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  • 1. Chapter-1 Fundamentals of cutting
  • 2. • Introduction • Mechanics of chip formation • Types of chips produced in meta cutting • Mechanics of oblique cutting • Cutting forces and power • Temperature in cutting • Tool life : Wear and failure • Surface finish and integrity • Machinability TOPICS
  • 3. Fundamentals of cutting • Fig 20.3 Schematic illustration of a two- dimensional cutting process,also called orthogonal cutting.Note that the tool shape and its angles,depth of cut,to,and the cutting speed are all independent variables. Fig 20.1 Examples of cutting process Fig 20.2 Basic principle of turning operation
  • 4. Introduction : • Cutting process : Remove material from the surface of the work piece by producing chips • Turning operation : the work piece is rotated an a cutting tool removes a layer of material as it moves to the left • Cutting off: Cutting tool moves radially inwards and separated the right piece from the back of the blank. • Slab-milling rotating cutting tool removes a layer of material from the surface of the work piece • End-milling rotating cutter travels along a certain depth in the work piece and produces a cavity
  • 5. Factors influencing cutting process Parameter Influence and interrelationship Cutting speed depth of cut,feed,cutting fluids. Tool angles Continuous chip Built-up-edge chip Discontinuous chip Temperature rise. Tool wear Machinability Forces power,temperature rise,tool life,type of chips,surface finish. As above;influence on chip flow direction;resistance to tool chipping. Good surface finish;steady cutting forces;undesirable in automated machinery. Poor surface finish,thin stable edge can product tool surface. Desirable for ease of chip disposal;fluctuating cutting forces;can affect surface finish and cause vibration and chatters. Influences surface finish,dimensional accuracy,temperature rise,forces and power. Influences surface finish,dimensional accuracy,temperature rise,forces and power. Related to tool life,surface finish,forces and power
  • 6. Mechanics of chip formation : • Orthogonal cutting • Rake angle – Alpha • Relief angle ( clearance angle) • Shear angle ( Pi) • Thickness of a chip – Tc • Depth of cut- T0 • Cutting ratio r = To / Tc = Sin Pi / Cos ( pi- Alpha )
  • 7. Mechanism of chip formation Fig 20.4 (a) Schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation in metal cutting. (b) Velocity diagram in the cutting zone.
  • 8. Mechanism of chip formation • Chip compression ratio = 1 / r • Always > unity • On the basis of fig 20.4-a • Shear strain gama • Gama = AB/OC = AO/OC + OB/OC • Gama = Cot Pi + tan ( Pi – Alpha ) • Note : for actual cutting operation shear strain > 5
  • 9. Mechanism of chip formation • Shear angle adjusts itself to minimize cutting force • Shear plane is the plane of maximum shear stress • Pi = 45 + Alpha / 2 – Beta / 2 • Beta : Friction angle • Mu – coefficient of friction • Mu = tan beta
  • 10. Mechanism of chip formation • Mass continuity has to be maintained • So , we have • V To = Vc Tc • Vc = Vr • Vc = V Sin pi / Cos ( pi – Alpha ) • Vc : Velocity of a chip • V : Cutting Speed • Vs : Velocity of shearing • From trigonometric relation • V / cos ( pi – Alpha ) = Vs / Cos ( Alpha ) = Vc / Sin ( pi )
  • 11. Types of chips • Continuous • Built up edge • Serrated or segmented • Discontinuous Fig20.5 Basic types of chips and their photomicrographs produced in metal cutting (a) continuous ship with a narrow,straight primary shear zone; (b) secondary shear zone at the chip tool interface;(c) continuous chip with large primary shear zone; (d) continuous chip with built-up-edge;(e) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and (f) discontinuous chips
  • 12. Continuous chips Fig :20.6 (a) Hardness distribution in the cutting zone for 3115 steel.Note that some regions in the built-up edge are as mach as three times harder than the bulk metal (b) Surface finish in turning 5130 steel with a built-up edge (c) Surface finish on 1018 steel in face milling
  • 13. • Continuous chips are usually formed at high rake angles and/or high cutting speeds. • A good surface finish is generally produced. • continuous chips are not always desirable, particularly in automated machine tools, • tend to get tangled around the tool • operation has to be stopped to clear away the chips. Continuous chips
  • 14. Built-up edges chips • BUE consists of layers of material from the workpiece that are gradually deposited on the tool. • BUE then becomes unstable and eventually breaks up • BUE material is carried away on the tool side of the chip • the rest is deposited randomly on the workpiece surface. • BUE results in poor surface finish • reduced by increasing the rake angle and therefore decreasing the depth of cut.
  • 15. Discontinuous chips • Discontinuous chips consist of segments that may be firmly or loosely attached to each other • These chips occur when machining hard brittle materials such as cast iron. • Brittle failure takes place along the shear plane before any tangible plastic flow occurs • Discontinuous chips will form in brittle materials at low rake angles (large depths of cut).
  • 16. Serrated chips • Figure :20.5e • Segmented chips or non- homogeneous chips • Semi continuous chips with zones low and high shear strain • Low thermal conductivity and strength metals exhibit this behavior Fig 20.5 (e)segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and
  • 17. Chip Breakers • Long continuous chip are undesirable • Chip breaker is a piece of metal clamped to the rake surface of the tool which bends the chip and breaks it • Chips can also be broken by changing the tool geometry,thereby controlling the chip flow Fig 20.7 (a) Schematic illustration of the action of a chip breaker .(b) Chip breaker clamped on the rake of a cutting tool. (c) Grooves in cutting tools acting as chip breakers
  • 18. Chip Breakers Fig:Various chips produced in turning: a)tightly curled chip b)chip hits workpiece and breaks c)continuous chip moving away from workpiece;and d)chip hits tool shank and breaks off
  • 19. Chip Formation in Nonmetallic Materials Fig: a) cutting with an oblique tool b) Top view showing the inclination angle, i. c) Types of chips produced with different inclination
  • 20. Tool nomenclature
  • 21. Tool/wp Geometry
  • 22. Orthogonal/Oblique cutting
  • 23. Contd… • Orthogonal cutting takes place when the cutting face of the tool is 90 degree to the line of action or path of the tool. • If the cutting face is inclined to an angle less than 90 degree to the path of the tool, the cutting action is known as oblique. • The depth of cut and feed is same in both cases but the force which cuts or shears the metal acts on a larger area in the case of the oblique tool. • Heat developed per unit area due to friction at oblique tool is considerably small and hence will have a longer life. • Alternatively An oblique tool will remove more metal in the same life as orthogonal tool.
  • 24. Cutting Motions in Machine Tools
  • 25. Cutting Motions
  • 26. Temperature In Cutting Fig:Typical temperature distribution in the cutting zone. Fig:Percentage of the heat generated in cutting going into the workpiece,tool,and chip,as a function of cutting speed.
  • 27. Temperature Distributions Fig:Temperatures developed in turning 52100 steel: a) flank temperature distribution;and b)tool-chip interface temperature distribution
  • 28. Tool Life: Wear and Failure 1. Flank wear :It occurs on the relief face of the tool and the side relief angle. 2. Crater wear:It occurs on the rake face of the tool. 3. Chipping :Breaking away of a small piece from the cutting edge of the tool . Fig (a) Flank and crater wear in a cutting tool.tool moves to the left. (b) View of the rake of a turning tool,showing nose radius R and crater wear pattern on the rake face of the tool c)View of the flank face of a turning tool,sowing the average flank wear land VB and the depth-of-cut line (wear notch)
  • 29. Wear and Tool Failures: Crater wear Fig (a) Schematic illustrations of types of wear observed on various types of cutting tools .(b) Schematic illustrations of catastrophic tool failures.A study of the types and mechanism of tool wear and failure is essential to the development of better tool materials
  • 30. Forces acting in 2-Dimensional cutting • Fig :Forces acting on a cutting tool in a two dimensional cutting .Note that the resultant force,R,must be collinear to balance the forces • Cutting forces can be measured by using suitable dynamometers or force transducers mounted on the machine tool • They can also be calculated from the amount of power consumption,that occurs during cutting.
  • 31. THE END