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chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages
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chapter 5 - Non-alcoholic Beverages

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  • 1. Chapter 5 Non-alcoholic Beverages Non- . 2248 email: tpavit@wu.ac.th 1
  • 2. Contents 1 Introduction 2 Carbonated (Soft drinks) 3 Non- Non-carbonated FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 2 .
  • 3. Classification of Beverage Alcoholic Non- Non-Alcoholic Fermented Distilled Non- Non- Carbonated carbonated (Soft Drinks) Grain Fruit Unflavored Flavored Tea, Coffee Flavored Fizzy Barley Apple Rum Rum Fruits & Veggies J. drinks Rice Grape Vodka Gin Mineral Water (High carbonation) Milk beverages Sports or isotonic Whisky Liqueurs Nutrition beverages beverages Brandy Mocktails (low carbonation) FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 3 .
  • 4. introduction non- A non-alcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol. alcohol. Such drinks are generally drunk for refreshment, or to thirst. quench people's thirst. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 4 .
  • 5. introduction Non- Non-alcoholic mixed drinks (including punches, "virgin cocktails", or "mocktails") are often consumed by children, people whose religion restricts alcohol consumption, recovering alcoholics, and alcoholics, anyone wishing to enjoy flavorful drinks without alcohol. Examples include Shirley Temples, Virgin Marys, and Temples, Marys, virgin- Coladas. virgin-style Pina Coladas. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 5 .
  • 6. introduction These drinks are generally chosen for refreshment purposes, to quench people's thirsts. Non-alcoholic drinks include carbonated drinks, dairy and yogurt-based beverages, juices, energy drinks, teas, coffees, and enhanced waters. With the increased market focus on health and wellness, it is likely that the non-alcoholic beverage market will be a source of growth and development in the coming years. Growing markets in both coffee and tea beverages are currently leading the non-alcoholic market. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 6 .
  • 7. Carbonated Non- Non-alcoholic Beverages 7
  • 8. Non- Carbonated Non-alcoholic Beverages A soft drink is a drink that does not contain alcohol . Soft drinks are often carbonated and cold. commonly consumed while cold. The most colas, water, common soft drinks are colas, flavored water, water, tea, tea, lemonade, sparkling water, iced tea, sweet tea, lemonade, squash and fruit punch FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 8 .
  • 9. Regional names for soft drinks Country Terms Australia soft drinks, fizzy drinks, lemonade Africa minerals Brazil refrigerante, guaraná (When refering to guarana flavored softdrinks) Canada pop, cola, soft drink India cold drink Ireland Minerals, soft drinks, fizzy drinks Israel fizzy bubbly New Zealand soft drink, fizzy drink South Africa cooldrink, colddrink, fizzy drink, soft drink South Korea cider United States soda, pop, cola, tonic, soft drink, coke UK soft drinks, pop, fizzy drinks FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 9 .
  • 10. History Carbonated nonalcoholic beverages are generally sweetened, flavors, acidified, colored, artificially carbonated, and sometimes chemically preserved. The origin goes back to Greek and Roman times when naturally occurring mineral water were prized for “Medicinal” and refreshing qualities. Medicinal” 1767 Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make Carbonated water FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 10 .
  • 11. History An early method of obtaining the carbon dioxide was by acidification of sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate, and from the use of these sodium Soda” slats the name “Soda” Gradually, fruit juices and extracts were added to carbonated water for improved flavor. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 11 .
  • 12. Ingredients The major ingredients of carbonated soft drink beverages in addition to water and carbon dioxide are Sugar, flavorings, colors and acids FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 12 .
  • 13. Example of Carbonated Drinks 1. Cola 2. Rootbeer 3. Ginger ale 4. Tonic 5. Lemonade 6. Soda water 7. Cider FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 13 .
  • 14. Club Soda vs Tonic Water Club Soda is basically carbonated water which salt. may also contain a slight quantity of salt. Tonic Water on the other hand is Carbonated quinine. drink flavored quinine. Club Soda was first produced in the late eighteenth century as a soft drink. http://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference-between-club-soda-and-tonic-water/#ixzz12IzIv1RR FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 14 .
  • 15. Club Soda vs Tonic Water Summary 1. Club Soda is carbonated water whereas Tonic Water contains quinine. 2. Budapest Origins lie in Europe with first commercial production in Budapest whereas Tonic Water was first used in Colonial India. 3. Club Soda is slightly salted, however, Tonic Water is sweetened. 4. Effects of Club Soda on the human body are negligible whereas Tonic Water may have the same effects as any other sugary beverage. 5. The consumption of Club Soda is being promoted whereas that of Tonic Water is monitored due to the quinine ill effects. 6. Tonic Water glows under ultra violet light whereas Club Soda has no such effect. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 15 .
  • 16. Non- Non-Carbonated Non- Non-alcoholic Beverages 16
  • 17. Drinking Water and Mineral Water FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 17 .
  • 18. Juices Juice is a liquid naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fresh fruits or vegetables without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruits and vegetables using variety of hand or electric juicers. juicers. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 18 .
  • 19. Juices Juice may be marketed in concentrate form, sometimes frozen, requiring the user to add water to reconstitute the liquid back to its "original state". (Generally, concentrates have a noticeably different taste than their comparable "fresh- "fresh-squeezed" versions). Other juices are reconstituted before packaging for retail sale. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 19 .
  • 20. Fruit Juice Fresh Fruit J. Canned Fruit J. Blended or Shake FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 20 .
  • 21. CHOOSE THE RIGHT FRUIT JUICE Be label savvy. Buy juice labeled “100 percent fruit juice." Beware of words like “drink,” “punch,” “cocktail,” “beverage”.These are not 100 percent juice – they’re junk fruit beverages. Many “junk fruit beverages” are nutrient-void beverages, commonly masked as fruit “juice,” “drinks” or “cocktails.” Most contain 10 percent or less of pure fruit juice, and lots of water, sugar and additives. Junk fruit beverages have little or no nutritional value. Avoid junk fruit beverages that are disguised as juice “blends” that contain small amounts of various fruits like grape, apple and pear. Ounce for ounce, these juices don’t have the natural levels of vital nutrients that 100 percent pure juices like orange juice provide. Plus, they usually contain added sugars. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 21 .
  • 22. FAVORITE 100% PURE FRUIT JUICE FACTS Orange – The juice with the highest amount of vitamin C and potassium and a good source of folate and thiamin. It also contains cancer-fighting phytochemicals. Grapefruit – The juice with the second highest amount of vitamin C. Apricot Nectar – This juice is high in vitamin A and contains a small amount of iron and zinc. Prune – The juice highest in iron, zinc, fiber and niacin. White Grape – A juice high in vitamin C, and the best juice for healing the intestines. Apple – This juice has no nutritional advantage over other juices, but is good for flavoring water because it dilutes well. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 22 .
  • 23. Milk A whitish liquid containing proteins, fats, lactose, and various vitamins and minerals that is produced by the mammary glands of all mature female mammals after they have given birth and serves as nourishment for their young. The milk of cows, goats, or other animals, used as food by humans. A liquid, such as coconut milk, milkweed sap, plant latex, or various medical emulsions, that is similar to milk in appearance. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 23 .
  • 24. Teas Tea is the agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of the Camellia sinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. "Tea" also refers to the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water, and is the common name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 24 .
  • 25. Teas tea" The term "herbal tea" usually refers to an infusion flowers, fruit, or tisane of leaves, flowers, fruit, herbs or other plant material that contains no Camellia sinensis. tea" The term "red tea" either refers to an infusion made from the South African rooibos plant, also containing no Camellia sinensis, or, in Chinese, Korean, Japanese and other East Asian languages, tea. refers to black tea. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 25 .
  • 26. The four types of tea TEA Black Oolong Green White Tea Tea Tea Tea Wilted, sometimes Wilted and Wilted and Unwilted and crushed, unoxidized unoxidized unoxidized and fully oxidized FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 26 .
  • 27. The four types of tea http://webspace.webring.com/people/sl/leogol/HistoryTea.htm FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 27 .
  • 28. Black Tea All teas are ‘plucked’ and the tea pluckers select the new shoots, typically the first two leaves and a bud. Tea pluckers recognise the exact moment the tea should be removed from the bush to ensure only the tender leaves are used to produce the finest tea. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 28 .
  • 29. Oolong tea Oolong tea is semi-oxidised and therefore falls between black and green tea. There are many types of Oolong tea, ranging from very light, fragrant teas to dark coppery teas with the taste of burnt caramel. The leaves are wilted and are then shaken in baskets to lightly bruise the edges and left only until oxidization has set in along the leaves’ outer edges FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 29 .
  • 30. Green tea Green tea goes though a slightly different process to black tea. Depending on the type of green tea, the leaves may or may not be withered. The tea is then either steamed or pan-fired to stop the oxidation process. The leaves are then rolled and fired. The colour of green tea is retained as the heating process stops any chemical reaction with oxygen (oxidation) preserving its greenness FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 30 .
  • 31. White teas White teas are rarer than other teas and can only be plucked year. once a year. These teas are produced using only the first bud and top leaf from the new season’ bush. season’s tea bush. The tea is dried. withered and then dried. White tea got its name due to the fine white downy hairs that covers bud. the first bud. These teas are very pale in colour, light and colour, delicate in taste FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 31 .
  • 32. Infusions There are also other types of non traditional teas known as Herbal and Fruit Flavoured Infusions. Herbal infusions are produced from plants, fruits and spices which do not originate from the tea plant Camellia sinensis but are infused using boiling water. There is a huge selection of plants such as Camomile, Peppermint, Linden, Hibiscus and Rooibos to choose from that can be blended together to give a delicious alternative to other beverages. Twinings sources over 100 different ingredients from around the world. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 32 .
  • 33. Tea Leaf Processing These four types can be made from the same tea leaves, depending on how the leaf is processed. The differences result largely from enzymatic oxidations of the tannin compounds in the leaf. This process, enzymatic oxidation, is called fermentation in the tea industry, although it is not a true fermentation: it is not caused by micro-organisms, and is not an anaerobic process. The next step in processing is to stop the oxidation process at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes responsible. With black tea this is done simultaneously with drying. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 33 .
  • 34. The manufacturing process 1. Withering 2. Rolling 3. Oxidation or Fermentation 4. Drying FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 34 .
  • 35. The manufacturing process http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/585115/tea FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 35 .
  • 36. The manufacturing process FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 36 .
  • 37. The manufacturing process FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 37 .
  • 38. The manufacturing process FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 38 .
  • 39. Specialty Teas 1. Ceylon 2. Darjeeling 3. Jasmine 4. Chinese 5. Green 6. Infusions 7. Earl Grey 8. Herbal 9. Fruits http://www.twiningsmoment.com/thailand/leaf-to-cup/tea-production.html FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 39 .
  • 40. Specialty Teas Ceylon – (Sri lanka) This bright, amber tea is lanka) very thirst quenching and has a delicate flavor. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 40 .
  • 41. Specialty Teas Assam – A rich full malty flavored tea, suitable for service at breakfast, usually with milk. Darjeeling – A delicate tea with a light grape flavor and known as the “Champaign of Teas” Teas” Usually Served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or little milk if preferred. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 41 .
  • 42. Specialty Teas Earl Grey – A blend of Darjeeling and China Tea, flavored with oil of Bergamot. Usually served with lemon or Milk. Jasmine – A green tea with is dried with Jasmine Blossom and Produces a tea with fragrant and scented flavor. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 42 .
  • 43. Specialty Teas Kenya – A consistent and refreshing tea usually served with milk Lapsang Souchong – A Smoky, pungent and perfumed tea, delicate to to palate which may be said to be an acquired taste. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 43 .
  • 44. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 44 .
  • 45. Tea Map showing the Tea growing areas of the World FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 45 .
  • 46. Producing Countries China – Keemun, Lapsang Souchong, Oolongs Keemun, Souchong, and Green Tea FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 46 .
  • 47. Producing Countries East Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) This area produces good quality teas which are bright and colorful. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 47 .
  • 48. East Africa FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 48 .
  • 49. Producing Countries India – the largest producer of tea representing about 30% world’ of the world’s tea. Best known are tea from Assam, Strong and full bodies, Darjeeling, delicate and mellow tea. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 49 .
  • 50. Producing Countries Indonesia – Tea produced here are light and fragrant with bright coloring when made . Sri Lanka (Formerly Ceylon) – Tea here are inclined to have delicate, light lemon flavors. They are generally regarded as excellent afternoon teas and also lend themselves to being iced. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 50 .
  • 51. Coffee Introduction, Styles of Coffees, the Espresso Machine, Coffee Beans, Making Coffee, Irish Coffees 51
  • 52. Coffee Coffee is a brewed beverage seeds, prepared from roasted seeds, beans, commonly called coffee beans, plant. of the coffee plant. They are cherries" seeds of "coffee cherries" that grow on trees in over 70 countries.. countries Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating humans. effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular worldwide. beverages worldwide. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 52 .
  • 53. Coffee The coffee plant has two main species. There is the Coffea Arabica, which is the more traditional coffee and considered to be superior in flavor, and the Coffea Canephora known more commonly as Robusta. Robusta tends to be higher in caffeine and can be grown in climates and environments were Arabica would not be profitable. Robusta is also typically more bitter and acidic in flavor. Because of this Robusta tends to be less expensive. High quality Robusta is also used to blend espresso for more bite, and to lower costs. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 53 .
  • 54. Coffee Growing conditions, soil types and weather patterns during the growing season all contribute to the flavor of the bean, creating the differences in flavor from points of origin, such as Kenya or Brazil.. However, roasting Brazil adds its own flavor, sometimes to the point that it is difficult to tell where the beans originated from, even by experienced cuppers. cuppers. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 54 .
  • 55. Coffee The lighter the roast the more the remains. natural flavor of the bean remains. This is why beans from regions such as Kenya or Java are normally roasted lightly, retaining their regional characteristics and flavors. dominate flavors. There is a method of roasting in Malaysia which adds butter during the roasting producing a variety Coffee. called Ipoh White Coffee. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 55 .
  • 56. Coffee Beans roasted to darker browns begin to taste more like flavors. the method of roasting than the original flavors. Dark roasts such as French or Vienna Roasts tend to flavor. completely eclipse the original flavor. Roasting to whatever degree, while adding stronger flavor does not effect the amount of caffeine of the bean. bean. Coffee: The Roast light Dark FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 56 .
  • 57. Coffee: The Roast FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 57 .
  • 58. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 58 .
  • 59. Coffee processing Processors purchase various coffeetypes and then blend to provide a given taste and flavour suiting a particular market FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 59 .
  • 60. Coffee Operation 1. Roasting Colour and flavours are developed by roasting green beans at 260 C Oxidation flavour defects are reduced by using nitrogen atmosphere FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 60 .
  • 61. Coffee Operation 2. Grinding after cooling Particle size depends on the intended use eg whether • Home use in a drip or vacuum brewer Restaurant- • Restaurant- large urn • Vending machine • Instant coffee Particle size influences time, • Brewing time, turbidity etc FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 61 .
  • 62. Coffee Operation 3. Brewing Objective: achieve correct strength, flavour Extraction of solids using water Factors affecting strength and flavour Temp Coffee:water ratio Time Rate and extent of mixing Particle size and coffee related variables FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 62 .
  • 63. Brewing Methods 1. French Press 2. Vietnamese Coffee 3. Auto Drip FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 63 .
  • 64. ( ) (black) ( White) FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 64 .
  • 65. Styles of Coffee Short Black or Espresso ( / )– / double espresso Long Black or Lungo ( / )– FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 65 .
  • 66. Styles of Coffee Cappuccino ( )– / Cinnamon ( ) Cafe Latte ( )– 2 3( 1 ) FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 66 .
  • 67. Styles of Coffee Flat White ( )– Macchiato ( )– ( ) FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 67 .
  • 68. Styles of Coffee Mocha Coffee ( )– 1 Iced Coffee ( )– whipped cream FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 68 .
  • 69. Styles of Coffee Vienna Coffee ( )– / Decaffeinated Coffee ( )– FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 69 .
  • 70. Latte Cappuccino Espresso Coffee Flat White Mocha Macchiato Latte Vienna Coffee Long Black or Lungo FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 70 .
  • 71. Espresso 6-8 grams of grinded roast coffee bean 20 – 30 ml. of water + = Perfect shot !!! FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 71 .
  • 72. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 72 .
  • 73. The Espresso Machine FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 73 .
  • 74. Coffee beans Premium espresso coffee should be used, whereby good coffee beans are: Uniform in appearance, not spotted and discolored Free of impurities ( ) Light and dry Free of any stale or rancid smell ( ) Not black Not damp ( ) or oily ( ) FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 74 .
  • 75. Making Coffee FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 75 .
  • 76. Making Coffee FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 76 .
  • 77. Foam Milk FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 77 .
  • 78. Foam Milk FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 78 .
  • 79. foam milk FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 79 .
  • 80. foam milk FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 80 .
  • 81. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 81 .
  • 82. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 82 .
  • 83. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 83 .
  • 84. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 84 .
  • 85. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 85 .
  • 86. FBM-343 Beverage and Bar Management 86 .
  • 87. Question and Answer 87

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