Week 8 - Vegetables, Grain And Pasta

675 views
547 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
675
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Week 8 - Vegetables, Grain And Pasta

  1. 1. Week 8 Vegetables, Grain and Pasta . 2248 email: tpavit@wu.ac.th 1
  2. 2. • 8 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2
  3. 3. • 1. 2. 3
  4. 4. 1. 3 1. Texture 2. Color 3. Flavor 4
  5. 5. Texture • 5
  6. 6. Texture FIBER • Fiber is made Fiber by ACID and SUGAR • Fiber is Softened by HEAT and ALKALIS (Baking Soda) STARCH • Dry Starchy food – Dried Iegumes, rice, macaroni must be cooked in enough water • Moist Starchy vegetable – potatoes must cooked until starch granules soften DONESS • vegetable is done when it reached the desired degree of tenderness. Most vegetables are best cooked very briefly, until they are crisp-tender or Al dente (firm to the bite) • At this stage of tenderness, they not only have the most pleasing texture but also retain maximum flavor, color, and nutrients. 6
  7. 7. color • 7
  8. 8. Vegetable Color Changes During Cooking cooked with Cooked with Color Examples of vegetables Overcooked Acid Alkali White Potatoes,turnips,cauliflower,onions,white White White Yellowish, gray cabbage Red Beets,red cabbage (not tomatoes, whose Red Blue or Greenish blue, pigment is like that in yellow vegetables) Blue- Blue-green faded Green Asparagus,green beans, lima Olive green Bright- Bright-green Olive green beans,broccoli,Brussels, beans,broccoli,Brussels, sprouts,peas,spinach,green, sprouts,peas,spinach,green, peppers,artichokes,okra Yellow Carrots,tomatoes,rutabagas, Carrots,tomatoes,rutabagas, sweet Little Little Change Slightly faded (Orange) potatoes,squash,corn Change 8
  9. 9. Flavor Cooking procedures flavor loss 1. Cook for as short a time possible 2. Using boiling salted water, salt helps reduce flavor loss 3. Use just enough water to cover to minimize leaching 4. Steam vegetables whenever appropriate 9
  10. 10. • • Six Factors are responsible for nutrient loss: 1. High Temperature 2. Long Cooking 3. leaching 4. Alkalis (Baking Soda) 5. Plant enzymes 6. Oxygen 10
  11. 11. General Rules of Vegetable Cookery • Now that you understand how vegetables change as they cook, let’s summarize that in formation in some general rules. You should now be able to explain the reasons for each of these rules. 11
  12. 12. General Rules of Vegetable Cookery 1. Don’t overcook 2. Cook as close to service time as possible and in small quantities. Avoid holding for long periods on a steam table. 3. If the vegetable must be cooked ahead, undercook slightly and chill rapidly. Reheat at service time. 4. Never use baking soda with green vegetables. 5. Cut vegetables uniformly for even cooking. 12
  13. 13. Standard of Quality in Cooked Vegetables 1. Color. • Bright, natural colors. • Green vegetables, in particular, should be a fresh,bright green, not olive green. 2. Appearance on plate. • Cut neatly and uniformly. Not broken up. • Attractively arranged or mounded on plate or dish. • Not swimming in cooking water. • Imaginative and appropriate combinations and garnishes are always well received. 13
  14. 14. Standard of Quality in Cooked Vegetables 3. Texture. • Cooked to the right degree of doneness. • Most vegetables should be crisp-tender, not overcooked and mushy, but not tough or woody either • Vegetables intended to be sofe (potatoes, squash,sweet,tomatoes,vegetables purees)should be cooked through, with a pleasant,smooth texture. 14
  15. 15. Standard of Quality in Cooked Vegetables 4. Flavor. • Full, natural flavor and sweetness, sometime called garden-fresh flavor. Strong – flavored vegetables should be pleasantly mild, with no off flavors or bitterness. 5. Seasonings. • Lightly and appropriately seasoned. Seasoning should not be too strong and not mask the natural garden flavors. 15
  16. 16. Standard of Quality in Cooked Vegetables 6. Sauces. • Butter and seasoned butter should be fresh and not used heavily; vegetables should not be greasy. • Cream sauces and other sauces should not be too thick or too heavily seasoned. As with seasonings, sauces should enhance, not cover up. 16
  17. 17. Standard of Quality in Cooked Vegetables 7. Vegetable combinations. • Interesting combinations attract customers. • Flavors, colors, and shapes should be pleasing in combination. • Vegetables should be cooked separately and then combined to allow for different cooking times. • Acid vegetables (like tomatoes) added to green vegetables will discolor them. Combine just before service. 17
  18. 18. Handling Vegetables • Washing • Soaking • Peeling and Cutting • Trimming Loss • AP (as purchased weight) • EP (edible portion weight) 18
  19. 19. Calculating Yield Example • 10 lb cabbage. Yield after trimming is 80 percent. What will your weight be? Multiply the decimal by your AP weight to get EP yield. • 10 lb x 0.80 = 8 lb 19
  20. 20. General Rules of Vegetable Cookery 6. Start with boiling, salted water when boiling green vegetables and other vegetables that grow above the ground. Roots and tubers are started in cold, salted water for more even cooking. 7. Cook green vegetables and strong-flavored vegetables uncovered. 8. To preserve color, cook red and white vegetables in a slightly acid (not strongly acid) liquid. Cook green vegetables in a neutral liquid. 9. Do not mix a batch of freshly cooked vegetables with a batch of the same vegetables that has been cooked earlier and kept hot in a steam table. 20
  21. 21. Vegetables 1. Avocado – dip 2. - - Savoy Kohlrabi 3. (Spinach) – 4. / (Cucumber) – 5. (Zucchini/ Courgette) – 6. (Pumpkin) – 7. (Aubergine)- 8. (Tomatoes) – 21
  22. 22. Vegetables 9. / (Lettuce) – Iceberg, Butterhead, Romain/Coz, Leaf/Oakleaf Endive Rocket, Watercress 10. (Mushroom) – , , , Chanterelles Morel Cepe Truffle 11. – - (Onion), (Pearl Onion), (Shallot), (spring Onion), (Garlic), (Leek) 12. / (Bell Pepper) – 13. / - / 14. – 15. – Artichoke Fennel 22
  23. 23. Cauliflower Brussels Sprouts Broccoli Green Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Chinese Cabbage Kohlrabi White Cabbage Red Cabbage 23
  24. 24. Avocado Butternut Squash Pumpkin Cucumber Zucchini 24
  25. 25. Aubergine Purple Aubergine White Aubergine Beefsteak Tomato Plum Tomato Cherry Tomato Tomatillo 25
  26. 26. Iceberg Lettuce Butterhead Lettuce Romaine Lettuce 26
  27. 27. Chicory Endive Curly Endive Rocket Watercress 27
  28. 28. Spinach Red Lettuce Radicchio Red Oak Leaf Lettuce 28
  29. 29. Oyster Mushroom Radish Champignons 29
  30. 30. Morels Chanterelles 30
  31. 31. Truffles Ceps 31
  32. 32. Chives Onion Red Onion Leek Garlic Shallots 32
  33. 33. Bell Pepper Garden Peas Snow Peas Sugar-snap Peas 33
  34. 34. Baby Corn Haricot vert / French Beans Runner/ Snake Beans 34
  35. 35. Turnips Daikon Radish Carrot Beetroot Parsnips 35
  36. 36. Celery Fennel Asparagus Artichoke 36

×