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Devoxx UK: Reliability & Scale in AWS while letting you sleep through the night
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Devoxx UK: Reliability & Scale in AWS while letting you sleep through the night

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Updated version of Reliability & Scale in AWS while letting you sleep through the night ...

Updated version of Reliability & Scale in AWS while letting you sleep through the night
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More and more startups/companies are deploying their infrastructure directly and exclusively in EC2 or similar cloud provider. With that comes a whole new set of challenges and paradigms around scalability, reliability and availability.

This talk will focus on how to leverage all the infrastructure parts of AWS, augment them with great (affordable) third party services and solid Open Source Software to create an operations environment that will scale with you, be as reliable as it can be, providing you and your peers with all the data you need to make good decisions to support (rapid) changes while letting you sleep through the night. And all that using a tiny operations team.

It may make you coffee in the morning too.

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Transcript

  • 1. ONE MAN OPS Reliability & Scale in AWS while letting you sleep through the night Jos Boumans - @jiboumanshttp://www.fwallpaper.net/picture_pics-Sleepy-cat.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 2. RIPE NCC Engineering manager for RIPE Database http://www.ripe.net/dbTuesday 26 March 13
  • 3. CANONICAL Engineering manager for Ubuntu Server 10.04 & 10.10http://lukeroberts.deviantart.com/art/Destroy-Ubuntu-93235775 http://www.ubuntu.com/business/server/overviewTuesday 26 March 13
  • 4. KRUX VP of Operations & Infrastructure http://www.krux.com/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 5. GOOD GUYS OF DATA PRIVACYTuesday 26 March 13
  • 6. SOME OF OUR CUSTOMERSTuesday 26 March 13
  • 7. LOTS OF TRAFFIChttp://www.americapictures.net/buenos-aires-traffic-city-night-argentina.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 8. 0 2,500 5,000 7,500 10,000 AVERAGE REQUESTS* / SEC *Twitter: New tweets Wikipedia: Articles readhttps://twitter.com/tps_watcher Krux: New data pointshttp://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/TablesPageViewsMonthlyCombined.htmTuesday 26 March 13
  • 9. 0 150,000,000 300,000,000 450,000,000 600,000,000 MONTHLY UNIQUE USERShttp://techcrunch.com/2012/12/18/twitter-passes-200m-monthly-active-users-a-42-increase-over-9-months/http://technorati.com/technology/article/wikipedias-nonprofit-parent-raises-20-million/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 10. WE CHOSE THE CLOUDhttp://previewnetworks.com/blog/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 11. THERE ARE DOWNSIDEShttp://modernsavage.hubpages.com/hub/10-springfield-shopper-headlinesTuesday 26 March 13
  • 12. FOCUS ON AWS http://aws.amazon.com/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 13. APRIL 21, 2011 http://aws.amazon.com/message/65648/http://businessnerds.wordpress.com/2011/05/28/so-far-so-good…-the-review/ http://techblog.netflix.com/2011/04/lessons-netflix-learned-from-aws-outage.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 14. ... SOME OUTAGES ... ... SKIPPED FOR BREVITY ...Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 15. JUNE 14, 2012http://www.laczik.org/BMW/repair/E38_wiring_harness/E38_wiring_harness.html http://blog.pagerduty.com/2012/06/outage-post-mortem-june-14/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 16. JUNE 29, 2012http://www.fanpop.com/spots/thunderstorm/images/25416163/title/thunderstorms-wallpaper http://aws.amazon.com/message/67457/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 17. AWS OUTAGE = YOUR OUTAGEhttp://it.mario.wikia.com/wiki/LakituTuesday 26 March 13
  • 18. THE RULES HAVE CHANGED Youre not in Kansas anymorehttp://entreatmenot.blogspot.com/2011/04/shattered-dreams.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 19. NETWORK WILL PARTITION And it will happen oftenhttp://thevinylvillain.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_archive.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 20. DISK IO WILL FLUCTUATE On a good day, its mediocrehttp://www.freeguidetonwcamping.com/oregon_washington_main/washington/southwest_wa/cape_disappointment_sp.htmTuesday 26 March 13
  • 21. IP ADDRESSES WILL CHANGE IP lease is 8 hours DNS TTL is 60 secondswww.fantom-xp.comTuesday 26 March 13
  • 22. INSTANCES WILL DIE And it will always be your Database Masterhttp://room57.deviantart.com/art/Hangman-188353196Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 23. HUMANS MAKE MISTAKES Including your humansTuesday 26 March 13
  • 24. EMBRACE FAILURE Hardware will fail. Humans will make errors. Nature will produce thunderstorms.http://www.freeguidetonwcamping.com/oregon_washington_main/washington/southwest_wa/cape_disappointment_sp.htmTuesday 26 March 13
  • 25. OR, COLLOQUIALLYTuesday 26 March 13
  • 26. ADJUST YOUR STRATEGY Dont bring a knife to a gun fighthttp://www.flickr.com/photos/statlerhotel/6628770499/sizes/l/in/photostream/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 27. DATA STORES Some work better than othershttp://gustavhoiland.com/2010/03/10/stacked-boxes/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 28. RDBMS CouchDB BigTable Based Dynamo Based Master / Slave based CAP THEOREM Your choice: sacrifice availability or consistency. Orange is a lie.Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 29. MYSQL / ORACLE VS RDS See: Network partitioning & instances dyingTuesday 26 March 13
  • 30. AMAZON REDSHIFT Great for analytics/reports, bad for OLTP Unburden your RDS instanceshttp://www.flitemedia.com/music.php http://aws.amazon.com/redshiftTuesday 26 March 13
  • 31. BIGTABLE BASED STORES HBase, Accumulo, Hypertable Still suffer when network partitioning happens http://www.cloudera.com/cdh4/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 32. DYNAMO BASED STORES Cassandra, Riak, DynamoDBhttp://www.fromoldbooks.org/Walker-ElectricLightingForShips/pages/015-Siemens-Alternate-Current-Dynamo//1552x1175-q75.html http://aws.amazon.com/dynamodb/faqs/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 33. GO HOSTED? CouchDB, MongoDB, Riak, Cassandra, HBase Your Latency May Varyhttp://www.fromoldbooks.org/Walker-ElectricLightingForShips/pages/015-Siemens-Alternate-Current-Dynamo//1552x1175-q75.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 34. CLIENT SIDE STORAGE Keep a copy of your users data locallyhttp://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2012/03/badass-gadget-ammo-lunch-box/ http://www.w3.org/2001/tag/2010/09/ClientSideStorage.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 35. FILE STORES EBS vs Instance Store ... ... vs RamFShttp://homedezine.blogspot.com/2011/04/day-my-cat-removed-carpet-photo-studio.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 36. SIMPLE STORAGE SERVICE S3: Arguably AWS best featurehttp://www.iwallpaper.us/gold-star-fo-christmas-wallpaper-140/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 37. TRAFFIC SHAPING Control every part of the requesthttp://www.visualphotos.com/image/2x4154765/man_standing_with_traffic_cones_in_shape_of_u-turnTuesday 26 March 13
  • 38. STAY LOCAL IF YOU CAN Going off box exposes you to risks you need to mitigatehttp://southshorewoman.com/issue/june-2010/article/local-characterTuesday 26 March 13
  • 39. CACHE WHAT YOU CAN HTTP Responses, DB Queries, User content Browsers have caches too!http://theoatmeal.com/blog/charity_moneyTuesday 26 March 13
  • 40. USE ELASTIC LOAD BALANCERS They will save you more than oncehttp://wallpapers5.com/wallpaper/Balance-Green-Tree-Frog/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 41. USE GLOBAL LOAD BALANCING Fail over to the closest data center on region failureTuesday 26 March 13
  • 42. SHOUT OUT: DYN DNS for Bit.ly, Quora, Twitter, Wikia, etcTuesday 26 March 13
  • 43. USE A CDN Critical items should always be availablehttp://kadanthuponanimidangal.blogspot.com/2010/12/blog-post_6992.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 44. MEASURE EVERYTHING Find outliers, deviants & trends before they cause troublehttp://www.themoviedb.org/movie/629-the-usual-suspectsTuesday 26 March 13
  • 45. GRAPHITE, STATSD & COLLECTD Use Statsd & Collectd for application/system metrics Use graphite to store, aggregate & visualize http://hostedgraphite.com/http://bakingismyzen.blogspot.com/2011/07/beignets-cant-have-just-one.html http://jiboumans.wordpress.com/2012/07/02/measure-all-the-things/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 46. GRAPH EVENTS Deployments, outages, CDN reconfigurations, failed builds, etc Anything thats important to the health of your eco systemhttp://codeascraft.etsy.com/2011/02/15/measure-anything-measure-everything/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 47. COMPARE WEEK TO WEEK Overlay week to week graphs using timeShift() Quickly identifies trends and deviations from trendshttp://obfuscurity.com/2012/04/Unhelpful-Graphite-Tip-10Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 48. FORECASTING Use Holt-Winters confidence bands Verify that your metrics are within normal tolerancehttps://github.com/ripienaar/graphite-graph-dsl/wiki/Creating-Holt-Winters-ForecastsTuesday 26 March 13
  • 49. FIND INDIVIDUAL OUTLIERS Absolute numbers mean very little Use mean & standard deviationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black_sheep-1.jpgTuesday 26 March 13
  • 50. ALERT ON TRENDS Once you go over a threshold, its too late Alert on unwanted trends and preemptively fixhttp://sub-second.blogspot.com/2012/06/reporting-response-times-percentile.html http://aphyr.github.com/riemann/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 51. MEASURE WITHOUT RETROFIT LogFormat "http.beacon:%D|ms" stats CustomLog "|nc -u localhost 8125" stats http://jiboumans.wordpress.com/2012/07/02/measure-all-the-things/http://absinthemindedhero.blogspot.com/2012/03/victory-nonetheless.html http://jiboumans.wordpress.com/2013/02/27/realtime-stats-from-varnish/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 52. SHOUT OUT: NEW RELIC Java, but also Python, Ruby, .NET, PHP & NodeJS support In depth profiling of your app for performance & errors.Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 53. CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT Unique snowflakes are badhttp://www.torange.us/Plants/Conifers/spruce-needles-in-hoarfrost-424.htmlTuesday 26 March 13
  • 54. PUPPET VS CHEF Yes. http://puppetlabs.com/ http://www.opscode.com/chefTuesday 26 March 13
  • 55. INFRASTRUCTURE AS CODE Use different environments Measure and report on ithttp://americansingercanary.com/green.htmTuesday 26 March 13
  • 56. SHOUT OUT: UBUNTU Ubuntu + cloud-init + boto = awesome* *I am biasedhttp://www.123rf.com/photo_4871141_food-pyramid-isolated-on-white.html https://github.com/krux/ops-toolsTuesday 26 March 13
  • 57. AWS OPSWORKS Hosted Chef, No extra charge, Ubuntu 12.04 or Amazon Linux Still rough around the edges.http://thebrandbuilder.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/gordon-01.jpg http://aws.amazon.com/opsworks/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 58. DEV = PRODUCTION "I dunno, it worked on my laptop" Instead, use vagranthttp://vagrantup.com/ http://vagrantup.com/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 59. ROLL YOUR OWN AMIS Instantly boot up new deployments Reduce Time to Respondhttp://bakingismyzen.blogspot.com/2011/07/beignets-cant-have-just-one.html http://puppetlabs.com/blog/rapid-scaling-with-auto-generated-amis-using-puppet/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 60. CONFIDENT DEPLOYS That human error could be yourshttp://www.etsy.com/listing/37178125/stormtrooper-regrets-those-were-theTuesday 26 March 13
  • 61. CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION Ours: Github + Jenkins + FPM + apt::s3 From commit to deployable in one command http://github.com/ http://jenkins-ci.org/ https://github.com/thekad/apt-s3 https://github.com/jordansissel/fpm/wiki/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 62. ONE CLICK DEPLOYMENTS Deployments should not be exciting. Dont create a checklist; automate & track https://checkmarkable.comhttp://www.thegreenhead.com/2012/07/one-click-butter-cutter.php https://github.com/jib/aws-analysis-tools/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 63. DARK LAUNCHES Exercise the code without impacting the user experience http://www.kissmetrics.com/http://www.layoutsparks.com/pictures/moon-23 https://github.com/yahoo/boomerang/Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 64. SHADOW TRAFFIC Test new code against live traffichttp://doppelthingers.tumblr.com/post/12839979386/traffic-light-shadow-hangman-and-possibly-his https://gist.github.com/3125323Tuesday 26 March 13
  • 65. SLEEP TIGHT Slides at: www.Slideshare.net/jiboumans Were hiring: www.krux.comhttp://raafay-awan.blogspot.com/2011/08/cats-cutest-of-creatures.htmlTuesday 26 March 13