as artworks.
Maggie Orth's textile touch sensors are made from conductive yarn
that is charged with a small, harmless amount of electricity. Because
your body is a big bag of electrically conductive salt water, touching
the conductive yarn allows the electrical charge to flow from the
yarn, through your body, to ground. Sensors detect this change in
charge and send an electrical signal to brighten and dim the lights.
These sensors can be created with a variety of textile processes, on
a variety of textile substrates.
While combining smart materials with information technology,
Maggie Orth created fuzzy light switches from POM POM’s. These
switches combine low-tech craft aesthetics with the latest
conductive yarns and manufacturing techniques. The lights are
dimmed by squeezing and stroking the pompoms
Reseached by Linnéa Nilsson, Mika Satomi, Anna Vallgårda, Linda
Worbin in collaboration with furniture company IRE, Smart Textile
Design Lab at the Swedish School of Textile, University of Borås and
Smart Textiles Innovation System.
Textiles always change expression over time due to use and
exposure to sunlight, moist, etc. The textile on these pouffes
changes expressions in a dynamic interplay with their use. A bright
pattern is gradually revealed when someone sits on them but hid
again when they stand idle by. In other words, their patterns are
recurring in both space and time. These layered programmable
patterns make it possible to let the pattern fade, dissolve, change
color or disappear completely and do so as a recurring event. The
changes can depend upon events happening far from or in near
relation to the textile, or they can happen in a recurring temporal
pattern. With these two pouffes we demonstrate some of the
possibilities with this technology.
The working of these pouffes is complex yet simple. Each of
the two demonstrated ‘fabrics’ comprises of four parts: woven
cotton with embedded conductive threads, a layered pattern
printed with a combination of pigment color and thermo chromic
ink (with a state change at 27C), pressure sensors to detect when
someone sits on the fabric, a computer programmed to control
which threads heats up and for how long depending which
pressure sensors are activated. When the threads heat up, the
British soldiers' uniforms could
s o o n u s e e l e c t r i c a l l y
conducting yarn woven
directly into the clothing,
batteries and cabling. The "e-
textiles" could provide
uniforms with a single, central
power source. This would
allow soldiers to recharge one
battery instead of many and cut
the number of cables required
in their kit. Surrey-based
Intelligent Textiles showcased
the lightweight uniform at an
event organized by the Centre
for Defence Enterprise (CDE). The company has patented a
number of techniques for weaving complex conductive fabrics.
One of the problems with conventional cables is that breakages can
be catastrophic. In addition, it removes the hindrance of the many
wires and cables required in military equipment. These can add
weight and can tangle and snag. Also being developed is a fabric
keyboard for use with a portable computer that will be integrated
with the uniform. The company is currently working with BAE
Systems to integrate other next-generation equipment into the
An early prototype of a photonic
textile by Philips(Netherlands),
Photonic textiles can be made
interactive. Philips has achieved
interactivity by incorporating
sensors (such as orientation and
p r e s s u r e s e n s o r s ) a n d
communication devices (such as
Bluetooth, GSM) into the fabric.
Cont.. Page 63
38 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Intelligent TextilesTECHNICAL TEXTILES FOCUS
3 – 5. 10. 2013
International Trade Fair for
Technical Textiles and Nonwovens
Platinum Partner Gold PartnersGold Partners
Techtextil India is one place where you can be sure
of meeting the entire value creation chain of technical
textiles & nonwovens.
To visit call: 91 22 6144 5900
43. FABRIC FOCUS
1. Introduction: In recent years there has been an increasing
awareness about environmental friendliness in all human
activities . The textile industry is a water intensive industry
with water being used in every stage of wet processing from
sizing, desizing, scouring and bleaching of fibres to the dyeing,
finishing and printing of fabrics. Every textile plant requires large
volumes of water and produces high volumes of effluent
wastewater. The typical textile dye wastewater composition is
quite complex. The demand for environmental friendly dyes
and application processes is therefore very strong .
Reactive dyes have become very popular for cotton due to its
brilliancy, variety of hue, high wet fastness, convenient usage and
high applicability .
Reactive dyes are anionic in character and cotton fibres also
adopt anionic surface charge in water causing limited exhaustion
of dye due to charge repulsion. Large quantities of electrolyte
(30-100 g/l) are thus added to overcome this problem. One of
the major problem of reactive dyeing is the large amount of
electrolyte required for exhaust and pad application  which
leads to environmental problem. In addition, inadequate dye
exhaustion and fixation result in coloured effluents. As
environmental problems arising from dyeing with reactive dyes
have become critical, many studies have been devoted to
improving the substantivity of cotton fibre for reactive dyes, thus
reducing or eliminating the amount of electrolyte used.
The problem has many solutions of which cationic reactive
dyes and the modification of cotton by cationisation with various
cationising agents seems to be the most promising .
In this paper, we have reviewed problems of pollution
due to electrolytes in reactive dyeing and finding a solution
through cationic reactive dyes. The agenda of this review
paper is to show that cationic reactive dyes are more
suitable than conventional reactive dyes wherein there is a
possibility of elimination of electrolyte with enhancement of
the fabric fastness properties.
2. Problems caused by use of Electrolytes in Reactive Dyeing
Impairs the delicate biochemistry of aquatic organism.
If sodium sulphate is used as electrolyte, due to the
formation of alumina-sulphato complexes which swell and
crack concretes with considerable alumina content, there
is a destructive attack on the concrete pipes.
Evolution of hydrogen sulphide gas under anaerobic
conditions occurs when sodium sulphate is used as
electrolyte. Dissolution of such sulphides and subsequent
bacterial oxidation happens under the influence of harmful
Increase of the TDS of the effluent [6, 7].
3. Approach for Electrolyte-free Dyeing: The two approaches
by which a solution for the problems caused due to the use of
electrolytes in reactive dyeing of cotton and its blends are
Cationic Reactive Dyes and Modification of Cotton by
3.1 Cationic Reactive Dyes: An important factor in reactive
dyeing is that of the electrostatic repulsion between the sulphonic
acid-containing reactive dyes & the surface of the fibre. Another
kind of electrostatic repulsion operating is again that between the
fixed dye & the incoming dye. Thus, to increase the exhaustion of
the dye one needs to employ a high concentration of electrolyte
in the dye bath.
Among various remedies to this, the concept of having a
cationic reactive dye in place of anionic reactive dyes has been
suggested as an effective solution in recent years .
3.2 Modification of Cotton by Cationization: Cellulose fibres
when immersed in water produce a negative zeta potential and
most of the dye classes suitable for cotton are anionic in nature.
The negative charge on the fibre repels the anionic dye ions and
consequently the exhaustion of the dye bath is limited. However
this zeta potential can be easily offset by salt concentrations of a
few ppm, about 10 – 100ppm .
Cationic cotton is cotton that is modified to contain a
quaternary group. Such cationic cotton has an enhanced affinity
for anionic dyes. This is because when cotton is cationized with a
reactive type of quaternary ammonium compound it forms an
integral part of the cellulose chain .
Cationization of cotton for dyeing is a long process as it
involves cationisation of the fabric in the first stage followed by
dyeing in the second stage. Also, this increases the overall
consumption of water and effluent load and as complete
exhaustion of cationizing agent does not take place, small quantity
of the cationizing agent is also released. Also, if cationization
process does not take place uniformly or crease formation takes
place, the following dyeing obtained would be non-uniform.
Hence in comparison, cationization of cotton process is time
consuming, giving more effluent with the cationizing agent as
compared to the alternative process i.e. dyeing using cationic
reactive dye which is a single bath process so of shorter time and
thus no additional effluent load being produced.
4 Applications of Cationic Reactive Dyes: Cationic reactive
dyes can be applied for the following fibres.
4.1 Cellulosic Fibres: The dyeing of cellulose requires dyes that
are in a water soluble form due to the hydrophilic nature of the
cellulosic fibres. But due to anionic dye and fibre repulsion as
discussed earlier, the dyeing method requires the presence of
Free Dyeing of Textiles with Cationic Reactive Dyes
Prof. (Dr.) Ravindra Adivarekar
Chet Ram Meena & Neha Mehra
Department of Fibres and Textile
I.C.T., Mumbai, India
41Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
44. electrolytes which suppress negative charge build-up at the fibre
surface and promotes increased dye adsorption. An alternative
approach to improve dyeability of cellulose with anionic dyes
could be achieved by incorporating cationic groups into the
cellulose structure. Cationic dye ranges are not yet practically
used for the dyeing of cellulosic fibre, even though they offer the
possibility of a salt-free dyeing process with high tinctorial
strength at relatively low levels of dye application. By
considering localized cationic dyes where quaternary
ammonium groups attach to the chromophore via an aliphatic
spacer linkage, it is speculated that removal of these quaternary
ammonium groups after the dyeing process may be possible
without causing a significant shift in colour hue . The long
alkyl chain quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) structures are
incorporated into reactive dyes as both water-soluble and
cellulosic fibre interactive groups. The QAS are water soluble
and more importantly carries positive charge in water, which will
increase dye interaction with negatively charged cellulosic
surfaces. Thus, the reactive dye molecule can assist dye
exhaustion onto cellulosic fibres without using salts and possibly
increase reactivity between the cellulose and the dye. This
consequently reduces potential hydrolysis of the reactive dyes
and the dyed cotton exhibits good colour wash fastness .
Fig. 1: An Illustrative example of synthesis of cationic reactive dye 
4.1.1 Dyeing Procedure: Cotton fabric can be dyed by cationic
reactive dye as shown in the procedure described in Fig. 2.
Initially the fabric and dye need to be rotated at room
temperature followed by raising the temperature to 85 C. At
this temperature sodium carbonate needs to be added for
fixation to take place. The dyeing can then be continued for
another 45 mins and removed followed by soaping using non-
ionic surfactant and sodium bicarbonate.
Fig. 2: Dyeing procedure of the cationic reactive dye 
4.2 Protein Fibres: Reactive dyes are widely used for dyeing and
printing protein fibres. The hydrophilic group of conventional
reactive dyes is an anionic group, e.g. sulphonate or carboxylate,
but the hydrophilic group of reactive cationic dyes is cationic. The
general formula for this is given in Fig. 3.
R-D-N R ’3
Fig. 3: Hydrophilic group of reactive cationic dyes, where R is the reactive
group, D the chromophore and N R', the cationic group.
The reactive dye molecules can react with wool fibre under
suitable conditions because of their reactive group
(monofluorotriazene). In general, the higher the pH value of the
dyeing solution, the more easily the nucleophilic substitution
reaction takes place. Reason being wool fibre has an isoelectric
point, the higher the pH value; the more free amino groups are
available. The surface of fibre is electronegative and the dye ion is
positively charged, so it is easy for the latter to be adsorbed and
react. Cationic reactive dyes are quite different from
conventional reactive dyes in dyeing protein fibre. The presence
of anionic groups in conventional reactive dyes means they tend
not to be adsorbed .
4.3 Synthetic Polyamide Fibres: Dyes for polyamide fibres
normally form ionic bonds within the polymer matrix. In this,
dyes bearing a negative (anionic) charge are used because
polyamides carry a positive (cationic) charge – especially during
the dyeing process .
- + + - - +
Dye-SO Na + Nylon-NH Cl à Dye-SO H N-Nylon3 3 3 3
Fig. 4: Schematic representation of dye–polymer binding via ionic bonding
on Nylon 
Anionic (acid) dyes are commonly used to colour nylon. The
dye attaches to nylon via electrostatic linkages between the
cationic, protonated amino end groups of the nylon (NH ) and3
the anionic sulphonate groups of the dye (Dye-SO ) .3
However, even fabrics coloured with these dyes suffer colour
loss during laundering which causes staining of adjacent fabrics.
An after treatment of the dyed nylon can result in somewhat
improved wet fastness, repeated washing can still result in loss of
colour and there remains much room for improvement.
Reactive dyes resemble acid dyes in their basic structure, but
additionally possess fibre reactive groups, their name being
derived from their ability to react chemically with the fibre.
Cationic reactive dyes possess either a single mono- or
dichlorotriazine reactive group or a heterobifunctional
(monochlorotriazine/sulphato ethylsulphone) reactive system,
containing one or two cationic trimethylammonium ((CH ) N )3 3
groups, which get attracted to the negative carboxylate groups
(COO ) of nylon via ion–ion attraction. The optimum pH of
application is 8–10. These conditions provide the best balance of
NO2 o NH2
1, 4 diamino-5nitro anthraquinone
NH CH CH2 2 2
N-(2-aminoethyl) pyridinium chloride
N NH CH CH2 2 2
Cationic Reactive Dye
85 C CC
Cotton was taken out,
rinsed and soaped-off
10 min 45 min
Where A = Cootn Fabric
B = Cationic Reactive Dye
C = Na CO 20 g/l2 3
42 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
45. electrostatic attraction between dye and fibre, together with a
high concentration of free (nucleophilic) amino groups on the
fibre. These cationic reactive dyes exhibit very good build-up
and fixation efficiency, comparable with anionic
monochlorotriazine commercial reactive dyes for nylon .
However, mild staining of polyamide and secondary cellulose
acetate occurs in some cases wherein mild acidic soaping-off
treatment can reduce the staining .
A high pH is used because at that pH the build up and
fixation of anionic reactive dyes on nylon is limited by
electrostatic repulsion between dye and anionic carboxylate
groups present in the nylon. At low pH, the effective
concentration of anionic carboxylate groups is greatly reduced,
and that of cationic protonated amino groups increased, leading
to electrostatic attraction between dye and fibre but a massive
reduction in the concentration of free amino groups which are
the nucleophilic species responsible for reacting with dye.
Under alkaline conditions the fixation and build up of cationic
reactive dyes on nylon are excellent. Also, because covalent
bond formation between dye and nylon is efficient, dyeing
shows excellent wet fastness .
4.4 Multifibres: The present method of dyeing multifibre
fabrics such as polyester/wool/CDP (Cationic Dyeable
Polyester), polyester/viscose/CDP blends involves the use of
various two-bath processes, disperse dyes for polyester,
reactive dyes for wool or viscose, cationic dyes for CDP using a
lot of disperse agents. The use of various multi-bath processes
is time-consuming and expensive to operate. The effluent
pollution from dyeing bath containing dispersing agents and
leveling agent is large, having a high biological oxygen demand
(BOD). The temporarily solubilized cationic reactive disperse
dyes containing pyridine-quaternary group have been designed
for dyeing of multifibre fabric. As heterocyclic nitrogen atoms of
pyridine cause an electron deficiency at the adjacent carbon
atom, the dyes containing pyridine-acetylamino are susceptible
to react with natural fibre. These dyes are temporarily
solubilized disperse dyes. After hydrolyzing, they become
disperse dyes for PET. The dyes containing quaternary group
can be used for one-bath processes with cationic dyes without
dispersing agents and levelling agent for polyester/wool/CDP
and polyester/ viscose/CDP.
Cationic reactive disperse dyes shows good degree of
exhaustion and fixation on wool. The light fastness, rubbing and
wash fastness on wool is excellent as compared to any
conventional reactive dyes .
5. Conclusion: To put it in a nut shell, the main problem faced
by the dyeing industry is due to electrolytes used in the dyeing
process. The cationic reactive dye can be looked upon as a
solution to this problem as cationic reactive dyes shows high
percentage exhaustion and fixation value, in the absence of
electrolyte. None the less, tailor made cationic reactive dyes can
be applied on almost all commercially used fibres. Fastness
properties are considerably good compared to the conventional
reactive dyes. Thus, cationic reactive dyes can offer not only
simpler dyeing recipes but also possible environmental benefits.
1. N. Sekar, Colourage, pp 93-94, December 2001.
2. Environmental Protection Agency, Development Document for
Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Textile Mills;
Points Source Category, EPA Document 440/1 – 79/ 022b, EPA,
3. Zhang jie., Dyeing and Printing, 4, pp 47-50, 2005.
4. Haigh D., Review of Process in Coloration, 2, pp 27, 1971.
5. Jocic, D., Jovancic, P., Petrovic, Z. Lj., Bertran, E., Navarro, A., Julia, M.
R., & Erra, P., In Proceedings of the World Textile Conference 2 AUTEX
Conference. Bruges, Belgium, 2002.297–312.
6. M. Subramanian, Journal of Textile Apparel Technology and
Management, 5 (2), pp 1-16, 2006.
7. Tao Zhao, Gang Sun, Xinyuan Song, Journal of Applied Polymer
Science, 108, pp1917–1923, 2008.
8. N. Sekar, Colourage, pp 47-49, March 2001.
9. Rakesh V. Tiwari, Colourage Special, Supplement on BTRA,
Colourage Seminar on Reactive dyes, 28 Sept., 38 (9), pp 19 – 22,
10. R.B. Chavan, and D.P. Chattopadhyay, Colourage Annual, 45, pp 127
– 133, 1998.
11. Kawee Srikulkit and Pornchai Santifuengkul, JSDC, 116, pp398-402,
12. X. Kongliang, H. Aiqin, Journal of Society Dyers and Colourist, 114,
pp 20-23, January 1998.
assessed on 18 November 2011.
14. A. Soleimani-Gorgani1, J.A. Taylor, Dyes and Pigments, 76, pp 610-
15. Atasheh Soleimani-Gorgani, John A Taylor, Coloration Technology,
127, pp1–8, 2011.
16. D. M. Lewis, L. J. Sun, Coloration Technology, 119, pp 327- 330,
17. A. Soleimani-Gorgani1, J.A. Taylor, Dyes and Pigments, 76, pp 610-
18. Kongliang Xie, Aiqin Hou, Journal of Dispersion Science and
Technology, 29, pp 436–439, 2008.
Correction Corner for Volume 1 Issue 1 (April –June 2013):
1- Fibre Focus Section: Page no.31 -33, Birla Spun Dyed Viscose Fibre, an eco-concept for future trends. On page 33, Table 5 columns of spun
dyed viscose and piece dyed viscose has been involuntarily interchanged. We are republishing the article in Volume 2, Issue 2.
2- Page no. 44: Gadia Exports Advertisement, Exporter of Cotton, the 'tt' was missing in the word Cotton. The Company is also in to domestic
market not only in exports. We deeply regret the errors and did not in any way mean to hurt the concerned parties.
43Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
46. COUNT REED PICK WIDTH IN INCHS LOOM PRICE
40 x40 132 x 73 63 POWERLOOM 70.5
40 x40 92 x 88 63 – 52
40 x40 92 x 88 63 AUTOLOOM 58
60 x 60 92 x 88 63 POWERLOOM 52
60 x 60 92 x 88 47 POWERLOOM 37
60 x 60 92 x 88 63 MILL MADE 58
80 x 80 92 x 88 63 POWERLOOM 51
80 x 80 92 x 88 63 AUTOLOOM 57
60 x60 132x108 1/1 63 AIRJET 85
20 x 10 108x54 63 RUTIC 73
20 x 300 108x54 63 – 68.5
20 x 300 124 x 56 58 RUTIC 90
20 x 16 108 x 56 63 RUTIC 72
20 x 20 56 x 56 63 RUTIC 72
20 x 20 56 x 56 63 RUTIC 44
30 x 150 124 x 64 63 RUTIC 63
45 PC X 45PC 102 X 76 60 CIMCO 57
COUNT REED PICK WIDTH IN INCHS WEAVE PRICE EX FACTORY
ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 3/1 Drill 97
ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 Broken Drill 97
ne 20/16Ly 108x56 67 2/1 twill 97
Ne 30/10 144 x 64 63 31 drill 95
Ne 30/16+16 ly 144 x 56 69 4/1 satin 106
Ne 30/16+16 ly 144 x 56 69 Broken drill 106
Ne 30/20+20ly 144 x 68 69 4/1 satin 114
Ne 40/30 +30Ly 144 x 68 69 4/1 satin 114
Ne 40/20 165 x 74 63 4/1 satin 95
Ne 40/30 185 x 85 63 4/1 satin 102
Ne 40/30 185 x 90 63 4/1 satin 105
Ne 40/40 +150D 112 x 66 63 1/1 plain 61
Ne 40/40 124 x70 63 1/1 plain 68
Ne 40/40 124x96 63 1/1 plain 82
Ne 40/40 132x 72 63 1/1 plain 71
Ne 50/50 165 x 104 63 2/1 twill 100
Ne 60/60 +80D 132 x 96 63 1/1 plain 72
Ne 60/60 +80D 165 x 104 63 4/1 satin 91
Ne 60/60 +80D 165x120 63 4/1 satin 100
Ne 60/60 175x116 63 4/1 satin 100
Ne 60/60 180x115 63 4/1 satin 100
Ne 60/60 196x108 63 4/1 satin 100
Ne 60/60 196x110 63 2/1 twill 101
Ne 80/80 165 x 114 63 4/1 satin 95
COUINT REED PICK WIDTH
2/10 x 2/10 44 x 32 60
2/7 X 2/7 42X26 60
3/10 X 3/10 42X26 60
3/8 X 3/8 36 X 26 60
3/7 X 3/7 36 X 26 60
* Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
* Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
* Kindly please note all prices are Open
Construction Inch Weave Rate
40*40/132*72 63" 1/1 plain 69.00
40*40/124*70 63" 1/1 plain 66.00
40*40/124*96 63" 1/1 plain 80.00
40*30/185*90 63" 4/1 satin 102.00
60*60/165*104 63" 4/1 satin 90.00
40/30+30ly 173*76 69" 4/1 satin 110.00
Mr. Kirti Shah
Contact : 9322282833
Report Given By :
44 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES
* Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
QUALITY GSM WEAVE PRICE
COUNT REED PICK WIDTH
1 10X06 76X28 63 515 DUCK 78
2 16X08 84X28 47 270 DUCK 47
3 16X08 84X28 63 365 DUCK 61
4 16X12 84X26 47 235 DUCK 43
5 16X12 84X26 63 315 DUCK 57
6 16X12 96X48 63 415 DRILL 77
7 16X12 108X56 63 470 DRILL 86
8 16X16 60X56 63 300 PLAIN 58
9 2/20X10 40X36 48 240 PLAIN 47
10 2/20X10 40X36 63 315 PLAIN 59
11 20X20 60X60 63 245 PLAIN 49
12 20X20 60X60 67 255 PLAIN 54
13 20X20 60X60 72 275 PLAIN 57
14 20X20 60X60 78 300 PLAIN 61
15 20X16 108X56 63 360 DRILL 69
16 20X20 108X56 63 335 DRILL 66
17 30X30 68X64 63 177 PLAIN 47
18 30X30 124X64 63 260 TWILL 70
19 10 x 6 76 x 28 63” 320 Duck 74.00
20 10 x 6 76 x 28 67” 320 Duck 78.75
21 10 x 10 76 x 28 63” 270 Duck 66.50
22 16 x 8 84 x 28 47” 225 Duck 44.00
23 16 x 8 84 x 28 50” 225 Duck 48.50
24 16 x 8 84 x 28 63” 225 Duck 58.75
25 16 x 8 84 x 28 67” 225 Duck 63.25
26 16 x 8 84 x 28 72” 225 Duck 67.75
27 16 x 8 84 x 28 84” 225 Duck 79.00
28 16 x 8 76 x 27 63” 210 Duck 55.25
29 16 x 8 76 x 27 67” 210 Duck 59.00
30 16 x 8 76 x 27 72” 210 Duck 63.25
31 16 x 10 84 x 28 63” 210 Duck 56.50
32 16 x 10 84 x 28 72" 210 Duck 64.75
33 16 x 12 84 x 26 47” 192 Duck 40.00
34 16 x 12 84 x 26 63” 192 Duck 53.50
35 16 x 12 84 x 26 67” 192 Duck 57.00
36 16 x 12 84 x 26 72” 192 Duck 61.25
37 20 x 10 76 x 28 63” 170 Duck 48.25
38 10 x 10 38 x 34 63” 185 Plain 47.75
39 10 x 10 38 x 34 67” 185 Plain 51.00
40 10 x 10 40 x 36 50” 197 Plain 41.25
41 10 x 10 40 x 30 80” 180 Plain 57.25
42 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 50” 185 Plain 45.25
43 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 67” 185 Plain 58.50
44 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 72” 185 Plain 63.00
45 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 76” 185 Plain 66.50
46 2/20 x 10 38 x 34 80” 185 Plain 70.00
47 2/20 x 10 38 x 36 82” 190 Plain 73.50
48 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 63” 197 Plain 57.25
49 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 72” 197 Plain 66.25
50 2/20 x 10 40 x 36 84” 197 Plain 77.00
51 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 63” 197 Plain 65.00
52 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 72” 197 Plain 74.50
53 2/20 x 2/20 40 x 36 80” 197 Plain 82.75
54 20 x 20 60 x 56 48” 150 Plain 42.50
55 20 x 20 60 x 56 49” 150 Plain 43.50
56 20 x 20 60 x 56 72” 150 Plain 58.00
57 20 x 20 60 x 56 80” 150 Plain 64.50
58 16 x 16 56 x 56 63” 180 Plain 57.75
59 30 x 30 68 x 68 72” 117 Plain 60.25
60 40RSK x 40RSK 52 x 36 57” 57 Plain 30.00
61 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 81” 73 Plain 66.00
62 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 82” 73 Plain 66.75
63 40RSK x 60RSK 68 x 68 84” 73 Plain 68.50
64 40RSK x 40RSK 68 x 44 63” 73 Plain 39.75
65 40RSK x 40RSK 64 x 44 67” 70 Plain 41.50
66 60CMP x 60CMP 92 x 86 63” 78 Plain 62.00
67 10 x 10 68 x 38 50” 275 Drill 55.75
68 10 x 10 68 x 38 63” 275 Drill 68.25
69 10 x 10 68 x 38 72” 275 Drill 78.00
70 16 x 12 108 x 56 63” 295 Drill 82.75
71 16 x 12 96 x 48 63” 258 Drill 73.00
72 16 x 12 96 x 48 67” 258 Drill 78.25
73 16 x 12 96 x 48 72” 258 Drill 84.00
74 20 x 20 108 x 56 63” 212 Drill 68.25
75 20 x 20 108 x 56 67” 212 Drill 72.75
76 20 x 20 108 x 56 80” 212 Drill 86.75
77 40CRS x 40CRS 124 x 64 63” 122 Twill 71.25
78 10 x 10 40 x 36 63” 197 Waffle 51.25
79 20 x 20 108 x 52 63” 207 HB 68.25
COUNT REED PICK BLEND PROCESS WEAVE
40 X 30 178 X 78 97% Cotton 3% Lycra Dyed Lycra Satin
40 X 30 178 X 78 97% Cotton 3% Lycra Rfd Lycra Satin
2/50 x 150 142 x 88 70% Cotton 30% Polyester rfd peach 2/1 twill
2/40 x 300 134 x 56 70% Cotton 30% Polyester Rfd 2/1 twill
30 x 10 152 x 68 100 % cotton Rfd 3/1 Drill
30 x 30 132 x 68 100 % cotton Bld 2/1 twill
30 x 30 124 x 64 100 % cotton Dyed 2/1 twill
16 x 12 116 x 56 100 % cotton Dyed 3/1 twill
16 x 12 116 x 56 100 % cotton Dyed peach 3/1 twill
20 x 20 116 x 56 100 % cotton dyed 3/1 twill
2/40 x 300 134 x 56 70% Cotton 30% Polyester bld peach 2/1 twill
30 x10 152 x 68 100 % cotton Bld 3/1 Drill
20 x 10 122 x 56 100 % cotton Bld 2/1 twill
* Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
* Kindly please note all prices are open.
45Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES
48. * Kindly please note all prices are indicative.
Sort Popular name
Polyester x VSF Makhamali 30-32 60-65
Polyester x Modal Modal dress 40-45 70-75
PolYester x Excel dyed excel jacquard 50-55 75-80
Polyester x HT PV cotton chiffon 35-38 60-65
Nylon x staple viscose Chanderi 40-42 70-75
Viscose Filament x vsf Centone 42-45 70-75
Bamberg x modal, plain cotton silk plain 60-62 90-95
Bamberg x modal, satin cotton silk satin 65-66 100-110
Modal x modal pure modal 50-55 80-90
Excel x excel Fortune 55-60 85-95
vsf x vsf Staple dress 38-40 65-75
REPORT FOR FABRIC
Grey Fabric Scenario: Recession has hit every sphere of life & the
story of Grey Fabric is no different. It is running slow in the market
and not fetching the price it requires for sustainability. Normally,
fabric processing takes 15-20 days but due to heavy load in
processing houses, delivery of Grey Fabric has been taking an
exponential amount of time, i.e 2 to 2.5 months. Investment in
Grey fabric is huge and purchasers are being hit hard as they do not
get their invested money on time. Hence, day by day there is less
interest in purchasing Grey fabrics.
Processed Fabric Scenario: 70-75% processing in India is done in the
State of Gujarat where processing house takes a mere 15-20 days. Still
the sad part is that, the delivery of goods is stalled to not less than 2
months. Ahmedabad processing houses like many are interested in
trading and not interested in job work which is tedious. When Grey
Fabric owners’ request for dyed fabrics, processors prefer to buy new
cloth, process it and sell it rather than deal with Grey Fabric. For earning
profit, they sell goods on credit basis at maximum rates to the north and
south markets. Southern mills do not give fabric for processing till the
payment being RTGS in their accounts. Their payments are delayed
resulting in the processing house helplessness in delaying payments to Grey
In Piplej area of Ahmedabad, the Pollution Control Board (PCB) has given notice
to 15 processing houses because of very poor quality maintenance during
processing. These processing houses, process 1 lakh meter fabric on a daily
basis. If they do not adhere by the rules laid down by PCB, they will soon have to
shut their units. Similar problem is faced by the processing houses in Vapi. In
many places in Vapi, processing or machinery fixing is done in open spaces in the
units, which harms the environment. Hence the State Govt and Central
government have started enquiry for the same which is not healthy for the
business. Businesses need to tighten their belts & their understanding of what
needs to be changed & improved for their own survival.
Demand of Variety of Fabric: Demand for pitch-dyed fabrics, shirting and
bottoms is very good. Yarn-dyed checks demand has reduced to 50%. Yarn
dyed checks Grey fabric price are:
• 40x40/ 108 x 72 : Rs. 100-102
• 40 x 40 / 110 x 80 : Rs. 110
Current trend is Corduroy fabric in 21 walles and 26 walles which is in huge
Finished goods of 40 x 40 / 120 x 80 are directly being sold at Rs. 125 to 130
across India, so distributors are not very keen to sell these products.
FABRIC REPORT GREY FABRIC PRICES
Construction Inch Weave Rate
60COMP*60CBD-196*108 63" 4/1 SATIN 100
60COMP*60CBD-148*108 63" PLAIN 83
60COMP*60CBD-165*104 63" 4/1 SATIN 90
60COMP*60CBD+80D-132*96 63" PLAIN 73
2/50*30CBD-74*58-= 63" PLAIN n/a
40COMP*40CBD-124*72 63" PLAIN 66
40COMP*40LYCRA-106*68 69" PLAIN 90
40c*30c-185*85 63" 4/1 satin 99
40*30lycra-173*76 69" 4/1 satin 110
40c*20ring spun -165*74 63" 4/1 SATIN 92
30COMP*20+20LYCRA-144*68 69" 4/1 SATIN 110
20OE*16LYCRA-108*56 67" 2/1 TWILL 100
GREY FABRIC PRICES
POPULAR NEW FABRICS FOR FUTURE GROWTH BY BIRLA CELLULOSE
49. GARMENT FOCUS
Abstract: Changing trends of legwear were studied through
observation and questionnaire method. It was observed that the
most preferred legwear was changing according to changing
trends. Women working outside their home preferred loose
legwear while housewife’s preferred their traditional wear
according to their culture.
Introduction: Two of the basic human wants is clothing and
change. Clothing plays a vital role in every aspect of our lives.
There is a great transition in the concept of clothing from
centuries ago till now. There is also a constant need to change
clothing as change is the only concept which is constant. Clothing
and fashion trends change almost every six months.
Consciousness and the average purchasing power have caused
a sudden explosion. The present increase in economic growth
in India has an important influence on changes in fashion. The
input of the computer industry is rapidly changing labour market
and our culture. Notable is the need to wear comfortable
clothes during long working hours which has led to a dramatic
change in the demand for office wear. Indian wear namely saris
and salwar kameez have also changed and their looks have
evolved for the metros. So in this sense, our clothing and style
evolves as we change, as technology advances and as our
attitudes towards the society changes. The way fashion changes
can show how a society or culture changes and evolves. There is
a significant change in women wardrobe specifically in the
legwears as there has been lot of varieties which have come and
gone from the market, being fad or classic. There were many
more legwears which existed in the form of variation of the
below legwears, howevermainly they are as below:
• The oldest legwear used by Indian women is Ghagra choli
which was observed around 1872 and gained immense
popularity. Ghagra choli, which is also known as Lehenga choli, is
the traditional clothing of women in Rajasthan,, Gujarat, MP, UP,
Haryana, HP and Uttarakhand. Chaniya choli is another term
commonly used to refer it. It is a combination outfit of a Lehenga,
tight Choli and a Dupatta. Lehenga or Ghagra is a form of skirt
which is long, embroidered and pleated. It is worn as the bottom
portion of a Ghagra choli. The ancient version of skirt or Ghagra
evolved from Bhairnivasani, which in turn evolved from the
Antariya when stitched on one side became tabular and was
worn gathered together at the waist, and held by a girdle. This
was one of the earliest forms of a clumsily stitched skirt. It was
worn using drawstring or nada. The ghagra was a narrow skirt six
feet long the same length as original Antariya. This style can still
be seen worn by Jain nuns in South Asia and during festive and
auspicious and sacred occasions in the states where it is worn.
( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r-
• Patiala salwars was accepted by Indian women during 1980
and is a type of female trousers which has its roots in Patiala City
in the Northern region of Punjab state in India. The King of Patiala
in earlier times had its Royal dress as Patiala Salwar. It has a close
resemblance to the pathani suit which has similar loose lowers as
salwars (Salwar are gathered at the waist and held up by a
drawstring or an elastic band) and long knee length top known as
Kameez. Over the years, the dress is not worn by men but has
classically transformed itself with new cuts and styling into
women's Patiala Salwar. The reason why the Patiala dress is
preferred by most of the women of Punjab and other regions of
Northern India is its comfort ability and durability in summers. Its
distinguishing characteristic is folds of cloth stitched together that
meet at the bottom. Patiala salwars require double the length of
material to get stitched. The fall of the pleats of the Patiala Salwar
is such that it gives a beautiful draping effect.
( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r-
• Harem pants or harem trousers, also known as parachute
pants were observed gaining popularity among Indian women
after ghagra around 1988-1989. Harem pants are women's
baggy long pants tapered at the ankle, with side flaps on the hip
that button at the waist area. Harem pants, which originated in
India, are like a cross between a skirt and a pair of skinny jeans.
The legs, from the knees down, are fitted. The crotch area is
loose and baggy as if it were cut to be a skirt. Traditional harem
pants can be extremely large and baggy, with a very wide and full
fit, very roomy, loose fitting, oversized, puffy, spacious, with
elastic in waist and at ankles, and with the crotch below the knee
almost to the ground. Harem pants are commonly worn with a
pleated skirt — a short skirt that covers the top portion of the
harem pants. They’ve also emerged as a "modern" version of
harem pants made popular in the late 1980s by MC Hammer
and thus known as hammer pants. They are intended to be
made more fashionable. Similar pants are also known as dimije,
tshalvar, schalwar, salwar kameez, kaccha, Patiala salwar,
shintijan, sirwal, sharovary, Turkish trousers, aladdin pants,
balloon pants, drop crotch pants, pantaloons, zouave,
pluderhose and pumphose.
• Women wearing pants (trousers) were thought by some to
be historically almost non-existent, apart from Amazonian
women, but have become more commonplace since the
advent of feminism in the middle to late 20th century. In the
1970s, trousers became especially fashionable for women;
today trousers are worn by many women while skirts and
dresses remain common as well. Indian women began wearing
trousers in the later part of the 20th century.
( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r-
Changing Trends of Legwear in Women’s Wardrobe
College of Home Science, Mumbai
47Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Dr. Ela Dedhia
50. • Jeans are trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth.
Often the term "jeans" refers to a particular style of pants
called "blue jeans" and invented by Jacob Davis and Levi
Strauss in 1873. Starting in the 1950s, jeans, originally
designed for cowboys, became popular among teenagers,
especially members of the greaser subculture. Historic
brands include Levi's, Lee, and Wrangler. Jeans come in
various fits, including skinny, tapered, straight, boot cut and
flare. Jeans are now a very popular article of casual dress
around the world. They come in many styles and colours;
however, "blue jeans" are particularly identified with American
culture, especially the American Old West.
• Capri pants (also known as capri’s, crop pants, long or
three-quarter shorts, and clam diggers) are mid-calf pants worn
in warm weather. Variants end below the knee and calf. Though
widely popular with women they are also worn by men in many
countries, especially in Europe, Latin America and Asia Capri
pants were introduced by European fashion designer Sonja de
Lennart in 1948. The pants' name derives from the Italian isle of
Capri, where they rose to popularity in the late 1950s and early
1960s. Capri’s' acceptance in the United States was influenced
by the 1960s television series. After a drop in popularity during
the 1970s through the 1990s Capri’s returned to favour during
• Leggings are a type of skin-tight clothing covering the legs,
which can be worn by both men and women. Originally
leggings were two separate garments, one for each leg.
Modern leggings are typically made from a blend of lycra,
spandex, nylon, cotton, or polyester blend, but they can also be
made from wool, silk and other materials. Leggings are available
in a multitude of colours and decorative designs. Leggings in the
form of skin-tight trousers, a tighter version of the Capri’s
ending at mid-calf or near ankle length, made its way into
fashion in the 1960s. It was very common to see leggings worn
with long oversized t-shirts, oversized sweatshirts or oversized
sweaters, slouch socks and Ked. Fashion turned against leggings
in the late 1990s. In 2005, leggings made a "comeback" into high
fashion, particularly in indie culture, with Capri-length leggings
being worn with mini skirts and dresses. Consequently, leggings
are also now popular to wear with oversized, long sweaters,
denim mini skirt, plaid skirts, and short dresses. Shiny leggings,
sometimes called leather-look leggings have a shiny, metallic
(lame), or wet-like appearance. They emerged as a popular
f a s h i o n t r e n d i n t h e l a t e 2 0 0 0 s .
( H t t p : / / w w w. L i f e s c r i p t . C o m / l i f e / s t y l e / y o u r-
• Jeggings are a recent variant of leggings. They are leggings
that take certain attributes from jeans, such as colour and style
and particularly a coloured seam down the side, thus a mixture
of the two and hence the adoption of the name "Jeggings".
Some styles have even taken the jean-like look to such lengths
as adding faux pockets and faux zip-flies to add to the look.
Jeggings were brought on by the resurgence in style of skinny
jeans in the mid- to late-2000s, when a higher demand for an
even tighter style of pant came about. Since jeggings are
typically made of a denim/spandex blend, they are often worn
on their own as opposed to under a skirt or dress. Some
jeggings have front fastening facilities while others just have an
elastic waistband and no pockets.
• To study different leg wears and their origin.
• To observe changes in women wardrobe.
• To know which legwears are accepted by women.
• To analyze the most currently happening legwear for
Review of Literature:
• Men and women are assuming new roles, both at home
and in the work place because of this, there is an overlap of
duties between work and the family (Cripps & MacDonald,
• Ready to wear clothing can be produced in a quality & price
range to suit the needs of most. Therefore, home sewing is no
longer a necessity but a hobby (Maccleave Frazier & Murray)
• Fashion is not just limited to the ramp or to the world of high
society. Even a simple jacket or a muffler worn by a woman
whilst buying vegetables in a market is a product of fashion that
must have percolated from the ramp to the retail store.
• Indian wear namely saris and salwar kameez have also
changed and their looks have evolved for the metros. Indian
fashion designers have experimented a lot by changing
necklines, styling and silhouettes of salwar kameezes and sari
blouses & sari draping.
• Fashion trends always exist through various cycles. “Fashion
trends do not change once in a season or once in a year, in fact
fashion trends keep changing every day.” In today’s era, change
in fashion has been significantly altered due to the expansion of
fashion markets and cultural acceptance to fashion change (Feb
24th, 2011in Announcements,Designers).
• Data was collected through various sources like published
books, magazines, internet, etc.
• Observations were made to understand the current trends
of legwears available in the market.
• Based on current trends and review of literature, a survey
was conducted to find out the legwear women most preferred
and their comfort ability. Sample size was 236 Indian women
ranging from age group 25-35 years, the results were then
• Observations were also made to confirm the preference of
leg wear amongst working women.
48 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
Fig.6. Traditional legwear for the sake of modesty
Results and Discussion:
• Preferred legwear in daily routine:
Women mostly preferred salwars as the most comfortable
legwear for daily wear followed by leggings, harem, jeans, capri,
• Most preferred legwear amongst working women:
The most preferred legwear by working women was leggings as
they wanted to be in trend with others and then followed by
jeans, harem, and ghagra. Capri was the least preferred.
• Looseness of legwear preferred:
Majority of the respondents preferred loose garment (85 %) as
compared to tight legwear (15%).
It was observed that there is a great impact on preferences for
legwear as and when the situation changes and occasion demand.
• Impact on personality and body features:
Majority of women feel that the legwear they choose has a major
impact on their personality and affects the look of their body
features whereas some women feel the reverse.
• Selection of legwear according to growing fashion:
It was seen that majority of women opine that “this is in fashion
lets buy” if it’s very trendy, followed by women who do not have
their selection matching to growing fashion, and some women
agree that sometime their selection depend on fashion
knowingly or unknowingly.
• Reason for traditional legwear:
When respondents were asked whether they prefer their
traditional legwear for the sake of modesty, majority of them
denied as their prime focus was their comfort level followed by
respondents wearing it because of modesty purpose and then by
respondents saying who sometimes wore it for reasons of
• Change in preference for legwear with increasing age:
It was observed that a large number of respondents felt that their
preference for leg wear has changed with their increasing age
while a good number of the respondents feel that their
preference for leg wear changes irrespective of their age.
Fig.1. Legwear Preference in %
Fig.2. Preferred Legwear
Fig.3. Looseness of Legwear
Fig.4. Impact on Personality & Body Features
0% 20% 40% 60%
Fig.5. Legwear According To Growing Fashion
49Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
52. • Smooth transition observed over the years:
Market study showed that:
• Varieties of leg wears have made their appearance in the
• The respondents were aware about the smooth transition
taking place in the fashion and apparel world and they too had
somewhat changed their wardrobe accordingly.
• The latest trend for legwear happening in the market and
widely accepted by the Indian women are full Patiala's and
• Mostly it was seen that the major influence in legwear was
Bollywood, the surrounding society and fashion and the
Fig 9. Transition Observed
• Designer tags lead to mass acceptance.
• Many factors play a role for selection of legwear in their
• Future trends can be designed by studying changing trends.
• Changing trends for other apparel wear can also be conducted.
• Changing trends with relation to other aspects like fashion
market, recession, psychology of the people, etc. can also be
• Observation method can be used for other groups also.
• Apparel magazines articles
• Traditional textiles books
• Elements of fashion & apparel design: Sumath, G.J.,
Manufacturers, Exporters & Wholesalers of Fancy, Modern, Latest,
Embroidered Salwar Kameez, Kurta, Lehnga,
Saree, Designer Blouse, Sherwani etc. made to order also.
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Mrs. Minaxi Shah, M:99309-66788,
Mr. Jagat Shah, M: 93201-66788,
53. We all read and are aware about the FASHION
ADOPTION THEORIES namely “TRICKLE DOWN”,
“TRICKLE UP” and “TRICKLE ACROSS”. These theories
explain how a consumer accepts a style.
In the past 4-5 years, I have observed that a style can also
take many routes simultaneously when introduced and I call this
as “BUBBLE BLAST” mode of acceptance. A particular style, at
the same time, is accepted by all the social groups, all the income
groups and all the age groups with the same charm. One does
not require approval from the fashion leaders, neither do they
need permission from social gurus nor are they not acceptable
because youngergenerations have used it or are using it.
How is this “Bubble Blast Theory” different from the other
FASHION ADOPTION THEORIES? Here, acceptance is based
on UTILITY and not mere fascination or blind acceptance of a
particular style and this theory will remain prevalent in the years
ahead too. This talks about the self intuition driver acceptance
mode. Here, to accept a style, UTILITY FACTOR becomes
more important for the approval.
Today, across the world, the consumers / customers literacy
is growing at an unexpected rate. Everyone is aware about the
facts or wish to know them before they make any purchase. The
development in information technology has united the world in
so many ways. The increased competition has given customers
many choices in a particular product category and of course the
other main factors - The CONSCIOUS CONSUMERISM and
EASY FINANCE from the various banks, has changed
consumers acceptance patterns.
Let's take an example of a consumer product like “MAGGIE
NOODLES”. From the day it was launched till date, everyone
accepted this product at the very time it was introduced
(whether it was a villager or an urbanite, a farmer or a business
executive or a movie star). This product acceptance was as a
result of metro life culture, a best option for quick snacks,
suitable in the current fast lifestyle. The product was and till date
BUBBLE BLASTTRICKLE DOWN TRICKLE ACROSS TRICKLE UP
is being accepted at all socio-economic levels without any guilt.
The product has the utility and it delivers. There are many
examples like utensils cleaning liquids or bars, biscuits,
detergent powders, etc.
BLACKBERRY mobile was once understood only for the
business or top executive class. When launched in India, it
became an overnight hit and was not only in the hands of top
executives but was widely accepted by youth too at the same
time. Even though the product was costly, all income groups
accepted it. It could be because of the UTILITY FACTOR i.e.
“black berry messenger service” facility and additionally because
of the easy finance and re-payment facilities. A multi brand
apparel online store, www.very.co.uk introduced the EMI
option to promote the sales by giving its customer a breathing
space during this economic crisis. This would certainly push the
customer to go for slightly high budget products, which
probably he/she could not have afforded at that time.
This” BUBBLE BLAST FASHION ADOPTION THEORY”
is prevalent in apparel & clothing too. There was a time when
people used to watch, what “who is who of the society” is
wearing in terms of brand or label and it was dutifully followed.
Today, the scenario is very different. Customers are fully aware
of products and buy them only if it meets the respective
customer's requirement in terms of price, quality, utility, fit or
maintenance and not just because it has been first accepted by
the upper class or because a particular product is newly
introduced in the market. When fresh collections of different
brands are launched in the market, people from all segments,
first explore various options available to them and then make a
purchase. Earlier, it was very brand name driven. Not only that,
today, a customer who at one time, was fond of a particular
brand, does not even hesitate to try other options, whether,
cheaper or costlier, as long as it meets his/ her aspirations. So,
the same brand's product category is accepted by various social
class or income group at the same time.
This Theory is very important in current context from the
fashion business point of view. In Bottoms, SLIM FIT still
continues. It made an entry to become mainstream fashion in
the year 2006-07. Even though designers/ brands or labels
have tried/ trying to introduce BELL BOTTOM / STRAIGHT /
CARROT FIT it has failed year after year since the last 4-5 years.
Individualism is at Extreme. People are driven by self intuition.
There is a clear shift from “class, age and income” to “Utility
Factor”. Hence, while framing the target market, due
importance needs to be given to the UTILITY factor. If one is
able to apply creatively, one can function very well in any market
with lots of ease, especially in the current scenario, where every
retailer is desperately looking to be their customer's brand of
choice and thus seek loyalty from them.
Owner - UBHO by Anup Kumar
Fashion Designer & Trend Forecaster
51Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
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56. Shri S. Hari Shankar, Chairman,
Textile Machinery Manufacturers’
The Textile Engineering Industry (TEI) in
India is one of the 5 key Engineering Sectors
responsible for the growth of the Indian
economy. It consists of more than 1400 units,
with a total investment of approx. Rs. 7,800
crores. More than 80% of the units are SMEs.
The total installed capacity is approx. Rs. 9100
crores. The industry provides direct/indirect
employment to 250,000 people. The TEI
contributes greatly to the competitiveness of
the Indian Textile Industry (TI). It meets 45-
50% of the demand of the Indian textile
industry. (Source: Textiles Committee Survey
Production: It is a matter of concern that the
TEI was not able to grow steadily during the last
5 years. This is seen from the table Fig. 1
2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Spinning allied machines 3662.22 2417.44 2105.00 3500.00 2570.00
Synthetic filament yarn machines 625.30 412.79 830.00 900.00 925.00
Weaving allied machines 621.64 410.35 495.00 600.00 480.00
Processing machines 635.19 419.29 460.00 700.00 750.00
processing, jute) machines
185.26 122.00 120.00 150.00 100.00
Textile testing measuring instruments 121.86 80.43 30.00 50.00 65.00
Hosiery machines/ hosiery needles 50.46 33.31 35.00 50.00 20.00
TOTAL OF MACHINERY 5901.93 3895.61 4075.00 5950.00 4910.00
SPARES ACCESSORIES 253.07 167.39 170.00 200.00 370.00
GRAND TOTAL 6155.00 4063.00 4245.00 6150.00 5280.00
% INCREASE/DECREASE -34% 4% 45% -14%
The unprecedented recession during 2008-09 2009-10
had shattered the pace of growth of the Indian TEI. The
companies, which increased the capacity to meet the hyped
demand from the domestic textile industry, suffered the most.
Their equity took a severe beating in the market. The after-
shocks of 2011-12 also rattled the industry and today it is living
with the hope of a positive growth during 2013-14 with
sustained demand from the domestic textile industry
Fig. 2. The capacity, production and utilization chart also shows how
the domestic machinery manufacturers suffered during 2011-12.
Fig. 1 (Value in Rs.crores)
Fig. 3. Shows how the textile industry became over
dependent on imports steadily from 2009-10 onwards. While
the domestic production has gone down due to less demand,
imports have surged ahead. This is only due to the import of
second hand machinery and also cheaper imports from China.
In all the categories, price factor ruled in favour of China which is
becoming our main competitor. Chinese companies’ main
advantage is that they get 11% subsidy from their own country,
subsidy (duty exemption) in India and the TUFs benefits. They
can afford to reduce the cost to a considerable extent. On the
other hand, Indian companies have to pay several duties and
taxes which are not included under CVD, thereby rendering the
Indian companies uncompetitive to that extent.
1. Ginning Spinning: The entire range of Spinning machinery
manufactured in India, including ginning machinery, blow room
machinery, cards, draw frame, combers, speed frame, ring
frame, ancillary machinery, two-for-one twisting and auto-cone
winding machines and parts and accessories, in general, are at
par with international standards.
In ginning there are innovations to control the contamination in
cotton by reducing human handling, maintaining humidity in pala
houses and bins, auto feeding etc. There are 5/6 manufacturers
• Capacity of ginning machinery is adequate and there are
exports and practically no imports.
• There is adequate capacity in spinning. The total capacity of
Fig. 3. Production, exports imports of TM its Parts
54 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
TEXTILE MACHINERYTHE INDIAN TEXTILE ENGINEERING INDUSTRY TODAY
57. Ginning and Spinning is Rs. 4,561 crores. It meets over 75% of
domestic requirement. In the coming years, it is likely to meet
90% of the requirement. There are domestic as well as foreign
players. And the technological gap is minimal.
• Auto Coner with auto feed and auto doff high speed rotor
spinning machines are not manufactured in the country
2. Weaving: The total capacity in the weaving sector is Rs. 703
Weaving Preparatory: The technology is at par with international
standards. There is enough capacity and production. Some of the
reputed manufacturers are Prashant Gamatex Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad,
Jupiter Comtex Pvt.Ltd., Ahmedabad, etc.
Weaving (Shuttle loom): Many manufacturers are supplying
almost 40,000 to 50,000 powerlooms per annum. There are few
manufacturers of automatic shuttle looms for which demand is less.
Weaving (Shuttleless Looms): A number of manufacturers of old
technology Rapier looms (Crank Beat-up) has come into existence.
These numbers are on the rise. Present installed capacity is almost
16,500 per annum, though production has not reached beyond
2,000 per annum. However demand is increasing, it is hoped that
within a span of another 2 years there would be approx. 25
manufacturers in the country. It is assumed that shortage of labour is
responsible for increase in demand for this type of low cost - low tech
New technology rapier looms (Cam beat up) have been
developed indigenously. But the same has not been tested
commercially. The preference for second hand looms and cheaper
Chinese looms are responsible for nil demand. Things may change if
the Government restricts the import of second hand looms. But as the
things stands today, it appears to be a far cry.
New technology Air Jet Loom has been developed indigenously.
Though it has made its presence felt in some centres, the commercial
success is still missing. The reason is very simple. Why should one buy
untested looms when the second hand looms are available at 50%
costs of domestic looms?
New technology water Jet Looms have also been developed.
Their cost is ⅓of the imported new looms. The question here is how
domestic manufacturers would be in a position to offer same quality of
imported looms at this cost. At the same time if they make it more
sophisticated, the increase in cost will jeopardise the marketing
because the second hand water Jet looms and Chinese new looms
are cheaper. Therefore, the commercial success is still far off.
3. Synthetic Machineries: The capacity is Rs. 1,000.00 crores
approx. All kinds of synthetic machines such as Draw Texturising, TFO
Twister, H.S. Winder etc. except fibre/ filament manufacturing
chemical plants are produced. India is self sufficient in such machinery.
There are also exports to different countries. We are competing with
the reputed manufacturers of the world on equal footing. There is
practically no import as there is no technology gap.
Most of the components of the synthetic fibre/ filament
mechanical processing machinery are made in India. Surat, Rajkot,
Surendranagar are the main centers for the manufacture of spindles,
spindle pots, spindle inserts, etc. Only critical electronic equipment
like PLC controls, servo motors etc. are imported. There are no
manufacturers of fibre/filament producing machinery except PP
4. Processing Machinery: The total capacity is approx. Rs. 900 crores
and existing capacity meets over 50% of the requirement. There are
more than 50 manufacturers of processing machinery in the country.
Almost the entire range of processing machinery is now being
manufactured in the country, with continuous scouring, bleaching,
mercerizing, washing, dyeing plants, preshrinking ranges and more,
being produced by domestic manufacturers. The indigenous
machinery available now competes on an even footing with their
European counterparts with low material to liquor ratio, and is capable
of processing fabric with comparable results at a very reasonable cost.
All critical electronic components and equipments are imported and all
other types of parts and accessories are made in India.
Perhaps, for batch processes, we have the best quality machines
when compared with other countries. Quality of textiles processing in
Indian machines is at par with international standards. Technology gaps
exist only in case of special purpose processing and finishing machinery
and continuous plants. In recent times, this gap is also reducing. Many
hi- tech machineries are being manufactured in the country for e.g.
Continuous Bleaching Plant, Dyeing Plant, Washing range,
Preshrinking Range, Indigo dyeing Plant etc.
5. Testing Monitoring Equipments: The Indian textile engineering
industry started developing testing and monitoring equipment in the
60’s and today a wide range of high quality latest generation testing and
monitoring equipment is being manufactured in the country. Almost
80% of the requirement is met by the domestic manufacturers. The
total capacity is Rs.220.17 crores. In this segment critical components
and electronic controls are imported.
6. Jute Machinery: Even in jute machinery the percentage share of
demand is over 60%. There are half a dozen good manufacturers of
jute machinery in the eastern sector. Many items of jute machinery are
being manufactured in the country. The total capacity may not exceed
Rs. 70 crores.
Lagan Engineering Co.Ltd., Kolkata is the major manufacturer of jute
machinery and its parts, components and accessories. There are some
small engineering units which also manufacture jute machinery parts
and accessoriesin Kolkata, West Bengal.
7. Parts/ Components and Accessories: The capacity is almost
Rs. 1,000 crores and it plays a major role in manufacturing and
maintenance of the textile machineries. These are Bearings,
Beams, Bobbins, Bobbin Holders, Bushes, Card Gauges,
Ceramic Guides, Cone and Tubes, Cops-Aluminum/Steel,
Drums, Filters, Flat Tops, Motors, Needles, Pins, Pirns, Belts,
Rollers, Humidifiers, Over Head Traveling Cleaners, Shuttles,
Healds, Reeds, Spindle Tapes, Trolleys, etc.
• Except some critical parts, most of the items are
• High speed cam dobby, electronic dobby and jacquard are
8. Machinery items not manufactured: It is true that hi-tech
garment making machinery and knitting machinery are not
made in India. There is of course no shortage of ordinary
domestic sewing machines and low tech knitting machines. The
decentralized character of the hosiery and garment sector was
55Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
58. not conducive for indigenous development. The capacity of
domestic hosiery and garment making machinery is approx.
Similar is the case of nonwoven and technical textiles machinery.
There was very little demand in the past. However, there are many
technical textile items which are being manufactured in indigenous
machines eg. Glass fiber fabrics, fish nets, mosquito nets, filter fabrics
The Indian TEI has been playing a significant role in the growth and
development of the TI in the country over the past 50 years. But it
should have grown further to meet the entire demand of the domestic
textile industry. It has not happened due to various reasons. China has
outgrown our industry and has become the largest producer of textile
machinery in the world.
Comparison of Indian Textile and Machinery Industry with China:
Chinese textile industry has installed spindleage of approx. 120 million
spindles, 7.20 lacs shuttleless looms. Total textile production is approx.
US$ 565 billion, with an export of approx. US$ 150 billion. Its textile
machinery industry produced approx. Rs.500 billion worth of textile
machinery. As a matter of fact China became the largest producer of
textile and textile machinery in the world. Import of second hand
machinery is highly restricted. Practically there is no such import. China
encouraged/ forced global textile machinery players to set-up
manufacturing base in China (through investor-friendly FDI/ restriction
to import if no local manufacturing set-up/ VAT acts as duty). Entire
range of high tech machines is being produced.
As against the above, in India, the installed spindleage is approx. 42
million (approx. 34 million working spindles) and shuttleless looms
about 1.20 lakh. Total textile production is approx. US$ 62 billion while
the export is approx US$ 23 billion. The position is less than ⅓of China
Highest production of textile machinery was in 2007-08 i.e.
approx. Rs. 63 billion which works out to 12-13% of China. Import of
second hand machinery is freely permitted (including for
modernization!). Only a part of high tech machines are in sectors other
than spinning, the textile industry is considerably import-dependent.
Future prospect: The Indian TI is very critical to the Indian economy. It
contributes 4% to India’s GDP, 14% to India’s industrial production
17% to India’s export earnings. Furthermore, it is the 2nd largest
employer after agriculture, with direct employment to over 35 million
people. With ever growing population approx. @ 20 million per
annum, the demand for fabric will grow substantially. The rapid changes
in fashion and style would facilitate development of niche category and
improve the profitability of the textile industry.
India’s textile apparel industry (domestic + exports) is expected
to grow from the current Rs. 3, 27,000 crores (US$ 70 Bn) to Rs.10,
32,000 crores (US$ 220 Bn) by 2020. (Source: Technopak). The
assessment, though an ambitious one, indicates the future of the TEI
and its scope. We may not catch up with China, but may improve our
position to a considerable extent.
A vibrant Indian TI calls for a strong Indian TEI to provide state-of-
the art textile engineering solutions, to meet the growth potential.
There is a need for unstinted support from the Govt. as well as the TI.
While the Govt. should give strong financial support for infrastructure
and RD, the Indian TI should stop importing used machinery and
encourage domestic manufacturers. The TI should not forget that the
machinery industry was initially set-up by them and they are duty bound
to protect it.
(Thisarticle reflects the personal views of the author)
Mfg. of All Types Of Textile
Machinery Hydraulic Press.
Sahjanand Udhyog Nagar, Junagadh Road, JETPUR-360 370 Dist, Rajkot,Ph. 02823 - 221255 Mo. 91 98259 33118
Hydraulic Baling Press
59. The main contributor to global warming is carbon dioxide,
which accounts for nearly 80% of emissions from the
industrialized countries. Carbon footprint originates from the
ecological footprint discussion and is based upon Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA). The carbon footprint reveals how much CO2 in
total is emitted along the value chain of a product. It is the total set of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event
or product and is calculated for the time period of a year and
expressed in terms of the amount of CO2, or its equivalent of other
GHGs emitted. As greenhouse gases produced by human activities
accumulate and their concentration increases in the atmosphere, it
causes global warming.
Factors behind Textile CO2 Emissions: There are many
reasons which affect the environment through the textile industry,
• The vast majority of fibres produced are synthetic. These
materials, such as petrochemical-based nylon and polyester, and
chemical-treated rayon, use massive amounts of energy. Also, the
chemicals used during the manufacture of these materials end up as
toxins polluting the air, soil and water.
• Conventional cotton, which makes up the next largest
percentage of worldwide fibre production, is also heavily
detrimental to the environment. Cotton growth and manufacturing
requires intensive use of pesticides, chemicals, water and energy.
• Dyeing, bleaching of fabrics and wet finishing processes involve
chemicals, energy, and huge amounts of water. Approximately one
million tonnes of chemical dyes are used every year.
The textile industry is a gigantic industry – and it is gigantically
polluting. It uses copious amounts of two things: water and
chemicals. It is the number one industrial polluter of water in the
world. Wet treatment of textiles like desizing, pre-washing,
mercerizing, dyeing, printing etc. includes a lot of chemical
applications on the fibres or fabric. Water is used at every stage in
fabric manufacturing - to dissolve chemicals to be used in one step,
then to wash and rinse out those same chemicals to be ready for the
next step. Some fibres need to be bleached with chlorine before
dyeing. This causes organo-chlorine compounds to be released,
which are very dangerous to the environment. It takes between
10% and 100% of the weight of the fabric in chemicals to produce
that fabric. From dyes to transfer agents, around 2000 different
varieties of chemicals are used in textile industries.
Despite stringent environmental laws and regulations, the
compliance level by the textile industry has not been very
satisfactory. Although, with 16% of the global population, India's
share of CO2 emissions is only 3.11%, yet in one study from the
Stockholm Environment Institute it was found that the embodied
energy of organic cotton from India was greater than conventionally
produced cotton from the USA because the yields are much less in
India, requiring more land to grow the same amount, and much of
India’s energy is generated by coal.
Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint: The Indian textile
industry will need to cover a lot of ground on crucial environmental
issues that will impact both competitiveness and bottom line in a
regime driven by environmental and sustainability concerns. A
worldwide paradigm shift toward cleaner and greener processes is
already underway and it can no longer afford to remain a mute
spectator if wants to emerge as a significant player in the global
market. Only a systematic approach including a continuous
improvement process reduces the carbon footprint of textiles.
Companies will realize how they can benefit from increasing energy
efficiency and thus cutting costs for fuel and electricity. In fact, it can
be a triple win; for the textile retailer, supplier and the environment.
Environmental sustainability can be achieved by looking at the
full life cycle of our clothing, from the design and materials sourcing
process onwards. An individual, nation or organization’s carbon
footprint can be measured by undertaking a GHG emissions
assessment. All of the energy used at each step of the process
needed to create that fabric is known as embodied energy and it is
sum total of the energy required to produce the fibre and yarn/
filament as well as to weave those yarns/ filaments into fabric.
Beyond fibre production, the dyeing and finishing sector is the
largest energy and water consumer in the whole textile chain and
has the highest potential for energy and water savings and efficiency
improvements. Once the size of a carbon footprint is known, a
strategy can be devised to reduce it, e.g. by technological
developments, better process and product management, changed
Green Public or Private Procurement (GPP), Carbon capture,
consumption strategies, and others. The mitigation of carbon
footprints through the development of alternative projects, such as
solar or wind energy, or reforestation, represents one way of
reducing a carbon footprint and is often known as Carbon
(A) To create new green paradigm the textile and apparel
industry needs to adopt 3R Concept, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and
Reduce: Low carbon foot print processes cut costs by reducing
waste of raw materials and energy. Water and energy usage
reductions by the textile dyeing and finishing sector can help reduce
global carbon dioxide emissions. By saving energy and water, the
textile industry can not only save a lot of money, but also help to
slow down climate change.
I. Substituting organic fibres for conventionally grown fibres
as it uses less energy, no petrochemical-based fertilizers and
pesticides for production, emits fewer GHG and supports organic
farming (which has myriad environmental, social and health
benefits). Other “greener” alternatives include organic wool, linen,
bamboo, hemp, abaca, soybean fibre, biopolymers and polyester
recycled from used clothing.
Natural fibres, in addition to having a smaller carbon footprint in
the production of the spun fibre, have the benefit of being able to be
degraded by micro-organisms and composted. In this way the fixed
CO2 in the fiber will be released and the cycle closed, whereas,
Synthetics do not decompose. In spite of that natural fibers also
sequester carbon. Sequestering carbon is the process through
which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by plants through
- Rena Mehta,
Asst. Prof. IIS University, Jaipur
Chavi Goyal, Lecturer NIFT Kangra
57Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
ENVIRONMENT FOCUS Role of Carbon Footprint in Textile and Apparel Industry
60. photosynthesis and stored as carbon in biomass (leaves, stems,
branches, roots, etc.) and soils.
II. The textile industry needs to adopt more energy efficient
processes; such as innovative textile chemicals and processing
technologies that contribute to eco-efficient processes for textile
mills can save costs and help reduce the environmental burden.
Some Innovative products with smaller carbon footprints are:
a. Polymer fibre, made with agricultural feedstocks, provides a
30% CO2 reduction while its manufacturing process reduces
GHG emissions by 63%, compared to conventional nylon
made from petroleum.
b. Polymer fibre products with optimized properties including
improved dye ability.
c. Bleaching system that can save up to 40% in energy and water
use and reduce cotton loss by 50%.
d. Aftersoaping agent for dyeing can reduce the processing time
and water consumption compared to the conventional system.
e. The revolutionary air technology for dyeing requires only one-
forth of water and also reduces energy and chemicals
f. Digital printing, using ink from the dyes, wastes neither fabric
nor ink and does not use harmful salts and significantly reduces
the environmental footprint.
g. Formaldehyde-free pigment printing system, which ensures
zero add-on of formaldehyde during production and needs
no further treatment.
h. Colour Fast Finish, is a one-step-process of textile can reduce
the processing time and carbon dioxide emissions.
i. C6-based fluorocarbon finish for stain repellence and release.
j. Innovative machine that applies finishes to fabrics using foam,
which conserves water.
k. Industrial enzymes, which are basically proteins, replace harsh
chemicals used to remove impurities from the fibre or fabric,
which reduces energy costs, water consumption and also
improves the feel of the fabric.
III. While effective laundry management has always included a
comprehensive effort to contain energy and labour, green initiatives
will force the adaptation of technology and business methodologies
that will create profound change in the way laundries work. The
ultimate goal of a green initiative should be to achieve effective
stewardship of natural resources and to work toward carbon
neutrality (zero net carbon emission through reduction of emissions
and sequestered or offset carbon amounts). For laundry, green
chemistry would include elimination of certain detergent/surfactant
ingredients such as alkylphenol and ethoxylates, and other chemicals
including phosphates, chlorine, carcinogens and/or heavy metals.
Alternative bleaches to chlorine include peracetic acid and
hydrogenperoxide that, while hazardous, are more biodegradable
and therefore considered greener than chlorine. Underscoring the
need for careful chemical selection is that hydrogen peroxide
requires higher operating temperatures than chlorine. All the pros
and cons of chemical selection should be evaluated.
IV. Use of natural light to serve most of its illumination needs,
upgrading the lighting systems, installing of heat recovery plants and
developed energy efficient in-house weaving and other
equipments, efficient use of energy sources to generate water
temperature and for the drying and finishing of textiles, as well as
environmental control to include facility heating, cooling and
lighting, methods for transporting textiles to use areas, as well as
those used by the laundry’s labour force to get to and from work
should be considered in order to reduced carbon footprint. While
outside the laundry operator’s direct control, the electricity/steam
source has a substantial impact on the operation’s carbon footprint.
Business travel, outsourced activities, the extraction and
processing of purchased materials, and the use of sold products
and services also have their impact on GHG.
Reuse: Effluents of chemically treated textiles are discharged in
water. Treatment of wastewater obtained from chemically treated
textiles is a must. Use of chrome mordant dyeing and limiting the
emission of copper, chromium and nickel into water reduces
impurities in dyes and pigments. Using dyeing carriers with high
chlorine content should be evaded. During the process of
bleaching, alternative agents that are less or not hazardous can be
Households currently throw out 1.17 million tonnes of
textiles each year, most of it clothing, which could be recycled or
reused. It’s therefore important, whether as designers, retailers or
consumers, that we begin to tackle some of these issues that have
been highlighted today.
Recycle: The textile and apparel industry should more utilise
recycled fibers. The environmental impact of recycling worn-out
polyester or cotton waste into new polyester or cotton fiber
respectively, for instance, is significantly lower than making that
same fiber a new. A wide range of innovative, sustainable clothing
can be made from recycled textiles. We should take care of the
ways to combat ‘fast-fashion’ and to reduce its negative
environmental impact as the issues of textile recycling, cheap
clothing or “throwaway fashion’ affects us all.
a. Eco-Circle environmentally friendly closed-loop recycling
system chemically converts used polyester products into new
polyester raw materials. The reclaimed polyester is of purity
comparable to virgin fibres, but the system reduces energy
consumption by 84% and CO2 emissions by 77%. Recycled
polyester products include Ecopet polyester fibre made from
recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, Eco Circle
fibres and recycled polyester fibre recreated from used clothing
b. Rayon, which is produced from wood pulp, seems to be an
attractive option, but the manufacturing process still consumes
large quantities of energy and creates significant amounts of wood
waste. Introduced in the early 1990s, Lyocell is also made from
wood fibre (harvested from tree farms). It is biodegradable and
recyclable, and the production process is more sustainable and
includes recovery of most chemicals.
c. Ingeo fibre is the first man-made fibre from 100% annually
58 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
62. Prof.V.K.Batra Mrs. Parvin Batra
Skills Development Experts
Global Competence, Panipat, Haryana
Educators, Consultants, Trainers and Auditors
We are living in an era of managing everything. We see
numbers of public and private institutes mushrooming all over India,
who claim themselves as the best managers of careers and education
for Indian Youth promising an excellent life. Are their claims genuine?
Are they able to impart the skills based education required in today’s
dynamic times? Are we able to catch up with the dynamism of our
times and learn Life and Employability skills which are becoming
obsolete day by day? Are they developing employability skills of the
students or are they also creating many idiots (remember the movie;
Three Idiots) who specialize in mugging up the syllabus and getting
high grades without understanding or experiencing the real tough
world that lies ahead of them? Chetan Bhagat called it the Indian
Institution of Idiots.
Introduction: The Employment Commission of India in the
report The Challenges of Employment in India laid heavy stress on
the issue of Skills Development in India and pointed out that serious
action has to be taken in this regard. As a result Govt. of India has
formed National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC) to
identify skill gaps and to promote skill development in India. A goal of
training 50 million people in employability skills has been fixed. The
Textile Ministry had given grant of Rs. 140 Crores during the
Eleventh Five Year Plan and an amount of Rs. 1900 Crores has been
provided in the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-13)in this regard.
Some basic issues related to life employability skills have been
EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS: Employability refers to a person's
capability of gaining initial employment, maintaining employment,
and obtaining new employment if required (Hillage and Pollard,
1998). For individuals, employability depends on the knowledge,
skills and abilities (KSAs) they possess, the way they use those assets
and present them to employers, and the context (e.g. personal
circumstances and labor market environment) within which they
Carnevale emphasized upon set of sixteen employability skills;
in terms of the changing needs of the employers and their
expectations from future employees.
A. Academic Basics
1. Reading Skills: Basic literacy, reading in order to learn, reading
in order to do
2. Writing Skills: Preparing organizing information, writing,
3. Computational Skills: Quantification, computation,
measurement estimation, quantitative comprehension,
quantitative problem solving
4. Speaking Skills: Non-verbal skills, vocal skills, verbal skills
5. Listening Skills:Assigning meaning to aural stimuli,
C. Learning to Learn
6. Foundation Skills: Learning how to learn- how to collect,
know comprehend, how to give receive feedback and
how to learn collaborating
7. Problem Solving Skills: The ability to bridge the gap between
what is and what ought to be
8. Creativity Skills: The ability to produce a novel idea and then
turn it to practical one
E. Personal Development
9. Self-esteem skills: The ability to maintain a realistic positive
10. Motivational Goal setting Skills: The ability to translate
work into an instrument for development of self
11. Personal Career Development Skills: The ability to adapt to
changing work requirement to ensure employment
security and to fulfill personal potential
F. Group Effectiveness
12. Interpersonal Skills: The ability to judge appropriate
behavior; to absorb stress, to share responsibility, to deal
13. Negotiation Skills: The ability to overcome disagreements by
14. Team Work Skills: The ability of groups to pool human
resources to pursue common goals
G. Influencing Skills
15. Organizational Effectiveness Skills: The ability to work
productively in the context of explicit and implicit
organizational cultures sub cultures
16. Leadership Skills: The ability to influence others to serve the
strategic purposes of an organisation or the developmental
needs of an individual
Source: Derived from Carnevale’s America (1984) and the
New Economy (1991) and based on the three year ASTD/DOL
Study of Work Place Basic Skills (1988)
All these researches have become the base of worldwide
research of employers’ expectations.
Broadly speaking all the above sixteen employability skills fall
under three basic skills: Conceptual, Human Technical-
Managerial Skills. Since work itself is a primary motivating factor
(Herzberg) and the nature of work includes the physical, mental
and emotional aspect (Mewes 1975); a holistic work study of each
individual job must be well inducted amongst the potential
employees to enable them to work effectively as individuals and
team members in highly competitive, globally industrialized
The employees must be able to practically understand work
MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION: A Skills based Approach
60 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
63. and they should be assessed as auditory, visual kinesthetic learners
to understand time motion study in detail, while introducing them
to the Division of Work (Adam Smith1775) Scientific Management
(F W Taylor 1909). Since skill development depends upon repetitive
exercises and practice; the methodology for skill development has to
be training rather than teaching. It is the lack of development of work
life skills which results into stress at the work place and the resultant
damage it causes to the society as a whole.
LIFE SKILLS: If we notice carefully most of the employability
skills mentioned above relate to the behavioral aspect of the
employees. WHO and its allies have been seriously advocating Life
Skills Based Education as a priority issue in the pattern of education in
a conclusive manner. Department of Mental Health (WHO)
identified five basic areas of life skills that are relevant across cultures:
• self-awareness and empathy;
• coping with emotions and stress
• creative thinking and critical thinking;
• communication and interpersonal skills;
• decision-making and problem-solving;
What is education? What is the purpose of education? How it is
related to career and Life?
• The essence of knowledge is having it to apply it -
• Books don’t teach us how to use them…. - Sir Francis
Benjamin Bloom (1956), in his treatise Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives emphasized three key factors of education as
Cognitive (Knowledge), Psychomotor (Skill) and Affective (Abilities)
in the learning process. Srikant Datar and others (2010) have also
researched similarly and pointed towards review of management
education on the occasion of completion of 100 years of Harvard
Knowledge, Skills Abilities (KSA) has been emphasized time
and again as three main components of individual development.
Although we cannot stress one factor more upon another yet what
has been found to be missing as a quality factor is ‘Doing’ or
‘Psychomotor’ factor of education. Since the objective of knowing
and being, is finally doing or action, it has to be understood that result
depends upon the action finally. As such unless one is able to convert
ones knowledge and behavior in concrete and well defined action
plan to achieve the goals; the task of education would not have
served the purpose as such. Thus the qualitative factor is the doing
or the skills development factor which brings the result.
Let us review the importance of skills before getting into the
discussion regarding Hard and Soft skills and their role in
employability. Hard Skills are the technical and conceptual
information that is inducted during the education process. Soft Skills
are the human or behavioral skills that are required to be inducted to
develop the individual and social behavior to develop the leadership
and team working capabilities which are required to execute the
tasks of Hard skills.
The element of being or abilities and attitude has to be given
the higher priority; the reason being, giving due recognition to
Emotional Intelligence leading to self development. To acquire
knowledge we need to understand the learner’s behavior and
learning process. We need to understand that the human brain that
acquires information and processes it has two specialized
hemispheres, the left hemisphere is specialized into the logical
scientific rational thinking which is termed as intelligence the right
hemisphere of the brain specializes in the artistic thinking process and
is also called the emotional brain. How the left right hemispheres of
the brain develop and interact is called Emotional Intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence is the wisdom traditionally speaking, which
determines how many right decisions any person takes the right
time. This will also determine the type of personality and the level of
success one attains in life. The life’s pace has disturbed our balance
and we have lost the calmness and equanimity that was characteristic
of our so called spiritual attitude that has been replaced by
materialistic attitude. We all have lost the purpose of life.
Coping with Emotions and Stress: Emotions are the real
drivers behind action not the intelligence which only directs them
towards the desirable goals. The id part of the human behavior
normally dominates the ego and super ego especially during the state
of mental stress which is the rule of the day rather than the exception.
In today’s society where the civil behavior often runs out of control
damaging destroying at a much larger mass scale rather than
constructive positive behavior. What is important is that any person
doesn’t learn decision making while studying, the choice of taking up
the particular career itself depends upon the decision taken.
Another aspect pointing out to the need of a strong being
personality is the fact of how emotional brain overtakes the rational
brain during the stress. Also with a continued exposure to the
stressful stimuli the emotions overtake the intelligence so quickly that
before the person can understand; the damage has already being
done in terms of the aggressive negative behavior during anger stage
and depressive withdrawal behavior during the frustration and
Self-awareness and Empathy: One needs to understand the
real nature of one’s mind and how it operates before one can do goal
setting or other important tasks of life. The primary tool of mind is the
continuous thought which comes to forefront as impulses. Never
does one’s mind ever sit idle. It is naturally restless. The first thing that
one needs to learn about self is to sit quietly and look at the thought
pattern emerging within one’s self. That way one will be able to
recognize that one is more than these impulsive thought patterns.
One can see and feel these thoughts emerging and going on and on
as a third person. It is then that one can see there is someone still
inside who can observe these thought patterns like an adult or a
mature person observes some child doing some innocent or
naughty actions and sees a pattern in it rather than reacting to it. This
is awakening of Self Awareness or Calmness of the Self. When one
starts approaching this stage one can realize the centre of vortex
point of one’s self. It is from this activity that one can differentiate
between one’s higher and lower selves as two distinct entities.
Observing and enjoying the restfulness of this stage of one’s
existence, helps one become more intuitive, since it leads to settling
down of various thought patterns which have an impact on one’s day
to day working. It is at this time that one sort of fits one’s thoughts into
the subconscious mind. This is also called Experiential Learning
61Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION A Skills based ApproachSELF MANAGEMENT
64. MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION: A Skills based Approach
process. The knowledge cannot become a skill unless we
experience it as a reality and a process. The process of knowing,
doing and being is the intertwined development of one’s feeling,
thinking, willing and behavior.
Creative thinking and Critical thinking: A calm and relaxed
thinking process only leads to a behavior during which the
Leadership Team Management phenomenon leads to Creative
Innovative results. Creative people have already been diagnosed
to be mavericks having their own moody otherwise somewhat
eccentric behavior which has been found prevalent mostly
amongst the Creative Artists and the Advertising professionals who
make the things happen by driving the masses emotionally and in a
hypnotizing manner. The wisdom of the crowd also reflects the
phenomenon that it is through the emotions dominated rational
approach with which political, social, spiritual leaders bring about
the behavior modification which the strongest of the autocrats
have failed to sustain for long in the course of entire human history.
Decision-making and Problem-solving: Are we really able
to listen to and define the problems before we start solving them
the normal practice and the behavior shows we do not do so.
Decision making depends upon the level of our emotional
intelligence or what has been traditionally called WISDOM.
Wisdom I would like to reflect by WQ=EQ x IQ. Since wisdom
depends upon how the two hemispheres of the brain work
together as per the situation. Although conventionally; we
considered the brain to be rational thinker and heart to be the
That is why we are advised to develop assertiveness. But can
behavior be so changed after having been deeply embedded into.
How to recognize the role of feelings, willingness and thinking? For
the last 40 years the concept of situational leadership by Hersey,
Blankard and Johnson has been holding a firm ground in the
Management World, but has it been given due recognition in the
Management Education and been converted into skill by
Management Educators. Are our faculty members really having
these skills today?
It is been found out by Sigmund Freud that most of our
decisions are emotionally driven. We use the rational thinking or
the defense mechanism to justify our emotional decisions the Id or
the lowest level of instinct in the human beings provokes the mind
to act towards gratification and sensual mental pleasure. The ego
or the acquired behavior intelligently directs the Id to act in a
purposeful manner superego further directs the ego the Id
towards the norms practices of the society through ethics
value systems to convert the action process in a socially useful
The scientific discoveries over the decade have shown that it
is actually the specialization of the Left and the Right brain. “How to
use the both part of your brain,” by Tony Buzan explains the whole
concept in detail. But what matters is the skill of wisdom and how
we recognize our emotions and logic while taking decisions on an
everyday basis. But the psychologists like Sigmund Freud have
reflected that most of our decisions are emotional while we use all
our rationality to defend our emotional decision. This is leading to a
very different kind of behavior more towards aggressive or
submissive rather than assertive.
Communication and interpersonal skills;
The listening and visionary qualities of the leaders cannot be
effectively practiced until unless the leaders exercise patience,
calmly to observe and to give direction for a concerted and
cooperative action. History is replete with respect to the incidence in
cultures across all parts of the Globe reflecting the wise actions of the
man kind in either creating a beautiful planet or using negative
emotions to create a destructive environment of which the global
warming and world war are shining examples. All these factors point
out to the fact that the right knowledge and the right skills are only
fruitful in the hands of the right person.
Therefore the personality of any person determines how and
what type of knowledge will that person acquire and use in the
course of life. The learning process also depends upon the
combination of the three types of learning behaviors called auditory,
visual kinesthetic. Therefore an assessment should be made to
determine the level of three aspects of learner’s behavior before
starting the knowledge acquisition process. Acquiring knowledge
effectively is a work having three aspects the physical work or the
posture of the learner and the mental work of receiving and
processing the information and finally the emotional work
determines the mood and the concentration with which the learner
WORK LIFE BALANCE
Prof. Frank Parsons (1909) was the first person to recognize link
between education, career and life; who in ‘Choosing your
Profession’ highlighted the fact that a systematic approach should be
taken towards selecting a career rather than an adhoc approach. His
method in principle is still used by the professional career counselors
along with the psychological testing methods that have been added
for better understanding of the human traits in different personalities.
Price Waterhouse Coppers study about work life balance as
quoted in The Economic Times recently emphasizes on the fact that
want of this millennium employees is ‘WORK LIFE BALANCE’. The
conclusion is that seven out of ten millennial (born between1980-
1995) employees said that their work demands interfere with
Even in a country having one of the oldest cultures in the world
with Vedas and the others scriptures being practiced in the everyday
life with such an excellent everyday life of wisdom remaining in
practice and among the common man are we wiser or more
confused as Indian and Global citizens. With a country being called a
country of the youth the valueless, directionless youth become a
developing power or destroyer of the Superpower called India.
Finally it leads to a few questions.
Are we really listening to Amaratya Sen, C. K. Prahlad and
others who are pointing out the way that we need to follow to
become saner human beings? Are those ideas only good for reading
and closed after giving Noble Prize or just some good tributes. Is it a
better society to live in? Do we really have the welfare economics put
in the practice in the context of globalization today? Are we leading
the world with the hope, that the people have some faith in? Will we
really be able to get that Global New World order promised by
WTO and the concepts that lead of Globalization? Is industrialized world
62 Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
65. proving to be better than the agriculturally settled world of yester
Are we not moving about purposely in today’s hyper dynamic
world? Has honesty rather than being the best policy has turned out to be
a fool’s paradise with corruption and Swiss Banks and the Politicians
behavior becoming the order of the day?
Managing Yourself Leading Others
What is our heritage? What have we learnt, practiced and are
preaching in our everyday life? In other words are leaders and thinkers
really taking right decisions in everyday life? Are we happier today? If not?
Then we need to analyze what has gone wrong with our decision making?
What happened to the sound cultural base that we have had? Is it serving
any purpose? Materialism being at its peak; are we really behaving with
some sense of direction or we are just mental emotional nomads looking
for illusive greener pastures in the vast expanses of desert?
More important than that, “Do we really have time to reconsider
what we have gained or lost? What we want in the coming times ultimate
what life rests upon is the great word OBJECTIVE or PURPOSE?
Where is it ultimately leading to? Can unhappy today really lead of a
happier tomorrow? Are we really well today with such advancement in
the science of medicine? What about the feeling of losing a fortune today
while going to the thought of being admitted in hospital? What is the level
of faith today while visiting the hospital that the doctors will really prescribe
what we need rather than what they want and need? Although we have
costly machines, which can show the functioning of each organ in our
body why are we helpless before AIDS and HIV?
If our youth today is irresponsible towards its self, towards the family
and the society how much are we responsible? Where do we stand? And
do we really know where it is going? Are we really able to oversee the fact
if the educational objectives of cognitive psychomotor and affective being
fulfilled by the education pattern in general and in management education
in particular? So what about the same three concepts of knowing, doing
and being properly being included in the curriculum of education today? Is
anybody overseeing that? Are our higher authorities ready to recognize
these aspects of educational objectives and ready to bring about the
necessary changes in the obsolete educational system? What is it that
prevents us from enjoying our work and life? What they mean is the
attitude we have towards life’s problem, situation at work and away from
The Guru of Gurus Peter F Drucker has written the article Managing
Yourself to give us the idea how we can sustain ourselves in this turbulent
environment. Even leadership Guru Warren Bennis and his co author
Bert Nanus in their bestseller Leadership spoke about Managing Yourself
Leading Others as an important leadership trait.
We will discuss this in Leadership Skills in our next article on skills
• Carnevale .A. P - America and the New Economy, Internet
• Parsons. Frank (1909)- How to Choose a Vocation, Internet
• Bloom. B (1956)- Taxonomyof Educational Objectives, McKay, New York
• Toffler. Alvin (1970)- Future Shock, Bantam Books
• Buzan. Tony (1974)- How to Use Both Parts of Your Brain, Plume Books
• Bennis. Warren Leaders, Collins
• Nanus. Burt (1985)
• Drucker . F. Peter (1990)-The New Realities, Asian Books P.Ltd.
• Goleman. D (1998) - Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam
• Datar. Srikant (2010)– “Rethinking the MBA”, Harvard Business Press
• Vallabhaneni. Devi (2010)- What’s your MBA IQ, Wiley
The results of these innovations are as various and promising as they
are novel. Photonic textiles open up a wide range of applications in the fields of
ambient lighting, communication, and personal health care. Photonic textiles
are still a young business. Even at this early stage, however, Philips envisions
partnerships with interior and apparel brands that see the potential of
photonic textiles to revolutionize the very concept of fabric. The adjoining
picture shows how engineers have succeeded in integrating flexible arrays of
multicoloured LED’s into fabrics. Their lumalive textile garments were on
show in 2006. Optical fibres are woven into cloth. Curtains are attached to a
transformer plugged into the wall and clothes made from these fabrics are
attached to a battery. The cloth can be cut and washed into a washing
machine on the delicates cycle.
IntelligentTextiles with a Purpose
Zapper cushion is a pillow made of touch sensitive fabric, replacing traditional
remote controls for children and people with motor-skill problems. New age
Hospital beds are made with linens that detect your position, and can e.g.
prevent bedsores. Using Smart upholstery in cars ensures proper inflation of
airbags. Textiles can also sense and remember your movements to
automatically regulate the seating position. Sensory textiles built into
airplanes, roads, bridges and buildings can give early warning of potential
Future of IntelligentTextiles
A shift in consumer values has occurred; instead of wanting the finest natural
materials, people look at the engineered beauty, innovative design and the
intelligent aspects of products. We are still far from taking full advantage of the
potential of information technology services, but the future for fully soft
electronic products is very attractive. And it requires a different, but interesting
Technical Textiles / Intelligent Textiles
design approach. The geometric and mechanical properties of textiles
(large flexible area) differ strongly from conventional electronics and can create
new computer designs and architectures. Firms that understand how to
incorporate emerging IET technologies into their new product strategies will
establish and sustain financial and competitive advantages. To take the next step
towards electronic clothing (made of electronic textiles) research has to be carried
out in the following areas:
• clothing technologyfor manufacturing
• testing under wearing conditions and
• washing/cleaning treatments
• investigation of reliability
Plastic was a revolution and nano-technology will probably be the next big change.
There are a lot of thoughts about what could be done if we were able to
manipulate, rearrange and build from molecules and atoms. It has unlimited
potential and is called the key technology of the 21st century.
1. Textiles Today – chloë Colchester
2. Advanced Textiles for Health and Well-Being
– Marie O’ Mahony
Cont.. From Page 38
63Textile Value Chain | July -Sept 2013
SELF MANAGEMENT MANAGING CAREER, LIFE AND EDUCATION A Skills based Approach
66. Marketed by:
Venue: INDIA KNIT FAIR COMPLEX, Tirupur
Organizer name: S S Textile Media Pvt. Ltd.
Contact details: www.yarnex.in
Exhibitor's profile: Manufacturer
exporter of Yarn / filament
Date: 19 to 21 Sep 2013
Venue: INDIA KNIT FAIR COMPLEX, Tirupur
Organizer name: S S Textile Media Pvt. Ltd.
Contact details: http://www.texindiafair.com/
Exhibitor's profile: Manufacturer exporter of
Date: 19 to 21 Sep 2013
Date: 3 to 5 Oct 2013
Venue: Bombay Exhibition Ground, Mumbai
Organizer name: Messe Frankfurt Trdefair India Pvt. Ltd.
Contact details: www.techtextil-india.co.in
Exhibitor's profile: Manufacturer exporter of
Date: 18 to 20 Oct 2013
Venue: Brijendra Swaroop Park, Kanpur
Organizer name: Igmatex Fair
Contact details: www.igmatexfair.com
Exhibitor's profile: Manufacturer exporter of
IGMATEX KANPUR 2013 KNIT SHOW 2013
Date: 11 to 13 Aug 2013
Venue: Velan hotel fair ground, Tirupur.
Organizer name: CITY LEAVES MEDIA EVENTS
Contact details: www.knitshow.in
Exhibitor's profile: across Value chain manufacture
exporter of territory
INDIA KNIT FAIR
Date: 9 to 11 Oct 2013
Venue: IKF Complex, Tirupur.
Organizer name: India Knit Fair Association
Contact details: www.indiaknitfair.com
Exhibitor's profile: Value chain manufacture
exporter of Knits
Date: 18 to 20 Oct 2013
Venue: Via Ground, Vapi industrial association, plot no. 135,
GIDC, Vapi -369195
Organizer name: The Textile Association, Mumbai Unit
Contact details: www.textileassociationindia.com
Exhibitor's profile: across Value chain manufacture
exporter of territory
SILK MARK EXPO
Organizer name: Silk Mark Organisation
Contact details: www.silkmarkindia.com
Exhibitor's profile: Manufacturer Exporter of Silk
KOCHI SILK MARK EXPO Date: 2 to 7 August 2013
GUWAHATI SILK MARK EXPO Date: 4 -9 Sep 2013
KOLKATTA SILK MARK EXPO Date : 4 -9 Sep 2013
AGARTALA SILK MARK EXPO Date : 13 -18 Sep 2013
TTF FAIR IN SOUTH ASIA 2013
Organizer name: Worldex India Exhibition Promotion Pvt. Ltd
Contact details: www.worldexindia.com
Dates of Fair: 19 20 November, 2013
Venue: Le Meridian Hotel, Inspire Hall, New Delhi, India
Dates of Fair: 22 23 November, 2013
Venue: The Oberoi Hotel, Orchid hall, Bangalore, India
Dates of Fair: 26 27th November, 2013
Venue: Taj Samundra Hotel, Crystal Ball Room, Colombo, Srilanka
Date: 19th to 22nd September 2013
Venue: NSIC Exhibition complex, OKHLA, NEW DELHI
Organizer name: Aditya Exposition Pvt. Ltd.
Contact details: www.screenprintindia.com
Exhibitor’s profile: Manufacturer of printing for Textiles.
SCREEN PRINT INDIA 2013
Date : 13th to 16th Dec 2013
Venue : Codissia trade Fair Complex, Coimbatore
Organizer : The Southern India Mills Association
Exhibitors Profile : Manufacturer of the territory
Date : 21st September, 2013
Venue: Hotel tip top plaza, Thane
Organizer Name : Stadon Consulting
Exhibitor Profile : Manufacture of Machinery
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